The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court was created by section 103(a) of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (50 U.S.C. 1803(a)). It was originally comprised of seven district judges from seven circuits named by the Chief Justice of the United States to serve a maximum of 7 years.
THE FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE COURT
In 2001, the U.S.A. Patriot Act (section 208) amended the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act to increase the number of FIS Court judges from seven to eleven, "of whom no fewer than 3 shall reside within 20 miles of the District of Columbia." The membership of the Court in 2004 was as follows.
Appointed Expires KOLLAR-KOTELLY, Colleen (Presiding) D.D.C. 5/19/02 5/18/2009 BAKER, Harold A. C.D.Ill. 5/18/98 5/18/2005 BENSON, Dee D.Utah 5/04 5/11 BROOMFIELD, Robert C. D.Ariz. 10/01/02 5/18/2009 CARR, James G. N.D.OH 5/19/02 5/18/2008 CONWAY, John E. D.N.M. 5/19/02 5/18/2007 DAVIS, Michael J. D.Minn. 5/18/99 5/18/2006 GORTON, Nathaniel M. D.Mass. 5/18/01 5/18/2008 HILTON, Claude M. E.D.Va. 5/18/01 5/18/2007 KAZEN, George P. S.D.Tex. 5/18/03 5/18/2010 ROBERTSON, James D.D.C. 5/19/02 5/18/2006
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review was created by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 to review applications that were denied by the FIS Court. The Court of Review is comprised of three judges, one of whom is designated as the presiding judge, named by the Chief Justice of the United States from the U.S. district or appellate courts. Judges serve a maximum of seven years and are not eligible for redesignation.
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE COURT OF REVIEW
Appointed Expires GUY, Ralph B. (Presiding) Sixth Circuit
LEAVY, Edward Ninth Circuit 9/25/2001 5/18/2008 WINTER, Ralph K. Jr. Second Circuit 5/18/2003 5/18/2010