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No. 36 (28 February 1998)

| Military Aid Legislation | Information Flows |
| Human Rights Restrictions | 1997 Arms Sales | Deals in the Works |
| Recent Government Documents |

Military Aid Legislation

The President signed H.R.2159, the Foreign Operations Appropriation Act for Fiscal Year 1998, into law on 26 November 1997 (Public Law 105-118). In it, Congress appropriated $6 billion of military assistance, for the most part complying with the administration's requested levels (see ASM No. 34).

Several trends apparent in past budgets were continued in this legislation, including increased support for militaries in Central and East Europe, additional assistance to Jordan, and a reduction in aid to Greece and Turkey. (For a comparison to the preceding year's appropriation, see ASM No. 33.)

Foreign Military Financing

Congress appropriated just under $3.3 billion in Foreign Military Financing (FMF), to underwrite the purchase of U.S. weapons and services by foreign governments. The majority of FMF was provided in grants, with Israel and Egypt receiving 94 percent of the total. Aid to Jordan rose to $75 million, with one-third in the form of a draw down of military equipment and training from Pentagon stocks and the remaining $50 million to fund F-16 fighter jets.

Participation in NATO's "Partnership for Peace," and the future demands of integration into the alliance, provided the impetus for an $18.3 million FMF grant for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, as well as $50 million dedicated to Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

Congress also appropriated $60 million in FMF to subsidize $657 million in loans for weapons purchases. For antagonistic neighbors Greece and Turkey, the loans were appropriated in a 7:10 ratio, respectively, as has been customary for many years. The remaining $402 million of loans was slated to assist with expansion of the NATO alliance through the Central Europe Defense Loan program.

Economic Support

The administration received $2.4 billion for the Economic Support Fund (ESF). While not specifically targeted to weapons purchases, annual grant economic aid to Israel, Egypt and Turkey has historically been considered "security assistance." Egypt and Israel received their customary large grants for FY 1998, a reward for signing the Camp David accords twenty years ago. Jordan, which began receiving ESF following its rapprochement with Israel, received a significant increase in ESF this year.

House appropriators inserted a provision requiring that half of the $40 million ESF grant to Turkey for FY 1998 be given to non-governmental organizations "engaged in strengthening democratic institutions in Turkey, providing economic assistance for individuals and communities affected by civil unrest, and supporting and promoting peaceful solutions and economic development which will contribute to the settlement of regional problems in Turkey." The Turkish government refused to accept any of the ESF.

Military Education and Training

The administration requested and received $50 million for the training of nearly 7,400 members of 120 foreign militaries, a significant increase from FY 1997 levels. Some of the largest recipients of this aid were recognized by the State Department as having poor human rights records. IMET generally involves training in the operation of U.S. weapons systems, military doctrine, military management or human rights/ democracy education. For the level of IMET funding to a particular country, see ASM No. 34 and the box.

International Narcotics Control

Congress appropriated $230 million for the international drug control programs run by the State Depart- ment. The majority of this funding supports law enforcement, institution building and economic incentives to grow alternative crops, but it also includes the provision of weapons and training, principally to Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Congress specifically allocated $36 million toward the purchase of three "Black Hawk" helicopters and $14 million to upgrade UH-1H "Huey" helicopters for the Colombian National Police, with the stipulation that these aircraft are to be used solely for drug control purposes.

Security Aid in DOD Bills

Increasingly, military aid programs have been authorized and funded through the Department of Defense budget--principally under the rubric of counter-narcotics efforts. The National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1998 (H.R.1119, Public Law 105-85) extended a program established last year to provide $8 million of non-lethal equipment to Mexico for counter-drug activities, allowing the unused funds to carry over into the current year. Mexico also received $28 million in new funds through the Pentagon's $713 million drug interdiction program. Hundreds of Mexican soldiers and police have trained through this program, in addition to those trained under the IMET program.

A provision in the same bill established a five-year authorization for the Secretary of Defense, in consultation with the Secretary of State, to furnish millions of dollars in military aid to Peru and Colombia for drug interdiction. Capped at $9 million in FY 1998, in future years the program will rise to $20 million annually.

Human Rights Restrictions on Arms Aid

On 30 January 1998, the State Department released its Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997. As usual, several major U.S. arms clients were found wanting in terms of respect for basic human rights of their citizenry.

Significant human rights/arms export reform was passed into law last year as part of the foreign operations act. Section 570 prohibits the provision of any security assistance (funded by the foreign operations bill) to foreign military units which the Secretary of State has credible evidence have committed human rights violations. Aid may be resumed if the Secretary determines and reports to the Appropriations Committees that the recipient government is taking steps to bring the responsible members of the security forces to justice. This measure has already resulted in the suspension of aid to abusive Colombian military units.

The appropriations act also (section 571) requires that "any agreement for sale, transfer or licensing of any lethal equipment or helicopters" to Indonesia state that the United States expects that such items will not be used in East Timor. Report language expresses concern that "U.S. military equipment not be used in a manner inconsistent with international law, particulary with respect to the observance of human rights."

The Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers Act fell just short of becoming law last year. The House of Representatives passed the measure as part of the fiscal years 1998-99 State Department Authorization Act (H.R. 1757) in June. The Senate's version of the same bill did not include the Code, which would place human rights, democracy and non-aggression criteria at the center of U.S. arms export policy. A House-Senate conference was unable to resolve differences over issues unrelated to the Code, and Congress adjourned in November 1997 with the State Department Authorization Act--and the Code--stalled.

The principal House and Senate sponsors of the measure, Rep. Cynthia McKinney and Senator John Kerry, announced on 4 February 1998 their intention to seek inclusion of the Code of Conduct in a supplemental budget bill working its way through Congress this Spring.

U.S. Approved "Only" $20B in Arms Sales during 1997

The U.S. administration approved $19.8 billion in exports of military equipment to more than 140 countries in FY 1997. This figure--which combines the value of government-negotiated contracts signed with the value of export licenses approved--continues a downward trend since new sales peaked in the early 1990s. (Deliveries, however, are at record levels, with over $19 billion of arms shipped through FMS in FY 1997.)

Government-to-government contracts, negotiated through the Pentagon's Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, held fairly steady at $8.8 billion in new agreements. Egypt was the largest customer, contracting for over $1 billion of arms in FY 1997. South Korea and Saudi Arabia were also major FMS buyers. The U.S. government sold $62 million of weapons to regional security organizations and the United Nations, and $610 million of "classified" arms sales were made.

The State Department approved an additional $11 billion worth of export licenses for direct commercial sales (DCS) negotiated by U.S. arms corporations and foreign buyers. The DCS figures do not necessarily represent final deals (as do the FMS figures), but they do indicate official permission for the sales to go forward. The State Department has estimated in the past that about half of the export licenses eventually result in actual exports.

Deals in the Works -- 1997

During 1997, the Clinton administration notified Congress of the following proposed government-negotiated Foreign Military Sales (FMS) agreements, export licenses for industry-negotiated Direct Commercial Sales (DCS), leases of equipment, and reduced price or free excess defense article (EDA) transfers to developing countries.

This list is not complete. The Arms Export Control Act requires only that the administration notify Congress of FMS and DCS valued at $14 million or more. Sales below that threshold are not recorded here.

Congress has 30 days to stop proposed FMS agreements and DCS licenses from going forward (15 days for NATO members and major non-NATO allies). To block a sale, a two-thirds majority in both houses of Congress must pass a resolution of disapproval. None of the following sales were challenged.
Recipient Notice to Congress Description of Articles and Services Transfer Type Managed By Estimated Cost
Algeria 29 May 97 Six aircraft equipped with U.S.-origin defense articles to Canada for integration and then re-export to Algeria DCS State Dept >$50 million
Argentina 15 Jan 97 Eight A-4F/TA-4J "Skyhawk" attack aircraft EDA Air Force free
18 Feb 97 .38 caliber pistols EDA Army free
25 Mar 97 Three Bell Textron UH-1H "Huey" util. helicopters EDA Army free
3 Apr 97 Spare parts for Grumman OV-1D "Mohawk" reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft EDA Air Force free
2 Sept 97 Twelve Bell Textron UH-1H "Huey" util. helicopters EDA Army free
11 Dec 97 One P-3B "Orion" patrol aircraft EDA Navy free
Bahrain 10 Mar 97 Propelling charges for M20 155mm rocket launchers EDA Army free
14 May 97 18 Alliant Techsystems MK 46 torpedoes EDA Navy free
24 June 97 65 M239 Smoke grenade launchers, 65 M85 machine guns, grenades, and ammunition EDA Army free
8 July 97 20 Lockheed Martin F-16A/B fighter jets with Mid-Life Update modification kits or 10 F-16C/D jets; Pratt-Whitney 220E engine upgrade or General Electric 110 engines; spares FMS Air Force $303 million
Bangladesh 16 July 97 Four C-130 troop/cargo transport planes EDA Air Force free
Bosnia-Herz 4 Apr 97 261 M114A2 towed howitzers EDA Army free
31 May 97 45 M60A3 tanks; 80 M113A2 armored personnel carriers; 41,100 M16A1 rifles; 1000 M60 machine guns; 80 M2 .50 caliber machine guns; 45 M85 machine guns; 45 M240 machine guns; 17,000,000 rounds, 5.56mm ball ammo (M16); 2,000,000 rounds, 5.56mm blank ammo (M16); 2,000,000 rounds, 7.62mm 4in1 ammo; 285,110 rounds, .50 caliber ammo; 840 light anti-tank weapons (AT-4); 10,618 rounds, tank ammo; 2,000 rounds, smoke grenades for armored vehicles; and radios, batteries, binoculars, support equipment Draw down Army free
26 June 97 Ammunition EDA Army free
25 July 97 Services to aid the development of a formal structure for civilian control of the military, tactics training to improve deterrence capability and territory defense DCS State Dept >$14 million
Botswana 17 June 97 100,000 rounds of M246 20mm ammunition EDA Army free
11 July 97 Re-transfer 5 CF-5 "Freedom Fighter" jets from Canada DCS State Dept >$14 million
16 Oct 97 One C-130B cargo aircraft EDA Air Force free
Brazil 8 Apr 97 Newport-class tank landing ship and equipment, 5 years lease Navy $47,616/month
21 Apr 97 Hunley-class submarine support ship EDA Navy $2.8 million
17 July 97 Four S-70A-36 helicopters, support and spares DCS State Dept >$14 million
Brunei 6 Mar 97 One S-70A helicopter with External Stores Support Sys. DCS State Dept >$14 million
Chile 15 Jan 97 O-2A "Skymaster" reconnaissance aircraft EDA Air Force ?
21 Apr 97 Kaiser-class fleet oiling ship EDA Navy $12.1 million
18 June 97 Newport-class tank landing ship and equipment, 2 years lease Navy $47,823/month
18 Nov 97 Vulcan air defense systems and ammunition EDA Navy free
8 Dec 97 Two TH-57A "Sea Ranger" utility helicopters EDA Navy free
Colombia 10 July 97 Three OV-10A "Bronco" reconnaissance aircraft EDA Navy free
1 Oct 97 2 Point-class patrol boats, 1 Balsam-class buoy tender EDA Navy free
Czech Rep. 26 June 97 Boeing avionics suite and cockpit procedures and trainer a for the L-159 aircraft program DCS State Dept >$50 million
30 Sept 97 353 tank transmissions DCS State Dept >$50 million
Egypt 12 Mar 97 Lots of ammunition EDA Army free
21 Apr 97 Two Knox-class frigates, to be sold as logistics assets only; 2 Knox-class frigates; 2 Perry-class frigates EDA Navy $133.6 million
26 June 97 Three Kaman SH-2 "Seasprite" anti-submarine helos EDA Navy free
3 Sept 97 Four Boeing CH-47D "Chinook" helicopters and parts FMS Army $149 million
3 Sept 97 84 Alliant Tech MK-46 torpedoes with containers, MK-85 exercise heads, warheads, training, support, parts FMS Navy $32 million
3 Sept 97 32 McDonnell Douglas AGM-84G (Block 1G) "Harpoon" missiles with containers, training, equipment FMS Navy $51 million
3 Sept 97 Medical equipment, training, support FMS Army $100 million
29 Oct 97 14 Lockheed Martin mobile Advanced Gunnery Training Systems, spares, support, and training FMS Army $23 million
10 Nov 97 50 M88A2 recovery vehicle kits, 53 M2 machine guns, 100 AN/PVS-7B night visions goggles, spare parts FMS Army $197.9 million
FYROM 6 Nov 97 36 105mm howitzers with ammunition EDA Army free
Greece 14 May 97 Six M577A2 command post carriers EDA Army free
24 July 97 One MK 60 MOD 6 guided missile training round, P-3 mobile maintenance facility; support and electronic warfare equipment EDA Navy free
Three Adams-class guided missile destroyers with equipment, 2 Knox-class frigates with equipment lease Navy free
9 Oct 97 20 McDonnell Douglas "Harpoon" surface launch missiles and missile containers FMS Navy $35 million
10 Oct 97 90 Hughes AIM-120B Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM), missile containers, and support FMS Air Force $42 million
31 Oct 97 AGM-65A and AGM-65B TV, AGM-65G IR, and AGM-65H TV Upgrade Maverick Weapons System for integration into the Hellenic Air Force Command's F-16, A-7, and F-4 aircraft DCS State Dept >$50 million
10 Nov 97 Seven Boeing CH-47D "Chinook" helicopters with 28 M60 and 8 M2 machine guns, chaff, radar, spares FMS Air Force $376 million
30 Lockheed Martin Army Tactical Missiles (ATACMS) and launch assemblies FMS Air Force $31 million
Indonesia 20 Mar 97 16 APG-66H radars, spare parts and support equipment DCS State Dept >$14 million
Israel 2 Jan 97 Ground equipment for "Hawk" air-defense missiles EDA Army free
6 Feb 97 Electronic Support Measures system and Mission Radar System for the United Kingdom's Replacement Maritime Patrol Aircraft DCS State Dept >$14 million
2 Apr 97 15 Sikorsky UH-60L "Blackhawk" transport/attack helicopters; 30 GE turbine engines; spare parts FMS Army $200 million
21 Apr 97 Newport-class tank landing ship EDA Navy $2.6 million
11 June 97 98,745 M107 155mm high explosive projectiles FMS Army $30 million
24 June 97 Nine Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-229 engines, spares parts DCS State Dept >$14 million
26 June 97 Miscellaneous support equipment EDA DSAA free
11 Sept 97 Radios and miscellaneous support equipment EDA Army free
30 Sept 97 70 tank engines DCS State Dept >$14 million
20 Oct 97 301 Lockheed Martin Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) tactical rocket pods and related support FMS Army $30 million
6 Nov 97 Technical data for the manufacture of conformal fuel tanks for use by the U.S. DCS State Dept >$14 million
18 Nov 97 M16 rifles and ammunition EDA Army free
23 Dec 97 45 AGM-142D air-to-ground missiles, containers, spares FMS Army $41,000,000
Jordan 5 Mar 97 300 Vulcan Air Defense Systems EDA Army free
1 Apr 97 Lots of ammunition EDA Army free
Korea 11 June 97 1,065 Hughes "Stinger" RMP missiles less reprogrammable modules, 213 gripstock control group guided missile launchers, made by Hughes; onterrogator friend or foe systems; spares FMS Army $307 million
19 June 97 Upgrade of 190 Lockheed Martin Multiple Launch Rocket Systems previously sold to extended-range version FMS Army $29 million
3 Sept 97 200 Hughes "Stinger" RMP missiles less reprogrammable modules, 48 fly-to-buy "Stinger" missiles, 40 weapons rounds, 40 gripstock launchers, "friend or foe" night sights, support FMS Army $45 million
3 Sept 97 Four Boeing E-767 Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS), parts, support FMS Air Force $3 billion
24 Sept 97 Kaiser-class fleet oiler lease Navy ?
9 Oct 97 Co-development of training aircraft for Korean forces DCS State Dept >$50 million
10 Oct 97 159 Hughes/Raytheon Aim-120B Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM), containers, spares, support FMS Air Force $90 million
20 Oct 97 One Lockheed Martin MK 41 vertical launch system for installation on new frigate, weapon direction system, transmitter, canisters, support FMS Navy $90 million
21 Oct 97 20 AN/ALQ-165 Airborne Self Protection Jammers DCS State Dept >$50 million
10 Nov 97 Three MK 41 Vertical Launch System, 144 MK 13 MOD 0 canisters, equipment, support FMS Navy $109 million
13 Nov 97 Spare parts under a cooperative logistics supply support arrangement for F-4D/E, RF-4C, F-5A/B/E/F, RF-5A, A/T-37, F-16C/D, and C-130H aircraft; AN/FPS-117 and AN/FRN-45 radar systems; and AIM-7 and AIM-9 missile components FMS Air Force $160 million
21 Nov 97 Tracked landing vehicle spare parts EDA Army $689,772
Kuwait 8 Sept 97 16 McDonnell Douglas AH-64D APACHE attack helicopters, 384 Lockheed Martin HELLFIRE missiles (including 24 training and 50 dummy missiles), two spare launchers, four spare T-700 General Electric engines, spares, support FMS Army $800 million
29 Oct 97 70 Pandur 6x6 Light Armored Vehicles DCS State Dept >$50 million
Latvia 6 Nov 97 Miscellaneous equipment EDA DSAA free
Lebanon 29 Aug 97 Radios EDA Army free
3 Dec 97 27 cargo trucks, 18 M548A1 tracked cargo carriers, and 5 M578 armored recovery vehicles EDA Army $776,035
Lithuania 7 July 97 200 M16A1 assault rifles EDA Army free
6 Nov 97 Miscellaneous equipment EDA DSAA free
Malaysia 21 Apr 97 "Newport"-class tank landing ship EDA Navy $2.6 million
8 May 97 Two Sikorsky S-70A helicopters with external stores support system, countermeasure equipment, spares DCS State Dept >$14 million
Mexico 21 Apr 97 Knox-class frigate, to be sold as a logistics asset only EDA Navy $1.9 million
16 June 97 133,695 rounds, 20mm ammunition EDA Army free
21 Nov 97 Auxiliary ocean construction platform vessel EDA Navy $215,000
Morocco 5 Mar 97 Two "Vulcan" air defense systems EDA Air Force free
12 Mar 97 Lots of ammunition EDA Army free
1 Apr 97 Lots of ammunition EDA Army free
20 May 97 Seven M60A1 tanks, 849 M85 machine guns EDA Army free
29 July 97 30 M 578 armored recovery vehicles EDA Army free
1 Aug 97 20mm ammunition EDA Navy (?) Free
6 Nov 97 20 AN/TPQ-32 radar sets EDA Air Force free
6 Nov 97 Miscellaneous equipment EDA DSAA free
19 Dec 97 M60A1 tank spare parts EDA DSAA free
Oman 28 Jan 97 Three M728 combat engineering vehicles; 30 M35A2C two- ton cargo trucks; 10 Bell Textron UH-1H "Huey" helicopters EDA Army free
Phillippines 10 Apr 97 13 CF-5 "Freedom Fighter" fighter/bomber aircraft DCS State Dept >$14 million
Romania 21 Oct 97 Five FPS-117 long-range radar systems DCS State Dept >$50 million
Saudi Arabia 20 June 97 Technical data and assistance for F-5 aircraft program DCS State Dept >$50 million
27 June 97 15 M577A2 tracked command post carriers EDA Army $969,390
11 July 97 Maintenance and construction in support of previously sold Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS), and KE-3 aerial refueling tankers. Boeing is the prime contractor. FMS Air Force $300 million
22 July 97 130 90mm Turret Weapon Systems for integration into Light Armored Vehicles, chassis upgrades, 130 M240 machine guns, 130 M2 .50 caliber machine guns, 169,490 rounds of 90mm ammunition, spares, support. The prime contractor is GM Canada, with Cockerill Mechanical Industries as subcontractor. FMS Army $1.075 billion
465 AN/VRC-90, 355 AN/VRC-92 and 404 AN/VRC-119 radios, 42 RT-1702C receiver transmitter, high frequency radios, installation kits, spares, and support. Principal contractors are ITT and Harris Corporation. FMS Army $53 million
9 Nov 97 Installation of modified bomb racks on F-15S aircraft FMS Air Force $12.5 million
4 Dec 97 Training, operation and maintenance of "Peace Shield" air defense command, control and communication system DCS State Dept >$50,000,000
Singapore 10 Mar 97 Equipment for "Hawk" Phase II air defense system EDA DSAA $66,565
21 Oct 97 Twelve Lockheed Martin F-16C/D fighter aircraft, support equipment, spares, training DCS State Dept $350 million
6 Nov 97 Ten Boeing CH-47SD helicopters, spares, flight simulator DCS State Dept >$14 million
12 Nov 97 Services and support for F-16C/D aircraft, 12 M61A1 20mm guns, modification kits, maintenance, training, equipment FMS Air Force $287 million
Slovakia 17 Oct 97 Radios EDA Army free
Taiwan 14 Feb 97 54 McDonnell Douglas "Harpoon" ship-to-ship missiles FMS Navy $95 million
25 Feb 97 Improved Radar Warning Receiver (IRWR) Production Systems, associated support equipment, spares DCS State Dept >$14 million
1 Apr 97 Upgrade of previously sold 114 SM-1 Block VIA "Standard" missiles to 114 SM-1 Block VIB FMS Navy ?
10 Apr 97 Newport-class tank landing ship and equipment, 2 years lease Navy $3,048,336
21 Apr 97 Two Knox-class frigates, to be sold as logistics assets EDA Navy $4.5 million
7 May 97 Gun mount, barrel, power panel for the 5"/54 naval gun EDA Navy $88,813
23 May 97 1,786 TOW 2A anti-armor guided missiles and 114 TOW launchers, made by Hughes Aircraft Co.; 100 M1045A2 High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles trucks, spare parts, program support FMS Army $80 million
18 June 97 Excess Knox-class training devices EDA Navy $27,400
24 July 97 21 Bell Textron AH-1W "Super Cobra" attack helicopters, spares, training, and support FMS Army $479 million
3 Sept 97 13 Bell OH-58D "Kiowa Warrior" armed scout helicopters, 13 engines, 13 "Hellfire" rocket launchers, rockets, ammo FMS Army $172 million
10 Nov 97 Continuation of pilot training program and logistical support for F-16 aircraft, including parts, fuels, support FMS Air Force $280 million
10 Nov 97 Spare parts for F-5B/E/F, F-104, F-16, C-130, C-119, C-47, and T-38 aircraft and for U.S. systems and sub-systems in the "Indigenous Defense Fighter" aircraft FMS Air Force $140 million
24 Nov 97 Three Knox-class frigates and associated equipment lease Navy ?
Thailand 21 Apr 97 One Newport-class tank landing ship EDA Navy $2.5 million
11 June 97 107 M60A3 tanks with 105mm guns and tank thermal sight capability, overhaul and upgrade of the tanks, 107 .50 caliber and 7.62mm machine guns, engines with containers, radios, support equipment FMS Army $100 million
9 July 97 37,500 Fabrique Nationale M16A2 rifles, 4,700 M4 carbines, 2,600 M203 grenade launchers, bayonets, spare parts FMS Army $40 million
9 Sept 97 Ten SH-2F helicopters EDA Army free
Tunisia 12 Mar 97 Lots of ammunition EDA Army free
20 May 97 23 M35A2 two ton trucks and 4 M728 engineer vehicles EDA Army free
6 Nov 97 Miscellaneous equipment EDA Army free
6 Nov 97 40 M2 machine guns EDA Army free
Turkey 14 May 97 58 ASROC rocket motors and containers EDA Navy free
2 June 97 Nine KC-135R in-flight refueling booms, 3 year lease Air Force $98,614
23 July 97 Four S70B "Sea Hawk" helos, spare parts, ground support DCS State Dept >$14 million
24 July 97 Three "Knox"-class frigates and associated equipment lease Navy ?
Two "Perry"-class frigates and 75 STANDARD missiles* EDA Navy free
300 rounds of 40mm high explosives and 24,000 rounds of 20mm ammunition, preparation of three "Perry"-class frigates for transfer to Turkey*, spares FMS Navy $75 million
9 Oct 97 20 Lockheed Martin Low Altitude Navigation and Targeting Infrared for Night (LANTIRN) Targeting Pods (for F-16s) DCS State Dept >$50 million
10 Oct 97 138 Hughes/Raytheon AIM-120B Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM), 120 LAU-129A/A launchers FMS Air Force $62 million
29 Oct 97 HAWK Phase II equipment EDA Army free
10 Nov 97 Four Hughes AN/TPQ-36(V)9 FIREFINDER radar sets with support equipment, spares, and program support FMS Air Force $26 million
U.A.E. 24 July 97 24 McDonnell Douglas-made RGM-84G-4 "Harpoon" anti-ship missiles with containers, training, spare parts FMS Navy $90 million
72 Raytheon/Hughes RIM-7M "Seasparrow" ship-launched anti-aircraft missiles, containers, spare parts FMS Navy $27 million
Venezuela 16 May 97 2 AN/ALR-69 Radar Warning Receivers, 2 years lease Air Force $11,016
28 May 97 Twelve AN/ALR-69 Radar Warning Receivers, 2 years lease Air Force $77,349


2 Oct 97 Drawdown of defense articles and services for counternarcotics assistance to Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and the countries of the Eastern Caribbean Regional Security System; Spare helicopter parts to Colombia Drawdown various $20,000,000

*First notified of this EDA transfer in March 1996, Congress held it up until July 1997 on arms control grounds. Sources: Federal Register, House International Relations Committee, Excess Defense Articles Bulletin Board

Recent Government Documents

The Anti-Drug Effort in the Americas: A Mid-Term Report (hearing before the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, House International Relations Committee, 16 July 1997), Washington: U.S. GPO, 1997.

Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1989-1996, Congressional Research Service (Report 97-778F), 13 August 1997.

Conventional Arms Transfers to Latin America: U.S. Policy, Congressional Research Service (Report 97-512F), 5 August 1997.

Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1997, U.S. Department of State, Washington: U.S. GPO, 1998. (www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/ 1997_hrp_report/)

Defense Export Loan Guarantee Program (DELG), Congressional Research Service (Report 97-948F), 20 October 1997.

The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management, Vol. 20, Nos. 1-2 (Fall 1997, Winter 1997-98), Washington: U.S. GPO, 1997.

Foreign Military Sales Administrative Surcharge Fund, Audit Report, Inspector General, Department of Defense (Report No. 97-227), 30 September 1997.

The Future of the Export Administration Act (hearing before the Subcomm. on International Economic Policy and Trade, House Internat'l Rel. Comm., 13 May 1997), Washington: U.S. GPO, 1997.

International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (1997), Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, March 1998. (www.state.gov/www/global/narcotics_law/1997_narc_report/index.html)

Landmines: Basic Facts and Congressional Concerns, Congressional Research Service (Report 96-362F), 27 October 1997.

Military Requirements and Costs of NATO Enlargement, Department of Defense Report to Congress, Feb. 1998 (www.defenselink.mil/pubs/nato/).

NATO: Alliance Expansion, Partnership for Peace, and U.S. Security Assistance, Congressional Research Service (Report 97-531F), 9 May 1997.

The Proliferation Primer (a report by the Republican staff of the Sucom. on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services, Senate Comm. on Governmental Affairs) Washington: U.S. GPO, January 1998.

Proliferation and U.S. Export Controls (Senate Hearing 105-238, before the Subcom. on International Security, Proliferation, and Federal Services, Senate Comm. on Governmental Affairs, 11 June 1997), Washington: U.S. GPO, 1997.

Technology Transfer Under the F-15I Program, Audit Report, Inspector General, Department of Defense (Report No. 97-210), 27 August 1997.

The Threat from International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism (hearing before the House International Relations Committee, 1 October 1997), Washington: U.S. GPO, 1997.

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