US ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES
US ARMY SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND
On December 1, 1989, the Department of the Army established the US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) at Fort Bragg, N.C., as a major Army command to enhance the readiness of Army Special Operations Forces and streamline the command and control of US Army Reserve Special Operations Forces. Army support to the US Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) located at MacDill Air Force Base, FL, also was enhanced as a result of the new command and control structure. As the Army's component of USSOCOM, USASOC provides Special Forces, Ranger, Special Operations Aviation, Psychological Operations and Civil Affairs forces to USSOCOM for deployment to combatant unified commands around the world (see Figure 3-1). As a major Army command, USASOC reports directly to Department of the Army for service guidance. USASOC commands both the active Army and US Army Reserve Special Operations Forces. It also provides oversight of Army National Guard Special Operations Force readiness, organization, training, and employment in coordination with the National Guard Bureau and State Adjutants General.
THE 75th RANGER REGIMENT
When the 1st and 2 nd Ranger Battalions were re-activated in 1974, General Abrams chartered the battalions to be "the best light infantry unit in the world" and a "standard bearer for the rest of the Army." After Operation Urgent Fury (Grenada, 1983), the requirement for more Rangers and a better suited command structure resulted in the formation of the 3 rd Ranger Battalion and the Regimental Headquarters in 1984. Today, the 75 th Ranger Regiment is part of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).
The 75th Ranger Regiment plans and conducts special military operations in support of US policy and objectives. Its specially organized, equipped, and trained soldiers provide the National
Command Authority (NCA) the capability to rapidly deploy a credible military force to any region of the world. In addition, Rangers are often called upon to perform missions in support of
general purpose forces (GPF).
The cornerstone of Ranger missions is that of direct action. More specifically, Rangers are the premiere airfield seizure and raid unit in the Army. In order to remain proficient in all light infantry skills, Ranger units also focus on mission essential tasks that include movement to contact, ambush, reconnaissance, airborne and air assaults, and hasty defense.
A typical Ranger Battalion or Regiment mission would involve seizing an airfield for use by follow-on general purpose forces and conducting raids on key targets of operational or strategic importance. Once secured, follow-on airland or airborne forces are introduced into theater and relieve the Ranger force so that it may conduct planning for future SOF operations. Rangers rely heavily on external fire support. Ranger fire support personnel train extensively on the employment of CAS, attack helicopters, Naval Gunfire (NGF), AC-130 Gunship and artillery. The close working relationships with units that habitually support the force ensures that the Ranger Force always has the required assets to perform its mission.
The 75th Ranger Regiment, headquartered at Fort Benning, Georgia, is composed of three Ranger battalions, and is the premier light-infantry unit of the United States Army. The three Ranger battalions that comprise the 75th Ranger Regiment are geographically dispersed. Their locations are:
·1 st Battalion, 75 th Ranger Regiment, Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia
·2 nd Battalion, 75 th Ranger Regiment, Fort Lewis, Washington
·3 rd Battalion, 75 th Ranger Regiment, Fort Benning, Georgia
Regimental Headquarters consists of a Command Group, normal staff positions (S-1 through S-5), a fairly robust communications detachment, a fire support element, a reconnaissance detachment of three 6-man teams, a cadre for the Ranger Training Detachment (RTD), and a Company Headquarters. Additionally, the Regiment has the capability of deploying a planning team consisting of experienced Ranger operations, intelligence, fire support, communications and logistics planners. The team can deploy on short notice with USASOC approval, to theater SOCs to plan ranger operations during crisis action planning for contingency operations.
Each of the three Ranger Battalions is identical in organization. Each battalion consists of three rifle companies and a Headquarters and Headquarters Company. Each battalion is authorized 580 Rangers. However, the battalions may be up to 15% over-manned to make allowances for schools and TDYs.
Command and Control
The flexibility of the Ranger Force requires it to perform under various command structures. The
force can work unilaterally under a Corps, as a part of JSOTF, as an ARSOTF, or as an Army component in a JTF. Historically, it is common for the Ranger Force to conduct forced entry operations as part of a JSOTF, then become OPCON to a JTF to afford them the capability to conduct special operations/direct action missions.
The Army maintains the Regiment at a high level of readiness. Each battalion can deploy anywhere in the world with 18 hours notice. Because of the importance the Army places on the 75th Ranger Regiment, it must possess a number of capabilities. These capabilities include:
·Infiltrating and exfiltrating by land, sea, and air
·Conducting direct action operations
·Recovery of personnel and special equipment
·Conducting conventional or special light-infantry operations
Ranger units have a limited anti-armor capability (84mm Carl Gustav and Javelin) and lack organic indirect fire support (60mm mortars only). The only air defense artillery (ADA) system as the Stinger. Ranger units have no organic combat support (CS) or combat service support (CSS) and deploy with only 5 days of supplies. There are no organic transportation assets. As a result of the lack of organic CSS, Ranger units require logistical and mission support from other services and/or agencies. Ranger battalions are light infantry and have only a few vehicles and crew-served weapons systems. Standard weapon systems per battalion are listed below:
·84mm Ranger Antitank Weapons system (RAWS): 16
·60mm mortars: 6
·M240G Machine Guns: 27
·M249 Squad Automatic Weapons (SAW): 54
·MK 19 Grenade Launcher: 12
·.50CAL Machine Gun: 12
On any given day, one Ranger Battalion is on Ready Reaction Force (RRF) 1 with the requirement to be "wheels up" within 18 hours of notification. Additionally, one rifle company with battalion command and control can deploy in 9 hours. The Regimental Headquarters remains on RRF1 at all times. RRF1 rotates between the three battalions normally in 13 week periods. While on RRF1, the designated battalion is prohibited from conducting any off post training, deployments for training (DFTs), etc., as they would be unable to meet the required deployment time standards. The Ranger Regiment can deploy in any number of ways. The force can deploy directly from home station to the area of operations. More often, the force deploys to an Intermediate Staging Base (ISB) in CONUS, or OCONUS to link-up with attachments, rest, plan, rehearse, etc. before conducting operations. METT-T (emphasis on time and distance to the
area of operations) determines how the force will deploy.
Each Ranger Battalion possesses 12 Ranger Special Operations Vehicles (RSOVs) for its airfield seizure mission. The vehicle is a modified Land Rover. Each vehicle carriers a six or seven-man crew. Normally, each vehicle mounts an M240G MG and either a MK-19 Grenade Launcher or a M2, .50 cal MG. One of the passengers mans an anti-armor weapon (RAAWS, AT-4, LAW, and Javelin). The main purpose of the vehicle is to provide the operation force with a mobile, lethal defensive capability. They arenot assault vehicles, but useful in establishing battle positions that provide the force some standoff capability for a short duration. Each Battalion also possesses ten 250CC motorcycles that assist in providing security and mobility during airfield seizures. Most commonly used as listening posts/observation posts (LP/OPs), or as an economy of force screen for early warning, the motorcycles offer the commander tactical mobility.
Each Ranger Battalion has a Ranger Support Element (RSE) that supports home station training. This unit (Riggers, Truck Drivers, Maintenance, etc.) is not organic, but through individual post memorandums of understanding provides the battalion with the necessary requirements to meet mission/training demands. It is important to note, however, that this unit, although responsible for supporting the Ranger Force's outload for combat, does not deploy with the unit. The logistical and support arrangements for extended sustainment remain a constant Ranger concern.
The rifle companies consist of 152 Rangers each, while the headquarters company has the remaining Rangers assigned. Each rifle company within the Regiment is organized the same. It is comprised of a Headquarters & Headquarters Company, 3 rifle platoons, and a weapons platoon. The weapons platoon of each Rifle Company contains a mortar section of two 60mm mortars (a third is available for special operations) and an anti-tank section of three 3-man teams firing the 84mm Carl Gustav (referred to has the RAAWS: Ranger Anti-Armor Weapon System). This weapon is also Ranger unique and not currently under any testing for other infantry units. A versatile weapon, it can fire High Explosive, High Explosive Anti-Tank, Illumination, smoke, and in the future, a flechette round. Finally, the weapons platoon has a sniper section consisting of two 2-man, M24 (7.62mm) sniper teams. The third team in this section employs the .50 cal Barrett Sniper System. The Barrett is a SOF specific weapon, but as of 1996 is undergoing testing and analysis for possible inclusion in other Army units.
U.S ARMY SPECIAL FORCES COMMAND (AIRBORNE)
On November 27, 1990, the US Army lst Special Operations Command was redesignated the US Army Special Forces Command (Airborne). Its mission is to train, validate, and prepare Special Forces units to deploy and execute operational requirements for the warfighting commanders in chief.
Special Forces soldiers are carefully selected, specially trained, and capable of extended operations in extremely remote and hostile territory. They train to perform five doctrinal missions: Foreign Internal Defense (FID), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Special Reconnaissance (SR), Direct Action (DA) and Combating Terrorism (CBT). While Special Forces soldiers are capable of performing all of these missions, an increasing emphasis is being placed on FID and coalition warfare/support. FID operations are designed to help friendly developing nations by working with host country military and paramilitary forces to improve their technical skills, understanding of human rights issues, and to help with humanitarian and civic action projects.
A new collateral task that has emerged as a result of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm is Coalition Support. Coalition warfare/support draws upon the Special Forces soldier's maturity, military skills, language skills, and cultural awareness. It ensures the ability of a wide variety of foreign troops to work together effectively in a wide variety of military exercises or operations such as Operation Desert Storm.
In addition to the individual skills of operations and intelligence, communications, medical aid, engineering, and weapons, each Special Forces soldier is taught to train, advise, and assist host nation military or paramilitary forces. Special Forces soldiers are highly skilled operators, trainers, and teachers. Area-oriented, these soldiers are specially trained in their area's native language and culture.
Special Forces Command exercises command and control over five active component groups. Additionally, it exercises training oversight of two Army National Guard groups. Each Special Forces Group is regionally oriented to support one of the warfighting commanders in chief.
SPECIAL FORCES GROUP (AIRBORNE)
The Special Forces Group (Airborne) is comprised of one Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC), one Support Company (SPT CO), and three Special Forces Battalions (SF BN). See Figure 3-3 for typical group organization.
The HHC consists of 28 officers, 3 warrant officers, and 58 enlisted soldiers. The SPT CO consists of 13 officers, 12 warrant officers, and 151 enlisted soldiers. Each SF BN consists of 39 officers, 24 warrant officers, and 320 enlisted soldiers.
To plan and support special operations in any operational environment in peace, conflict, and war as directed by the National Command Authorities.
C2 and Support Elements:
·Function as the Army component of a JSOTF or ARSOTF when augmented by resources from other services.
·Establish, operate, and support an SFOB and three FOBs.
·Provide up to three C2 elements (SFODs B) to supported conventional headquarters.
·Train and prepare operational elements for deployment.
·Infiltrate and exfiltrate specified operational areas by air, land, and sea.
Air Infiltration (Parachute)
Special Forces Groups Airborne, Special Forces Battalions, Operational Detachment Charlie (ODC) Special Forces Companies, Operational Detachment Bravo (ODB), and Operational Detachment Alpha’s (ODA) are static line parachute qualified.During training, cloud ceilings of less than 800ft above ground level (AGL) or winds in excess of 13 knots prevent static infiltrations without a waiver. Static line operations can not be conducted at altitudes greater than 10,000 feet AGL. (HALO/HAHO) Three ODAs per SFG can infiltrate by Military freefall High Altitude Low Opening (HALO) or High Altitude High Opening (HAHO). HALO/HAHO operations cannot be conducted in ceilings lower than 500 feet AGL. HALO/HAHO operations cannot be conducted at altitudes greater than 36,000 feet AGL in combat operations without a waiver. Training safety requirements dictate ground visibility and winds less than 18 knots for HALO/HAHO operations.
Air Infiltration (Fixed and Rotary Wing Aircraft) Non Parachute
ODC, ODB, and ODA personnel and equipment can infiltrate via fixed and rotary wing aircraft. Specific infiltration techniques include air, land, rappel, and fast rope. Capabilities are only limited by aircraft requirements and landing site availability.
All water infiltration techniques may be initiated from surface or sub-surface mother craft, dropped by parachute from fixed wing aircraft, or delivered by rotary wing aircraft. Three ODAs per SFG can infiltrate or exfiltrate using closed circuit breathing equipment. Three ODAs per SFG are capable of utilizing open circuit breathing equipment for non-tactical applications (i.e., ship bottom searches and recovery operations). Nine ODAs per SFG are trained to infiltrate/exfiltrate by combat rubber raiding craft (CRRC). Twelve ODAs per SFG can infiltrate/exfiltrate by surface swim techniques.All surface swim operations are limited to sea states not to exceed 3 foot chop and 4 foot swell. Surface swim operations will not be conducted against currents in excess of 1 knot.
54 ODAs and 9 Support Operations Team Alpha (SOTA) per SFG can infiltrate/exfiltrate an operational area by foot. Foot movement limiting factors include terrain, water availability, enemy presence and soldier load.Tactical foot movement distance is limited to 0.5-6 kilometers per hour based on terrain, vegetation and weather. 9 ODAs assigned to the 10 th and 1 st SFG, 7 ODAs assigned to the 3 rd and 7 th SFG and 6 ODAs from the 5 th SFG can infiltrate using High Altitude/Technical Mountain techniques. 36 ODAs from the 10 th SFG & 36 ODAs from the 1 st SFG can infiltrate using ski techniques and Mobile Over Snow Transports (MOST). 54 ODAs assigned to the 5 th SFG and 18 ODAs assigned to the 3 rd SFG are trained and equipped to infiltrate/exfiltrate by Ground Mobility Vehicles (GMVs). Land mobility by GMV is limited to approximately a 150 mile radius with full combat load without resupply.
·Conduct operations in remote and denied areas for extended periods of time with little external direction and support.
·Develop, organize, equip, train, and advise or direct indigenous military and paramilitary forces.
·Plan and conduct unilateral SF operations.
·Train, advise, and assist US and allied forces or agencies.
·Perform other special operations as directed by the NCA or a unified commander.
The group headquarters commands and controls assigned and attached forces:
·Plans, coordinates, and directs SF operations separately or as part of a larger force.
·Trains and prepares SF teams for deployment.
·Provides command and staff personnel to establish and operate an SFOB.
·Provides advice, coordination, and staff assistance on the employment of SF elements to joint SOC, JSOTF, security assistance organization (SAO), or other major headquarters.
·Provides cryptomaterial support to the SFOB and its deployed SF teams.
SUPPORT COMPANY, SPECIAL FORCES GROUP (AIRBORNE)
The Support Company, Special Forces Group (Airborne) (SPT CO) is comprised of a Company HQ, Service Detachment, Military Intelligence Detachment, Medical Section, Signal Detachment, and Personnel Section.
The SPT CO consists of 13 officers, 12 warrant officers, and 151 enlisted soldiers.
To provide intelligence support, combat service support, and signal support to an SFOB and its deployed operational elements.
·Provides integrated all-source intelligence collection management, analysis, production, and dissemination in support of the Special Forces Group (SFG) and its attached elements.
·Provides counterintelligence and interrogation support for the SFG and its attached elements.
·Provides intelligence advice, assistance, and training to operational elements of the SFG.
·Provides secure special intelligence (SI).
·Performs special security office (SSO) functions for the SFOB.
·Provides limited transportation support to the SFOB.
·Provides unit-level supply, to include class V, to the SFOB and its deployed operational
·Provides food service support to the SFOB.
·Procures nonstandard supplies and equipment for the SFG and its attached elements.
·Provides health service support to the SFOB, to include unit-level medical support, medical supply, temporary medical resuscitative treatment for all classes of patients, emergency dental treatment, and preventive medicine support.
SF Medical Assistance in Bosnia
·Performs unit-level maintenance on organic equipment and the equipment of the group headquarters and headquarters company; performs direct support and limited general support maintenance for those items of signal equipment peculiar to the SFG; performs unit-level maintenance on organic communications-electronic (C-E) equipment assigned to the SFOB.
·Provides personnel and cargo parachute packing, unit maintenance of air delivery items, rigger support, and limited aerial delivery support to the SFOB.
·Installs, operates, and maintains continuous internal communications for the SFOB, to include message center and crypto services, telephone, teletypewriter.
·Terminates radio and landline telephone and teletype circuits from higher headquarters and the area communications system at the SFOB.
·Provides secure communications between the SFOB and the three deployed FOBs.
·Provides limited still photographic support for the SFG and its attached elements.
SPECIAL FORCES BATTALION (AIRBORNE)
The Special Forces Battalion (Airborne) is comprised of one Battalion Headquarters Detachment (BN HQ DET/C DET), one Support Company (SPT CO), and three Special Forces Companies (SF CO). There is one SFOD Combat Diving A Detachment (CBT DIV A DET) and one SFOD Military Free Fall A Detachment (MFF A DET) per battalion.
The BN HQ DET consists of 11 officers, 2 warrant officers, and 25 enlisted soldiers. The SPT CO consists of 4 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 94 enlisted soldiers. Each SF CO consists of 8 officers, 7 warrant officers, and 67 enlisted soldiers.
To plan, conduct, and support special operations in any operational environment in peace, conflict, and war.
The battalion’s C2 and support elements can function as the headquarters for an ARSOTF or for a JSOTF when augmented by resources from other services. The C2 and support elements can:
·Establish, operate, and support an FOB.
·Provide one SOCCE to a corps or higher headquarters.
·Train and prepare SF teams for deployment.
·Direct, support, and sustain deployed SF teams.
BATTALION HEADQUARTERS DETACHMENT (C DETACHMENT)
The BN HQ DET is comprised of the Battalion Headquarters, one Signal Section (SIG SEC), the S-1 Section (S-1), the S-2 Section (S-2), the S-3 Section (S-3), the S-4 Section (S-4), the S-5 Section (S-5), and the Medical Section (MED SEC).
The BN HQ DET consists of 11 officers, 2 warrant officers, and 25 enlisted soldiers.
To provide command and control, staff planning, and staff supervision of administration and operations for the Special Forces battalion and its attached elements.
The SFOD C, also known as C detachment, provides C2, staff planning, and staff supervision of battalion operations and administration. The SFOD C detachment:
·Plans, coordinate, and direct SF operations separately or as part of a larger force.
·Provides command and staff personnel to establish and operate an FOB.
·Provides advice, coordination, and staff assistance on the employment of SF elements to a joint SOC, JSOTF, SAO, or other major headquarters.
SUPPORT COMPANY, SPECIAL FORCES BATTALION (AIRBORNE)
The Support Company of the Special Forces Battalion is comprised of one Military Intelligence
Detachment (MI DET), a Company Headquarters (CO HQ), a Service Detachment (SVC DET),
and a Signal Detachment (SIG DET).
The Support Company consists of 4 officers, 1 warrant officer, and 94 enlisted soldiers.
To provide intelligence and electronic warfare (EW) support, CSS, and signal support to an FOB
and its deployed operational elements.
·Provides integrated all-source intelligence collection management, analysis, production, and dissemination in support of the battalion and its attached elements.
·Provide counterintelligence support for the SF battalion and its attached elements.
·Provide intelligence technical advice, assistance, and training to operational elements of the SF battalion.
·Provide secure special intelligence (SI) between the SFOB and FOB.
·Perform special security office (SSO) functions for the FOB.
·Provide EW support to the operational detachments of the battalion.
·Provide administrative and logistical support to the SF battalion.
·Provide food service support to the battalion.
·Provide unit-level supply, to include class V, for the FOB.
·Provide personnel and cargo parachute packing, unit level maintenance of air delivery items rigger support, and limited air delivery support to the FOB.
·Install, operate, and maintain continuous internal communications for an FOB, to include message center and crypto services, telephone, typewriter, and radio communications.
·Terminate secure communication with the SFOB and FOB.
·Perform unit-level maintenance on organic wheeled vehicles, power generation equipment, and communication-electronics (CE) equipment (less crypto) assigned to the battalion.
·Performs limited general support maintenance for those items of signal equipment peculiar to the SF battalion.
·Terminate radio and landline telephone and teletype circuits from higher headquarters and the area communications system at the FOB.
SPECIAL FORCES COMPANY, SPECIAL FORCES BATTALION
The Special Forces Company is comprised of a Company Headquarters (CO HQ) and six SFOD
Operational "A" Detachments (A DET).
The Special Forces Company consists of 8 officers, 7 warrant officers, and 67 enlisted soldiers.
To plan and conduct special operations in any operational environment in peace, conflict, and war.
·Plan and conduct Special Forces operations separately or as part of a larger force.
·Train and prepare Special Forces teams for deployment.
·Infiltrate and exfiltrate specified operational areas by air, land, or sea.
·Conduct operations in remote areas and hostile environments for extended periods with minimal external direction and support.
·Develop, organize, equip, train, and advise or direct indigenous forces of up to regimental size in special operations.
·Train, advise, and assist other US and allied forces and agencies.
·When augmented, establish and operate an advanced operational base (AOB) to expand C2 capabilities of an SFOB or FOB.
·Serve as SOCCE at a corps or higher headquarters.
·Serve as a C2 element (area Command) in a specified operational area.
·Serve as a pilot team to assess the resistance potential in a specified operational area.
·Establish and operate an isolation facility (ISOFAC) for an SFOB or FOB.
·Perform other special operations as directed by higher authority.
SPECIAL FORCES OPERATIONAL DETACHMENT "A"
The A Detachment consists of one Captain (Commander), one Warrant Officer (Detachment Technician), one Master Sergeant (Operations Sergeant), one Sergeant First Class (Assistant Operations Sergeant), two Weapons Sergeants, two Engineer Sergeants, two Medical Sergeants, and two Communications Sergeants.
·Plan and conduct SF operations separately or as part of a larger force.
·Infiltrate and exfiltrate specified operational areas by air, land, or sea.
·Conduct operations in remote areas and hostile environments for extended periods of time with a minimum of external direction and support.
·Develop, organize, equip, train, and advise or direct indigenous forces up to battalion size in special operations.
·Train, advise, and assist other US and allied forces and agencies.
·Plan and conduct unilateral SF operations.
·Perform other special operations as directed by higher authority.
160TH SPECIAL OPERATIONS AVIATION REGIMENT (AIRBORNE)
The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) provides aviation support to Army special operations forces. The Regiment consists of modified OH-6 light observation helicopters, MH-60 utility helicopters, and MH-47 medium-lift helicopters. The capabilities of the 160th SOAR have been evolving since the early 1980s. Shortly after the failed hostage rescue mission, Desert One, in Iran, the Army formed a special aviation unit. The unit drew on some of the best aviators in the Army and immediately began an intensive training program in low-level, night operations. The unit became a battalion of its own on October 16, 1981. Designated the 160th Aviation Battalion, the unit was popularly known as Task Force 160 because of the constant attachment and detachment of units to prepare for a wide variety of missions. Its focus on night operations resulted in the nickname, "The Night Stalkers." On May 16, 1990 the unit was reorganized, designated the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne), and assigned to the US Army Special Operations Command.
The 160th SOAR(A) is based at Fort Campbell, KY and is composed of four active duty battalions and one forward deployed company. Its battalions include the Fort Campbell based 1/160 which flies the AH-6, MH-6, MH-60K and MH-60L DAP; the Fort Campbell based 2/160 which flies the MH-47E; the Ft. Campbell based 4/160 Special Operations Aviation Support battalion; and the Hunter Army Airfield, Savannah, GA, based 3/160 which flies the MH-60L and MH-47D. D/160 consists of five MH-60Ls based at Ft. Kobbe, Panama. Although all Army aviation units have an inherent capability to support special operations, the units of the 160th SOAR(A) have been specifically designated by the Secretary of Defense to be prepared, trained, nd task organized for special operations mission support. The 160 th SOAR(A) organizes, trains, quips, validates, employs, sustains, and maintains air assets for worldwide deployment and assignment to theater CINCs for conducting direct action, special reconnaissance, and other special operations.
Army special operations aviation assets conduct specialized aviation operations in conjunction with other special operations forces. These operations include the use of dedicated aviation assets
·Insert, extract, and resupply SOF.
·Conduct armed escort, reconnaissance, surveillance, and electronic warfare in support of SOF missions.
·Provide C3 for SOF elements.
·Provide general support aviation during peacetime and contingency operations.
The most frequent mission is clandestine penetration for the insertion, extraction, and resupply of
SOF by air.
The MH-6J is a single engine light utility helicopter that has been modified to externally transport up to six combat troops and their equipment and is capable of conducting overt and covert infiltrations, exfiltrations, and combat assaults over a wide variety of terrain and environmental conditions (see Table 3-2). It is also used for command and control and reconnaissance missions. Its small size allows for rapid deployability in C-130, C-141, C-17 and C-5 transport aircraft. Aircraft modifications and aircrew training allow for extremely rapid upload and download times.
·Communications: The MH-6J avionics package consists of FM, UHF, VHF, Motorola Saber, and SATCOM. All are secure capable.
·The basic MH-6 configuration consists of the External Personnel System mounted on each side of the aircraft, for a total of six external and two internal seating positions.
·The aircraft can be rapidly configured for Fastrope and STABO operations. Motorcycle racks provide the capability to insert and extract up to 2 motorcycles.
·Forward Looking Infrared Radar (FLIR): Some aircraft are equipped with FLIR, which is a passive system that provides an infrared image of terrain features and ground or airborne objects of interest. Images may be recorded for playback on a standard VHS video cassette recorder.
·Defensive systems. Each aircraft is equipped with the APR 39 Radar Warning Receiver System, which detects and identifies hostile search/acquisition and fire control radars and provides audio and video alerts to the flight crew.
·The MH-6 can be deployed by any Air Force transport aircraft. A C-141 is capable of transporting up to 6 MH-6s and a C-130 is able to transport up to 3 MH-6s, with a rapid upload/offload capability. MH-6s can offload, build up, and depart within 15 minutes.
·Self-deployment is unlimited with refuel support at ground or surface vessel locations every 270 NM.
AH-6J LIGHT ATTACK HELICOPTER
The AH-6J is a highly modified version of the McDonnell Douglas 530 series commercial helicopter. The aircraft is a single turbine engine, dual flight control, light attack helicopter. It is primarily employed in close air support of ground troops, target destruction raids, and armed escort of other aircraft. The AH-6J normally is flown by two pilots. Overwater operations require two pilots.
·Communications equipment capable of secure operations including UHF, VHF, and the Motorola "SABER" VHF. SATCOM is installed on some aircraft and available as an option on all aircraft.
·Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR). A controllable, infrared surveillance system which provides a TV video-type infrared image of terrain features and ground or airborne objects of interest. The FLIR is a passive system and detects long wavelength radiant IR energy emitted, naturally or artificially, by any object in daylight or darkness. Some aircraft may be equipped with the AESOP FLIR, which is a laser range finder/designator that allows the AH-6J to detect, acquire, identify, and engage targets at extended ranges with laser guided munitions.
The AH-6J is capable of mounting a variety of weapons systems. Normal aircraft configuration consists of two 7.62mm miniguns with 1500 to 2000 rounds per gun, and two seven-shot 2.75" rocket pods. The following are additional configurations:
·The M134 7.62mm Minigun is a 6 barrel, air-cooled, link-fed, electrically driven Gatling gun, with a 1,000 meter maximum effective range and a tracer burnout at 900 meters. The weapon has a rate of fire of 2,000 or 4,000 rounds per minute. The ammo can, 2 per aircraft, holds a maximum of 2625 rds of ball, tracer, low light tracer, or Sabot Launched Armor Piercing (SLAP) ammo.
·M261 7 tube Rocket Launcher. This system fires a 2.75" Folding Fin Aerial Rocket (FFAR) with a variety of special purpose warheads, including: 10 lb. and 17 lb. high explosive (HE) warheads for light armor and bunker penetration (bursting radius of 8-10 meters for a 10 lb. warhead, 12-15 meters for the 17 lb. warhead), with either proximity or contact fuse; the anti-personnel flechette warhead, filled with 2,200 flechettes; white phosphorous; white and IR illumination warheads, providing up to 120 seconds of overt light or 180 seconds of IR light; the Multi-Purpose Sub-Munitions (MPSM) warhead, containing 9 submunitions which are effective against light armor and personnel; and a warhead containing the CS riot control agent. The 2.75" FFAR can be used as a point target weapon at ranges from 100 to 750 meters and an area fire weapon at ranges up to 7000 meters.
·M260 Rocket Launcher. 19 shot 2.75 FFAR rocket pod; all other data is the same as above.
·AGM-114 Hellfire. The Hellfire is a 100 lb. semi-active laser guided missile, capable of
defeating any known armor. Missile launchers attach to the aircraft in pairs and are mounted on the outboard stores. Each launcher can hold two missiles, for a total of four missiles. The minimum engagement range is .5 KM to a maximum of 8 KM. The missile can be designated by any ground or air NATO standard laser designator, including the AESOP FLIR (if available).
·.50 Cal Machine Gun or 40mm MK 19 Automatic Grenade Launcher may be substituted for 7.62mm minigun in some configurations.
Normal engagement ranges are:
·Minigun – 100 to 750 meters.
·2.75" FFAR – 100 to 600 meters (in direct fire mode).
·Hellfire Missiles – 800 to 8000 meters.
NOTE: Due to weight restrictions, armament/ammunition loads and fuel may have to be adjusted to achieve the necessary range/endurance and weapons loads called for by the mission.
·The AH-6 can be deployed by any Air Force transport aircraft. A C-141 is capable of transporting up to 6 AH-6s and a C-130 is able to transport up to 3 AH-6s, with a rapid upload/offload capability. AH-6s can offload, build up, and depart within 15 minutes.
·Self deployment is unlimited with refuel support at ground or surface vessel locations every 270 NM.
The primary mission of the MH-60 is to conduct overt or covert infiltration, exfiltration, and resupply of SOF across a wide range of environmental conditions. An armed version, the Direct Action Penetrator (DAP), has the primary mission of armed escort and fire support. Secondary missions of the MH-60 include external load, CSAR and MEDEVAC operations. The MH-60 is capable of operating from fixed base facilities, remote sites, or ocean going vessels.
The 160th SOAR(A) operates 3 models of the Blackhawk:
·The MH-60K (Blackhawk) is a highly modified twin-engine utility helicopter based on the basic UH-60 airframe but developed specifically for the special operations mission. Improvements include aerial refueling (AR) capability, an advanced suite of aircraft survivability equipment (ASE), and improved navigation systems, including multi-mode radar to further improve pinpoint navigation in all environments and under the harshest conditions.
·The MH-60L flown by the 160 th SOAR(A) is a highly modified version of the standard US Army Blackhawk, configured for special operations use.
·The MH-60L Direct Action Penetrator (DAP) is an MH-60L modified to mount a variety of offensive weapons systems. Its mission is to conduct attack helicopter operations utilizing area fire or precision guided munitions and armed infiltration or exfiltration of small units. It is capable of conducting direct action missions (DA) as an attack helicopter or has the capability to reconfigure for troop assault operations. In the Direct Action role, the DAP would not normally be used as a primary transport for troops or supplies because of high gross weights. The DAP is capable of conducting all missions during day, night, or adverse weather conditions.
·The DAP can provide armed escort for employment against threats to a helicopter formation. Using team tactics, the DAP is capable of providing suppression or close air support (CAS) for formations and teams on the ground.
MH-60 Standard Mission Equipment
The following are systems and equipment always on board the aircraft during tactical missions.
·Communications: the MH-60 avionics package consists of FM, UHF (HAVE QUICK II
capable), VHF, HF, Motorola Saber, and SATCOM. MH-60K includes SINCGARS. All are secure capable.
·Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR). A controllable, infrared surveillance system which provides a TV video-type infrared image of terrain features and ground or airborne objects of interest. The FLIR is a passive system and detects long wavelength radiant IR energy emitted, naturally or artificially, by any object in daylight or darkness.
·Door guns (7.62mm Minigun). 6 barrel, air-cooled, electrically operated Gatling gun; MEF 1000 meters; Fires A165, 7.62mm Ball; A257, 7.62mm Low Light Ball; and SL66, armor piercing sabot. One gun each is mounted outside both the left and right gunner's windows. Normally operated by the crew chiefs. Sighting by open steel sites, Aimpoint, or AIM-1 LASER.
·Ballistic Armor Subsystem. Fabric covered steel plating provides increased ballistic protection in the cockpit and cabin.
·Guardian Auxiliary Fuel Tanks. Two 172 gallon tanks provide range extension of approximately two hours (mains plus two auxiliary tanks: 4 hours total), mounted in the cabin area at the aft bulkhead, occupies approximately 18 sq ft of usable cabin floor space. Normal operational time without the Guardian tanks is approximately two hours ten minutes.
·Fast Rope Insertion/Extraction System (FRIES) bar. Capable of supporting 1,500 pounds per side.
MH-60 Mission Flexible Systems
The following are systems that can be mounted on the MH-60L to support a primary mission or enhance the capabilities of aircraft performing assault or DAP missions:
·AN/AAQ-16D AESOP FLIR. The AESOP is a FLIR with a laser range finder/designator (LRF/D). The Q-16D allows the DAP to detect, acquire, identify, and engage targets at extended ranges with laser guided munitions.
·Cargo Hook. Mounted in the belly of the aircraft below the main rotor, the hook is capable of supporting external loads up to 9000 pounds.
·External Rescue Hoist System. Eastern-Breeze hydraulic hoist capable of lifting 600 pounds with 200 feet of usable cable. Primary control is by the crew chief/hoist operator using a hand held pendant.
·Internal Auxiliary Fuel System (IAFS). The MH-60 has wiring provisions for four additional 150 gallon fuel cells which may be mounted in the cargo area. Each fuel cell would provide approximately 50 minutes flight endurance. The maximum number of additional fuel cells may be limited due to ambient conditions and weight limitations. Use of all four IAFS tanks with the Guardian tanks reduces usable cargo area space to near zero.
·External Extended Range Fuel System (ERFS) (MH-60L only). Consists of either two 230 gallon, two 230 and two 450 gallon, or four 230 gallon jettisonable fuel tanks that can be mounted on the External Stores Support System for long range deployment of the aircraft. Use of the ERFS restricts usage of the M-134 miniguns and specific configuration may be limited by center-of-gravity or maximum gross weight limitations, and/or ambient conditions.
·External Tank System (ETS MH-60K only): two 230 gallon jettisonable fuel tanks can be mounted on the External Tank System for long range deployment of the aircraft. Use of the ETS restricts usage of the M-134 miniguns and specific configuration may be limited by center-of-gravity or maximum gross weight limitations, and/or ambient conditions. The ETS is capable of fuel replenishment by air refueling.
·Air Refueling (A/R); the MH-60K is equipped with an A/R probe that allows extended range and endurance by refueling from MC/KC-130 tanker aircraft.
·Personnel Locator System (PLS), AN/ARS-6(V). Locates personnel equipped with the AN/PRC-112(V) or equivalent survival radio.
·Command and Control Console. Provides four operator positions with access to the four AN/ARC-182(V) Multi-band transceivers and FLIR display.
MH-60 DAP Weapons Systems and Employment
Integrated fire control systems and a pilot’s headsup display (HUD) combine to make the DAP a highly accurate and effective weapons delivery platform both day and night. The DAP is capable of mounting two M-134 7.62mm miniguns, two 30mm chain-guns, two 19-shot 2.75 rocket pods, and Hellfire and Stinger missiles in a variety of combinations. The standard configuration of the DAP is one rocket pod, one 30mm cannon, and two miniguns. The configuration is changed based on METT-T. The MH-60L DAP has the capability to perform both the utility and armed mission. Time to reconfigure the aircraft is minimal from either the armed to the utility or vice versa. The 7.62 miniguns remain with the aircraft regardless of the mission.
·The M134 7.62mm Minigun is a 6 barrel, air-cooled, link fed, electrically driven Gatling gun, with a 1,000 meter maximum effective range and a tracer burnout at 900 meters. The weapon has a rate of fire of 2,000 or 4,000 rounds per minute, and is mounted in the fixed position on the left and right sides of the aircraft. The DAP normally carries 6,000 rounds of 7.62mm.
·M261 19 tube Rocket Launcher. This system fires a 2.75" FFAR with a variety of special purpose warheads, including: 10 lb. and 17 lb. high explosive (HE) warheads for light armor and bunker penetration (bursting radius of 8-10 meters for a 10 lb. warhead, 12-15 meters for the 17 lb. warhead), with either proximity or contact fuse; the anti-personnel flechette warhead, filled with 2,200 flechettes; white phosphorous; white and IR illumination warheads, providing up to 120 seconds of overt light or 180 seconds of IR light; the Multi-Purpose Sub-Munitions (MPSM) warhead, containing 9 submunitions which are effective against light armor and personnel; and a warhead containing the CS riot control agent. The 2.75" FFAR can be used as a point target weapon at ranges from 100 to 750 meters and an area fire weapon at ranges up to 7000 meters The aircraft can carry an additional load of rockets internally allowing the crew to reload the rocket pod without having to return to a rearm site. The reload can be accomplished in under 15 minutes.
·M230 30mm Chain Gun. Rapid fire cannon capable of firing 625 rounds of High Explosive Dual Purpose (HEDP) per minute at ranges out to 4,000 meters. The 30mm cannon is considered a point target weapon at a range of 1,500 meters and less, or as an area fire weapon at ranges up to 4,000 meters. Each cannon has its own magazine capable of carrying 1,100 rounds.
·AGM-114 Hellfire. The Hellfire is a 100 lb. semi-active laser guided missile, capable of
defeating any known armor. The M272 launchers are able to hold four Hellfire missiles each. The minimum engagement range is .5 KM to a maximum of 8 KM. The missile can be designated by any ground or air NATO standard laser designator.
The MH-60 can be deployed by C-17, C-5A/B and C-141 aircraft. A maximum of six MH-60s can be loaded on a C-5A/B. Approximately one hour is needed to prepare the helicopters for on- load and again for rebuild on arrival at the destination. A maximum of four MH-60s can be loaded on C-17 aircraft. Approximately one hour is needed to prepare the helicopters for onload and again for rebuild at the destination. A maximum of two MH-60s can be loaded on a C-141, requiring considerable time for preparation and rebuild. Ammunition for the weapon systems is palletized and loaded on the same aircraft for distribution at the destination.
The MH47 conducts overt and covert infiltrations, exfiltrations, air assault, resupply, and sling operations over a wide range of environmental conditions. The aircraft can perform a variety of other missions including shipboard operations, platform operations, urban operations, water operations, parachute operations, FARP operations, mass casualty, and combat search and rescue operations. The 160th SOAR(A) currently operates two models: the MH-47D Adverse Weather Cockpit (AWC), operated by 3/160; and the MH-47E, operated by 2/160.
The MH47 is capable of operating at night during marginal weather conditions. With the use of special mission equipment and night vision devices, the air crew can operate in hostile mission environments over all types of terrain at low altitudes during periods of low visibility and low ambient lighting conditions with pinpoint navigation accuracy± 30 seconds on target.
MH-47D Adverse Weather Cockpit (AWC)
The MH47D Chinook is a twin engine, tandem rotor, heavy assault helicopter that has been specifically modified for long range flights. It is equipped with weather avoidance/search radar; an aerial refueling (A/R) probe for in flight refueling; a Personnel Locator System (PLS) used in conjunction with the PRC 112 for finding downed aircrews; Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR); and a navigation system consisting of a Mission Computer utilizing GPS/INS/Doppler navigation sources for increased accuracy; secure voice communications, including FM, UHF with Have Quick II, VHF, HF, Saber and SATCOM radios; a Fast Rope Insertion Extraction System (FRIES) for insertion of personnel/equipment and extraction of personnel; a defensive armament system consisting of two M-134 machine-guns (left forward cabin window, right cabin door) and one M-60D machine-gun located on the ramp; and an internal rescue hoist with a 600 lb. capacity.
The MH-47E is a heavy assault helicopter based on the CH-47 airframe, specifically designed and built for the special operations aviation mission. It has a totally integrated avionics subsystem which combines a redundant avionics architecture with dual mission processors, remote terminal units, multifunction displays and display generators, to improve combat survivability and mission reliability; an aerial refueling (A/R) probe for in flight refueling; external rescue hoist; and two L714 turbine engines with Full Authority Digital Electronic Control which provides more power during hot/high environmental conditions. Two integral aircraft fuel tanks replace the internal auxiliary fuel tanks commonly carried on the MH-47D AWC, providing 2068 gallons of fuel with no reduction in cargo capacity.
MH-47D/E Standard Mission Equipment
The MH-47 is configured with the following equipment:
·Aircraft communications equipment consists of FM, UHF (with HAVE QUICK II capability), VHF, HF, SATCOM, and the Motorola Saber. The MH-47E is equipped with
SINCGARS VHF-FM single channel ground and airborne radio system.
·Automatic Target Hand-off System (ATHS) provides the capability of data bursting pre-selected/ formatted information to other equipped aircraft or ground stations.
·A navigation system consisting of a Mission Computer utilizing GPS/INS/Doppler navigation sources for pinpoint navigation.
·Weapons systems. The MH-47 has three weapons stations; left forward window, right cabin door and at the ramp. The forward stations mount a 7.62mm mini-gun and the ramp station mounts a M60D 7.62 machine gun. A crew member at each station manually operates the weapon. The weapons are used primarily for self-defense and enemy suppression.
¾The mini-gun is normally used for soft targets and troop suppression which requires a high rate of fire.
¾The mini-gun is air cooled, link fed and has a maximum effective range of 1500 meters with tracer burnout at 900 meters. The weapon has an adjustable rate of fire of 2000 or 4000 rds per minute. The crew members currently fire ball/slap ammunition with a mix of four ball to one tracer, 4:1, or a 9:1 mix to prevent NVD shutdown on low illumination nights. The ammunition complement without reloading is 8000 rds. per weapon.
·Fast Rope Insertion Extraction System (FRIES). May be utilized for insertion and extraction of personnel.
¾Applied loads at the rear ramp for insertions will not exceed 9 persons per rope at the same time.
¾Applied loads at the rear ramp for extractions will not exceed 6 persons per rope at the same time.
·Internal Rescue Hoist. Is configured for use at the center cargo hook/rescue hatch. It has a 600 lb. capacity and approximately 150 feet of useable cable.
·External Rescue Hoist (MH-47E only). Is configured for use at the right front cabin door and has a 6000 lb. capacity with 245 feet of useable cable. Also Fastrope capable with hoist installed.
·External Cargo Hook System. Each hook may be used separately or in conjunction with each other. All loads should be planned as a tandem rigged load, this will facilitate greater load stability and insure faster airspeeds during flight. Hook limitations are as follows:
¾Forward Hook - 17,000 lb.
¾Center Hook - 26,000 lb.
¾Aft Hook - 17,000 lb.
¾Tandem Hook - 25,000 lb.
NOTE:These are maximum hook rated loads and may not accurately reflect the true capability of the aircraft due to external conditions, i.e., pressure altitude and temperature.
MH-47 D/E Mission Flexible Equipment
·Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR), AN/AAQ-16, is a controllable, infrared surveillance system which provides a TV video-type infrared image of terrain features and ground or airborne objects of interest. The FLIR is a passive system and detects long wavelength radiant IR energy emitted, naturally or artificially, by any object in daylight or darkness.
·Map Display Generator (MDG) (MH-47E only), when used with the Data Transfer Module (DTM) displays aeronautical charts, photos, or digitized maps in the Plan and 3D modes of operation.
·Cargo Compartment Expanded Range Fuel System (CCERFS), consists of one and up to three ballistic tolerant, self sealing tanks. Each tank holds 780 gallons of fuel. They are
refillable during aerial refuel operations.
·Forward Area Refueling Equipment, (FARE), consists of fueling pumps, hoses, nozzles, and additional refueling equipment to set up a two-point refueling site. Gallons of fuel dispensed is dependent upon range of operation required of the tanker aircraft.
·2 MH-47s may be transported in a C-5. Build-up time is approximately 8 hours.
·2 MH-47s may be transported in a C-17. Build-up time is approximately 8 hours.
·MH-47s can self-deploy over extended distances using ground or aerial refuel.
ARMY CIVIL AFFAIRS & PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS COMMAND (AIRBORNE)
The US Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (Airborne) is the headquarters for Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations units. Of USACAPOC(A)'s approximately 9,000 soldiers, about 83 percent are in the Reserve component and are located in 26 states and the District of Columbia. USACAPOC(A) units provide support to all theater commanders in meeting their global commitments. USACAPOC(A) soldiers have contributed significantly to recent humanitarian missions. They assisted victims of Hurricane Andrew in Florida, coordinated refugee operations for Cubans and Haitians in Cuba, and were among the first soldiers sent to Somalia and Haiti. Unique training, experience, and the abilities of USACAPOC(A)'s soldiers make them an ideal asset in dealing with national priorities.
The command has one active duty Psychological Operations unit, the 4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne), with five battalions; and one active duty Civil Affairs unit, the 96th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne), with six companies. Both units are located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. USACAPOC(A), also headquartered at Fort Bragg, is one of four major commands comprising the US Army Special Operations Command.
USACAPOC(A) soldiers maintain the highest standards of training and physical readiness in order to be prepared to deploy anywhere in the world on short notice. Although Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations activities often complement each other, each battle system operates individually in support of field commanders.
The theater SOC integrates PSYOP and CA support into joint SOF activities. Task-organized PSYOP and CA detachments, from theater PSYOP and CA forces, may be attached to the theater SOC for a specific period to provide dedicated support. CA and PSYOP support provide the SOF commanders and their indigenous counterparts the ability to motivate and mobilize crucial segments of the population to enhance the probability of mission success.
US Army Psychological Operations Forces
The US Army maintains Active Component (AC) and Reserve Component (RC) forces to plan and conduct PSYOP. These units are available to support combatant command training exercises and to furnish advice and assistance (JP 3-53).
US Army PSYOP forces plan and execute the Joint Force Commanders’ PSYOP activities at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels; support all special operations missions; and conduct PSYOP in support of consolidation missions. Specially trained units support enemy prisoner of war (EPW) missions. US Army PSYOP group and battalion headquarters are structured to provide command and control of subordinate units that conduct PSYOP missions.
All AC and RC US Army PSYOP forces are assigned to the US Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC), a major subordinate command of the US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The AC forces are organized under the 4th Psychological Operations Group with four regionally oriented battalions, a tactical support battalion, and a PSYOP dissemination battalion.
PSYOP Group (POG)
The Psychological Operations (PSYOP) Group plans and conducts PSYOP activities authorized and implemented worldwide in support of all non-mobilization contingencies during crisis and open hostilities short of declared war. It also develops, coordinates, and executes peacetime PSYOP activities. In addition, should war be declared, the PSYOP Group assists in the planning and execution of strategic and operational PSYOP for the unified command CINCs.
PSYOP Dissemination Battalion (PDB)
The PSYOP Dissemination Battalion provides audiovisual and printed material production, signal support, and media broadcast capabilities to support the PSYOP group, Regional Support Battalions (RSB), and the Tactical Support Battalions (TSB). This battalion is capable of deploying these capabilities or can produce products at Fort Bragg. If host nation support agreements are in place, PSYOP personnel can print on foreign presses and broadcast from surrogate stations in theater. The PSYOP Dissemination Battalion also provides many non- PSYOP specific support service to the PSYOP Group like communications and electronic maintenance services.
PSYOP Regional Support Battalion (RSB)
The PSYOP Regional Support Battalion (RSB) consists of a headquarters element, a support company, and one or more regional support companies. Each regional battalion divides geographic responsibility between their subordinate companies and further to the individual Product Development Centers (PDC) at the Operational Detachment (OPDET) level. A PDC consist of a team of 10-15 soldiers who develop audio, visual, and audiovisual product prototypes in support of the PSYOP campaigns. Each RSB is supported by a Strategic Studies Detachment (SSD) that is staffed by civilian analysts and produces PSYOP studies for the regional CINCs.
PSYOP Tactical Support Battalion (TSB)
A Tactical Support Battalion (TSB) provides tactical PSYOP support for one rapid deployment corps’ contingency requirements and, as required, the SOF community. The battalion consists of a headquarters and support company and one or more tactical support companies. The Tactical Support Battalion serves as the Corps PSYOP Support Element (CPSE) and assigns its subordinate Tactical Support Companies (TSC) to serve as the Division PSYOP Support Elements (DPSE). DPSEs are further supported by their platoons in the form of Brigade PSYOP Support Elements (BPSE). The smallest unit of tactical PSYOP support is the three-soldier Tactical PSYOP Team (TPT).
Reserve Component Psychological Operation Forces
The majority of the Army’s PSYOP forces rest in the Army Reserve. During peacetime, RC PSYOP personnel will actively participate with AC PSYOP personnel in an integrated planning and training program to prepare for regional conflicts or contingencies. RC personnel and forces will also be involved with the AC in the planning and execution of peacetime PSYOP programs. In wartime, RC PSYOP personnel or units may be mobilized by the service, as required by combatant commanders, to augment AC PSYOP forces. RC PSYOP forces can also continue peacetime PSYOP programs in the absence of AC PSYOP forces when mobilized or directed. RC PSYOP Groups and Battalions possess the capability to deploy a PSYOP task force if required.
Psychological Operation Equipment
US Army PSYOP equipment is instrumental in the development and dissemination of PSYOP products. Unique equipment assets include 10 kilowatt and 50 kilowatt TV and radio broadcast transmitters, print systems, loudspeakers, and mobile audiovisual vans.
US Army Civil Affairs (CA) Organization
CA units are designed to provide support to both GP and SO forces at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. The vast majority of army CA forces are in the reserve component (RC). The army's active component (AC) CA unit (96th CA BN, Ft. Bragg, NC) is capable of rapidly deploying one of its five regionally aligned CA companies to meet the initial CA support requirement, with transition to RC units beginning as soon as mobilization permits. The RC civil affairs units have functional specialties, with the unit's soldiers being assigned to functional teams. The functional specialties are:
Food and Agriculture
Public Facilities Section
Public Works and Utilities
Special Functions Section
Civil Affairs Command
The five reserve component CA commands provide predeployment command and control to their geographically oriented CA brigades and battalions. CA commands provide support to their respective warfighting CINC. They are usually the senior CA unit in theater and aligned to the Theater Army (TA)
The command's mission is to plan, manage and conduct CA operations that support the TA commander. The CA command may also provide staff support to the TA component services and joint theater staff as required. The CA Commands are responsible for the training, equipping, and preparation of their subordinate units for mobilization and deployment both in war and in support of peace operations. When deployed CA units are attached to the supported command. Civil Affairs commands have all the CA functional specialties organized in functional teams.
Civil Affairs Brigades
The Civil Affairs brigades support the corps and the JTF, TA, theater support command, and TA area commands. The CA brigades provide predeployment command and control to their battalions. The CA brigade accomplishes its mission through attachment of its subordinate battalions. The CA brigades are responsible for the training, equipage, and preparation of their subordinate units for mobilization and deployment both in war and support of peace operations. When a CA brigade is designated the senior CA unit in theater, it is aligned to a Theater Army, and assumes the duties of a CA command. It is the lowest level unit that has representation of all of the CA functional specialties
Civil Affairs Battalions
There are three types of Civil Affairs battalions; the General Support (GS), General Purpose(GP)
and Foreign Internal Defense/Unconventional Warfare (FID/UW)
Civil Affairs FID/UW BN Typical
The GS battalion is the army's only active duty CA battalion and it is responsible for planning and conducting CA activities in support of military operations. Composed of CA generalists, it provides immediate operational access to CA assets for the regional CINCs, through the GS battalion's regionally aligned companies.
The CA battalion (GP) mission is to plan and conduct CA activities in support of a division, a corps support command, or an area support group. It supports planning and coordination of CA and foreign nation support operations. The unit provides Civil Affairs functional area specialists in the following areas:
·Public Work and Utilities
The primary mission of the reserve components' CA battalion FID/UW is to support the theater SOC, the JSOTF, the SF group headquarters. Its secondary mission is providing CA support to conventional forces. The following are examples of possible CA organizations.
SPECIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT COMMAND (SOSCOM)
SOSCOM mission is to plan and coordinate with Theater Army (TA). SOSCOM, and ARSOF to assure combat service support (CSS), health service support (HSS), and signal support to ARSOF supporting the warfighting CINCs during deliberate and crisis actions. SOSCOM is a Major Subordinate Command (MSC) of the United States Army Special Operations Command. As an MSC, the SOSCOM Commander is responsible for the administration, training, maintenance, support and readiness of assigned forces. SOSCOM is comprised of a headquarters staff, six forward deployed Special Operations Theater Support Elements (SOTSEs), the 528th Support Battalion, the 112th Signal Battalion, and the USASOC Material Management Center (MMC).
Special Operations Theater Support Elements
The SOTSE is the staff coordinator for ARSOF support requirements at the Army Service Component Command (ASCC). Embedded in the ASCC, the SOTSE staff has knowledge of the resources available to all other Army forces apportioned to the theater. Working with theater logisticians, the SOTSE can thereby identify requirements and plan for and coordinate ARSOF sustainment.
528th Support Battalion
The 528th Support Battalion’s mission is to provide rapid deployable CSS and HSS to ARSOF as directed. The 528th Support Battalion’s strengths lie in its capability to support ARSOF unique and low density weapons and vehicles. The 528th complements ARSOF CSS, HSS, and signal units. The support battalion consists of a headquarters and main support company (HMSC), three forward support companies (2 active and 1 reserve component) and may receive augmentation from Theater Army.
HMSC capabilities include:
·Operates a Supply Support Activity (SSA) for Class II, IV, VII, and IX.
·Airdrop services to rig 80 personnel chutes daily and limited heavy drop rigging.
·Provide food service support to 500 personnel.
·Contracting services that provides payment for host nation supply, services, and facilities.
·Provide medical Level I and Level II care, has a 20 patient holding capability, provide advanced trauma management, emergency dental, and limited preventative medicine and x-ray facilities.
Forward Support Companies capabilities include:
·Class I: Receive, store and issue 4.24 short tons (ST) daily.
·Provide food service to 500 personnel daily.
·Class III: Establish and operate FARES, capacity to store 50,000 gallons, receive and issue 30,000 gallons daily.
·Class II, IIIP, IV, VII, IX: Receive, store and issue up to 25 ST daily.
·Class V: Operate one ammunition transfer point, transload 20 ST daily.
·Water: Purify 24,00 gallons daily with limited distribution.
·Maintenance: Direct support (DS) maintenance on wheeled vehicles, small arms, power
generators, and engineer equipment with limited recovery capability.
·Transportation: Movement control and Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG), 200 personnel in one lift; 8000 gallons of water in 500 gallon blivets.
·Base support services: Supervise establishment of base, maintain and operate base, with
limited vertical engineer construction.
·Medical Service: Advance trauma management, ground evacuation (8 personnel), limited preventative medicine, limited dental, limited lab; receive, store, and issue 2.25 ST of Class VIII.
Theater augmentation provides:
·Laundry and bath services
·Backup DS and GS maintenance
112th Signal Battalion
The 112th Signal Battalion supports deployed joint and Army task force special operations. Capable of providing signal services to two theaters simultaneously, it ensures flexible communications among unified commanders, joint forces special operations component commands, each of the subordinate service SOF component commands, and other commands as directed.
The signal battalion is made up of a headquarters and headquarters company (HHC), and two special operations signal companies. The HHC consists of the battalion headquarters, and four special operations communications elements that are forward deployed in Panama, Germany, Korea, and Hawaii.
Each special operations signal company engineers, installs, operates, and maintains, two full signal centers, normally located at the JSOTF or ARSOTF headquarters. Each company consists of a company headquarters, joint special operations task force platoon and a support platoon.
The JSOTF platoon is subdivided into the following:
·Two satellite communications (SATCOM) teams
·Four high frequency (HF) multi-channel sections
·Net radio interface (NRI) team
·Communications center team
·Technical control team
·Four special operations communications assemblage teams
The support platoons consist of a headquarters and the following teams:
·Four HF multi-channel teams
·Three SATCOM teams
·Communications center team
·Technical control team
·Three assemblage teams
Signal elements draw their logistic support from the headquarters they are supporting. The special operations signal battalion provides motor and signal maintenance for their own systems. It can only provide organizational maintenance on vehicles and generators and up to direct support maintenance on signal equipment. The TA provides Army common repair parts on a nonreimbursable basis to SOF.
Material Management Center (MMC)
The MMC provides the ARSOF with centralized and integrated material management of property, equipment, maintenance, logistic automation, and repair parts and supplies (less Class V and VII).