False Statements and Perjury, and More from CRS

“Lying, or making a false statement, is a federal crime under a number of circumstances,” a newly updated report from the Congressional Research Service instructs.

“It is a federal crime to make a material false statement in a matter within the jurisdiction of a federal agency or department. Perjury is also a federal crime. Perjury is a false statement made under oath before a federal tribunal or official….   Subornation of perjury is inducing someone else to commit perjury. It, too, is a federal crime if the perjury induced is a federal crime. Finally, conspiracy to commit any these underlying crimes is also a separate federal crime.”

See False Statements and Perjury: An Overview of Federal Criminal Law, updated May 11, 2018.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service include the following.

Iran Sanctions, updated May 11, 2018

Liberia: Political Transition and U.S. Relations, May 15, 2018

Permanent Legal Immigration to the United States: Policy Overview, updated May 11, 2018

Navy Lasers, Railgun, and Hypervelocity Projectile: Background and Issues for Congress, updated May 10, 2018

Is the U.S. Economy Growing Faster? Can It Grow Faster?, CRS Insight, May 8, 2018

NIH Funding: FY1994-FY2019, updated May 2, 2018

How FDA Approves Drugs and Regulates Their Safety and Effectiveness, updated May 8, 2018

Violence Against Journalists and Media workers in Mexico and U.S. Policy, CRS Memorandum, May 3, 2018

Compelling Presidential Compliance with a Judicial Subpoena, CRS Legal Sidebar, May 4, 2018

The Aftermath of US Withdrawal from the Iran Agreement

A new report from the Congressional Research Service begins to sort through the implications and the practical consequences of the Trump Administration decision to end US compliance with the Iran nuclear agreement, known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA).

“The Trump Administration could have used provisions of the JCPOA itself to cease implementation of U.S. commitments under the agreement. It opted not to do so, but instead to cease implementing the JCPOA by reimposing U.S. sanctions,” the CRS report noted.

See U.S. Decision to Cease Implementing the Iran Nuclear Agreement, May 9, 2018.

For related background from CRS, see also Iran: U.S. Economic Sanctions and the Authority to Lift Restrictions, updated May 10, 2018; Withdrawal from International Agreements: Legal Framework, the Paris Agreement, and the Iran Nuclear Agreement, updated May 4, 2018; and Iran Nuclear Agreement, updated May 2, 2018.

The decision to unilaterally reimpose sanctions on Iran took the form of a National Security Presidential Memorandum (NSPM) on May 8. Although the NSPM posted on the White House website is unnumbered, the copy circulated to reporters was identified as NSPM-11.

It follows that the previous NSPM on conventional arms transfers, which was also unnumbered on the White House website, must have been NSPM 10.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service include the following.

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements, updated May 8, 2018

Military Suicide Prevention and ResponseCRS In Focus, April 30, 2018

Oil and Gas Activities Within the National Wildlife Refuge System, May 9, 2018

Civilian Nuclear Waste Disposal, updated May 9, 2018

High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) Program, May 3, 2018

U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During President Trump’s First Year in Office: Comparative Analysis with Recent Presidents, May 2, 2018

From Slip Law to United States Code: A Guide to Federal Statutes for Congressional Staff, May 2, 2018

Covert Action and Clandestine Activities of the Intelligence Community: Selected Notification Requirements in Brief, May 7, 2018

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI)CRS In Focus, May 1, 2018

NATO’s Approach to Defense Innovation, & More from CRS

“In the future, NATO might have to rely as much on its agility and capacity for innovation as it has previously relied on its military technological advantage,” says a new report from the Congressional Research Service that reviews NATO’s response to the current threat environment and the changing technological landscape. See Transatlantic Perspectives on Defense Innovation: Issues for Congress, April 24, 2018.

Other new and updated publications from the Congressional Research Service this week include the following.

Law Enforcement Access to Overseas Data Under the CLOUD Act, CRS Legal Sidebar, May 2, 2018

The Travel Ban Case and Nationwide Injunctions, CRS Legal Sidebar, May 2, 2018

Federal Disaster Assistance After Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike, updated May 1, 2018

Issues in International Corporate Taxation: The 2017 Revision (P.L. 115-97), May 1, 2018

CRS Products on North Korea, updated May 1, 2018

Pentagon Pursues Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) technologies such as machine learning are already being used by the Department of Defense in operations in Iraq and Syria, and they have many potential uses in intelligence processing, military logistics, cyber defense, as well as autonomous weapon systems.

The range of such applications for defense and intelligence is surveyed in a new report from the Congressional Research Service.

The CRS report also reviews DoD funding for AI, international competition in the field, including Chinese investment in US AI companies, and the foreseeable impacts of AI technologies on the future of combat. See Artificial Intelligence and National Security, April 26, 2018.

“We’re going to have self-driving vehicles in theater for the Army before we’ll have self-driving cars on the streets,” Michael Griffin, the undersecretary of defense for research and engineering told Congress last month (as reported by Bloomberg).

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service include the following.

Foreign Aid: An Introduction to U.S. Programs and Policy, April 25, 2018

OPIC, USAID, and Proposed Development Finance Reorganization, April 27, 2018

OPEC and Non-OPEC Crude Oil Production Agreement: Compliance StatusCRS Insight, April 26, 2018

What Is the Farm Bill?, updated April 26, 2018

A Shift in the International Security Environment: Potential Implications for Defense–Issues for Congress, updated April 26, 2018

Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress, updated April 27, 2018

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities — Background and Issues for Congress, updated April 25, 2018

Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty: Background and Issues for Congress, updated April 25, 2018

The First Responder Network (FirstNet) and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress, April 27, 2018

African American Members of the United States Congress: 1870-2018, updated April 26, 2018

Covert vs. Clandestine: Defining Terms

The differences between “covert action” performed by the CIA and “clandestine activities” conducted by the military, as well as the distinct legal frameworks and reporting requirements that govern them, are revisited in a new report from the Congressional Research Service.

See Covert Action and Clandestine Activities of the Intelligence Community: Selected Definitions in Brief, April 25, 2018.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service that have not been made publicly available this week include the following.

Army Futures Command, CRS Insight, April 24, 2018

Australia, China, and the Indo-Pacific, CRS Insight, April 23, 2018

The Consumer Product Safety Act: A Legal Analysis, April 24, 2018

Frequently Asked Questions About Prescription Drug Pricing and Policy, updated April 24, 2018

Overview of “Travel Ban” Litigation and Recent Developments, CRS Legal Sidebar, updated April 23, 2018

Can Corporations be Held Liable under the Alien Tort Statute?, CRS Legal Sidebar, April 24, 2018

Cross-Border Data Sharing Under the CLOUD Act, April 23, 2018

A Peace Treaty with North Korea?, & More from CRS

In the past 25 years, there have been multiple failed attempts to negotiate a peace treaty or a non-aggression pact with North Korea and to formally end the Korean War.

A new report from the Congressional Research Service surveys these efforts with an eye toward the upcoming Trump-Kim summit and current initiatives aimed at North Korean “denuclearization” and a final peace treaty. See A Peace Treaty with North Korea?, April 19, 2018.

Other new and updated CRS reports that have not been publicly released include the following.

What’s the Difference? — Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data, updated April 23, 2018

U.S. Trade with Free Trade Agreement (FTA) Partners, updated April 23, 2018

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1961-FY2018, updated April 19, 2018

Registered Apprenticeship: Federal Role and Recent Federal Efforts, April 20, 2018

The Mental Health Workforce: A Primer, updated April 20, 2018

Coast Guard Cutter Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress, updated April 20, 2018

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program, updated (again) April 23, 2018

Use of Armed Forces to Secure the Border

The legal framework governing the deployment and use of armed forces to guard the US border with Mexico is surveyed in a new publication from the Congressional Research Service.

See The President’s Authority to Use the National Guard or the Armed Forces to Secure the BorderCRS Legal Sidebar, April 19, 2018.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service include the following.

Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response, updated April 18, 2018

Spain and Its Relations with the United States: In Brief, updated April 19, 2018

France and U.S.-French Relations: In Brief, April 19, 2018

Energy and Water Development Appropriations: Nuclear Weapons Activities, updated April 18, 2018

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress, updated April 18, 2018

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Program, and More from CRS

The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter is the single largest procurement program in the Department of Defense, which anticipates acquiring thousands of these aircraft.

But while “the F-35 promises significant advances in military capability…, reaching that capability has put the program above its original budget and behind the planned schedule,” according to the Congressional Research Service. See F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program, updated April 13, 2018.

Other new and updated CRS reports that have not been made publicly available include the following.

FY2018 Defense Appropriations Act: An Overview, CRS In Focus, April 5, 2018

The President’s FY2019 Military Construction Budget Request, CRS In Focus, April 4, 2018

Legal Authorities Under the Controlled Substances Act to Combat the Opioid Crisis, April 16, 2018

Regulatory Reform 10 Years After the Financial Crisis: Dodd-Frank and Securities Law, April 13, 2018

Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework, updated April 13, 2018

NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet, updated April 16, 2018

Special Counsels, Independent Counsels, and Special Prosecutors: Legal Authority and Limitations on Independent Executive Investigations, updated April 13, 2018

Cuba After the Castros, CRS Insight, April 17, 2018

Special Operations Forces Aiming to Expand

The 2019 budget request for U.S. Special Operations Command — $13.6 billion — is 10% higher than the 2018 level and is the largest budget request ever submitted by US SOCOM.

U.S. special operations forces, which are currently deployed in 90 countries, have more than doubled in size from 33,000 personnel in 2001 to around 70,000 personnel in early 2018. Next year’s budget, if approved, would make them larger still.

For a newly updated overview from the Congressional Research Service, see U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF): Background and Issues for Congress, April 13, 2018.

Other recent CRS reports that have not otherwise been made publicly available include the following.

Federal Election Commission: Membership and Policymaking Quorum, In Brief, April 12, 2018

Regulatory Reform 10 Years After the Financial Crisis: Systemic Risk Regulation of Non-Bank Financial Institutions, April 12, 2018

Abortion At or Over 20 Weeks’ Gestation: Frequently Asked Questions, April 11, 2018

Millennium Challenge Corporation, updated April 12, 2018

Latin America and the Caribbean: Fact Sheet on Leaders and Elections, updated April 11, 2018

Softwood Lumber Imports From Canada: Current Issues, updated April 12, 2018

Yemen: Civil War and Regional Intervention, updated April 12, 2018

Status of the Smart Grid, and More from CRS

The “smart grid” refers to an ongoing modernization of the nation’s electrical power system that makes it possible to dynamically allocate power and optimize system operation. It’s a work in progress.

A new report from the Congressional Research Service reviews smart grid technologies, costs and concerns including privacy and cybersecurity. See The Smart Grid: Status and Outlook, April 10, 2018.

Other new and updated reports from the Congressional Research Service this week include the following.

An Overview of Discretionary Reprieves from Removal: Deferred Action, DACA, TPS, and Others, April 10, 2018

Class Action Lawsuits: A Legal Overview for the 115th Congress, April 11, 2018

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 and an FY2019 Budget Resolution, April 10, 2018

Trade Promotion Authority (TPA): Frequently Asked Questions, updated April 10, 2018

Infantry Brigade Combat Team (IBCT) Mobility, Reconnaissance, and Firepower Programs, updated April 10, 2018

Tort and Litigation Reform in the 115th CongressCRS Legal Sidebar, April 10, 2018

Mississippi Court Halts Enforcement of New Abortion LawCRS Legal Sidebar, April 10, 2018

OMB and Treasury Disagree over Process for Issuing New Tax RulesCRS Insight, April 10, 2018

Balanced Budget AmendmentsCRS Insight, April 10, 2018

U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel, updated April 10, 2018