Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin


by Major General Charles W. Thomas
The A-series division table of organization and equipment (TO&E) that emerged from the military intelligence (MI) Gulf War retrospective is a better balanced organization than its 1990 predecessor. While there is less organic signals intelligence (SIGINT), there is more countervailing access to SIGINT through broadcast intelligence and the emerging Ground-Based Common Sensor (GBCS) systems. The divisional direct support (DS) MI companies in support of ground maneuver brigades provide this balance by vertically integrating all-source intelligence to the brigades.

All-Source Collection

Access to systems outside the brigade is enhanced by the new architecture that includes the All-Source Analysis System (ASAS), the Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System (JDISS), and associated communications systems. Through the Common Ground Station the DS MI company can provide the supported brigade with available Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) information that can highlight enemy unit movements and serve as a cue to other sensors. One of these sensors is the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The UAV provides the best near-real-time imagery available to the warfighter. UAV support is tiered (by echelon) with system access and control ranging from echelons above corps to brigade. The specific vehicles are yet to be determined, but the Army leadership views the UAV as critical, and we can be sure that this essential system will remain in our architecture.
The intelligence balance further improves with the human intelligence (HUMINT) capability that is part of every DS MI company. Counterintelligence and interrogation remain important, particularly in the force projection nontraditional missions like Somalia, Haiti, and what we face in Bosnia, where the need for HUMINT is high. In fact, often it is the most critical collection capability we have, especially against unsophisticated, technologically ill-equipped opponents.
The GBCS system of the general support MI company replaces several ground-based SIGINT and electronic warfare systems, consolidates functionality of the old systems, and is a technological step forward. GBCS, in concert with the divisional Advanced QUICKFIX helicopter, provides more detailed and accurate SIGINT than ever before.

ASAS Provides the Fusion

Again, not much organic collection belongs to the brigade, but the analysis and control team of the DS MI company has enormous capacity, primarily through the ASAS architecture, to pull timely intelligence and accept broadcast products efficiently. ASAS merges the information of the tactical systems with information from higher echelons, including national level, to optimize the clarity of the intelligence picture. Equally important to this balance is the integration of all reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) capabilities in the division.
The RISTA effort is a critical source of information for the warfighter. First, we focus the systems by illuminating the threat for the commander. Second, the ASAS correlates and places into context the collected information obtained through RISTA. Finally, following the correlation, we make target recommendations, based on our analysis of the enemy situation, and feed these targets through ASAS directly to the appropriate warfighting system. The vertical and horizontal proliferation of ASAS makes it possible to more quickly add to situational awareness and targeting databases. While the current generation of ASAS makes this a fusion of multiple inputs from numerous sensors and human sources, it is only the first step on the path to vastly greater efficiencies in battle space visualization.

Employing the Architecture

The efficient use of this architecture requires carefully refined tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) with accompanying training. Divisional units develop most TTP through training programs; G2s, S2s, and MI battalion commanders develop and orchestrate them. Frankly, our MI technical architecture will not work without these homegrown TTP efforts and training. We cannot do this alone from Fort Huachuca-it has to be a cooperative effort with the field. When it is done with resourceful determination, this architecture not only works, it works with dazzling efficiency. It truly draws together all of the elements of RISTA making the whole division part of the process.

Our Responsibility

MI officers, noncommissioned officers (NCOs), and civilians have an obligation to learn our architecture and refine the TTP that implement it. It will not work without a focused effort. We will not be ready for the ever-increasing pace of change in our architecture's technical capability if we cannot use the efficiencies currently available.
I am convinced that the high quality officer and NCO corps that we have today are up to this challenge. If you are not, then stand back for those who will take it on. It is too important to allow deterrents it is a very real leap into Information Age warfare.