GENERAL TOMMY R. FRANKS
US CENTRAL COMMAND
ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE
Chairman, Members of the Committee.
am honored to appear before you today to
describe the great work the men and women of
US Central Command (USCENTCOM) are doing in
the Central Region.
Also, I would like to take this
opportunity to update you on USCENTCOM's
role in America's Global War on Terrorism
-- a fight that involves every element of
our national power and extends around the
part of ENDURING FREEDOM, I am privileged to
command a coalition force of about 80,000 men
I am very proud of them and their
families -- their professionalism, commitment,
resolve, successes, and sacrifices.
While conducting ENDURING FREEDOM we have not lost sight of
the fact that our area of responsibility is
diverse and volatile. The nature of the Central Region, its security environment,
and our other ongoing operations are worthy of
review and will put the potential instability
of the region into perspective.
Within this context, an assessment of
our security cooperation program shows why it
remains a critical element for promoting
Finally, we will discuss our key
requirements and how those priority systems
and programs will help USCENTCOM to achieve
the Nation's interests in this critical part
of the world.
NATURE OF THE AOR
you know, the USCENTCOM area of responsibility
includes 25 nations, extending from Egypt and
Jordan to the Horn of Africa, the Arabian
Peninsula, Pakistan in South Asia, and the
Central Asian States as far north as
Kazakhstan for a total of 6.4 million square
are the waters of the Red Sea, the Northern
Indian Ocean, the Arabian Gulf, and the key
maritime chokepoints of the Suez Canal, the
Bab el Mandeb, and the Strait of Hormuz.
area is home to more than 500 million people,
three of the world's major religions, at
least eighteen major ethnic groups, and
national economies that produce annual per
capita incomes varying from a few hundred
dollars to tens of thousands of dollars.
area includes governments in transition toward
democracy, humanitarian crises, resource
depletion and overuse, religious and ethnic
conflict, and military power imbalances that
generate social, economic, and military
This is particularly significant given
the geographical and economic importance of
The natural resources of the region,
especially those of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait,
provide extraordinary economic opportunities.
However, they also give rise to a range
of socioeconomic problems and rivalries.
States such as Egypt and Jordan have
compensated for their lack of mineral wealth
through the industry of their people.
Yet, there are nations in the region
which have not generated the will, resources,
or organization to move ahead.
These factors will not be easily
overcome and portend additional challenges in
Central Region is of vital interest to our
country and our allies. Sixty-eight percent of
the world's proven oil reserves are found in
the Gulf Region, and 43 percent of the world's
petroleum exports pass through the Strait of
contains one third of the world's natural
The developing energy sector of the
Central Asian States, with the potential for
discovery of additional oil and natural gas
reserves, further emphasizes the importance of
the Central Region to America and the
within, and staging from, our area of
responsibility are terrorist organizations
with global reach.
These networks pose a direct threat to
our citizens abroad and at home, while Iraq
and Iran are likely developing weapons of mass
destruction which potentially threaten our
deployed forces and regional friends.
core objectives are to enhance US security,
promote democracy and human rights, and
bolster American economic prosperity.
To meet these goals, we promote
regional stability, ensure uninterrupted
access to resources and markets, maintain
freedom of navigation, protect US citizens and
property, and promote the security of regional
the Central Region, we expect those opposed to
US presence and interests to avoid direct
confrontation with US military and coalition
adversaries will pursue asymmetric
capabilities and strategies.
Their attacks will focus on US national
will, coalition unity, and world opinion.
Adversaries will attempt to inflict US
casualties, defeat our precision strike
capabilities, deny access, and prevent us from
achieving information and battlespace
While specific approaches will vary,
the use of terrorism and weapons of mass
destruction are the most significant threats
in the region.
events of 11 September 2001 impressed upon all
of us the vulnerability of a free and open
society to those who do not value human life
and, in fact, despise the principles for which
The violence of the attacks on the
World Trade Center and the Pentagon indicate
the increasing lethality of terrorist networks
with global reach.
These attacks further define a pattern
we have seen emerge over the past several
years. They are increasingly more deadly and
my confirmation hearing in June 2000, I
described the nature of the threat posed by a
number of terrorist organizations, many of
which are resident in USCENTCOM's area of
As you know, this region has long been
associated with some of the most dangerous
terrorist organizations, including Al Qaida
and Egyptian Islamic Jihad.
Three of the seven nations on the State
Department's list of states sponsoring
terrorism are in our area.
Over the past seven years American
interests in countries within this region have
been attacked five times: the Office of
Program Management for the Saudi Arabian
National Guard, 1995; Khobar Towers, 1996; the
American Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in
1998; and the USS COLE in 2000.
As I said last year in my remarks to
this committee, "The complex terrorist
threat we face today is less predictable and
potentially much more dangerous than we have
seen in the past."
continues to view itself as the natural leader
of the Islamic World.
It pursues the goal of regional
hegemony through an orchestrated campaign of
economic, cultural, and political influence,
backed by increasingly modern Armed Forces.
ambition is to assume leadership of the
Pan-Arab world and, as such, Iraq represents a
continuing threat to short-term regional
Its attempted annexation of Kuwait 12
years ago and continued efforts to subvert UN
sanctions through economic blackmail, are a
continuing challenge to our interests.
Repeated attempts to down coalition
aircraft, continued refusal to accept the UN
weapon inspections regime, and threatening
gestures toward Iraq's neighbors indicate
Saddam Hussein has not been deterred from his
desire to dominate the region.
of Mass Destruction and Missile Proliferation
states in the Central Region are attempting to
acquire or develop chemical, biological,
radiological, and nuclear weapons.
These weapons of mass destruction are
viewed as symbols of prestige, counters to
conventionally superior forces, and
instruments of influence.
resources required for nuclear weapons
programs are often unavailable, some states
seek less expensive chemical, biological, and
radiological weapons. Organizations in Russia, China, and North Korea are
the primary suppliers of this technology, as
well as advanced ballistic missile expertise.
absence of UN arms monitors from
Iraq has permitted Baghdad to pursue
ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. This
absence, and unmonitored cross-border traffic,
have provided opportunities to acquire
sensitive and dual-use materials.
We assess that Iraq continues to pursue
biological, chemical, and prohibited ballistic
also places a high priority on developing such
It is pursuing nuclear
technology from both Eastern and Western
sources and is operating a large-scale, nearly
self-sufficient, chemical warfare program.
Tehran is able to field chemical
weapons and is likely to have developed a
small arsenal of biological agents.
Of equal concern is Iran's expanding
ballistic missile program.
Over the past 6.5 years Iran has
developed the Shahab-3 medium-range missile to
augment existing SCUD-B and SCUD-C systems,
and as these programs mature they pose a significant risk to the region and to
our deployed forces.
South Asia also, the missile and nuclear
competition between Pakistan and India has had
a destabilizing effect on the region.
Both nations continue to develop
advanced missiles capable of carrying nuclear
warheads, and the risk of miscalculation by
either side is very real.
these facts, the most alarming problem we face
is the possibility of terrorists acquiring and
employing weapons of mass destruction. Terrorist groups have shown an unambiguous interest in these
Exploitation of more than 50 suspect
sites in Afghanistan indicates the Al Qaida
terrorist network has explored methods for
producing toxins, and was working to establish
a biological warfare capability.
In light of this evidence we continue
to focus our efforts on defending
against, mitigating, and responding to this
very real threat.
addition to Iranian and Iraqi hegemonic
aspirations, terrorism, and the desire of some
states to obtain weapons of mass destruction,
our region offers other areas of concern.
Following is a brief discussion of
people of the Arabian Peninsula remain focused
on the violence between Israel and the
Palestinian Authority, and there continues to
be widespread support for a Palestinian State.
Perceptions of US bias in favor of
Israel were diminished somewhat by the return
of US special envoys to the region.
However, failure to resolve the
Palestinian-Israel issue will make it
difficult for governments in the region to
support other US foreign policy initiatives
while maintaining their popular support.
Demands will continue for US
participation, and subsequent progress, in
year's decline in oil prices exacerbated
regional tensions and several nations now face
significant budget deficits.
Decreased revenues combined with
expanding youth populations, high
unemployment, and declining social services
may lead to increased social strife.
The messages of terrorists and
extremists can find fertile ground in such
Each country will address these
long-term problems differently.
Increased oil revenues will ameliorate
but not solve the problems.
long-standing Bahrain-Qatar border dispute
over the Hawar islands was resolved peacefully
this past year when both parties accepted the
judgment of the International Court of
Justice, but the dispute between Iran and the
United Arab Emirates over the islands of Abu
Musa, Greater Tonb, and Lesser Tonb continues
to threaten peninsula security.
Middle East remains unstable as the
Palestinian-Israel crisis continues to affect
Egypt and Jordan.
President Mubarak and King Abdullah are
key partners with the US in attempting to
resolve the Middle East conflict and
strengthen military cooperation.
They remain strong supporters of
ENDURING FREEDOM, but the Palestinian-Israel
crisis has had a severe impact on both
Economic recovery in both countries
hinges on stability in the region.
The continuing crisis has hindered
foreign investment and has stalled efforts to
privatize Egyptian businesses.
Tourism, Egypt's major source of hard
currency, continues to suffer due to regional
Despite its economic hardships, the
Egyptian government remains strong and
committed to fighting terrorism and finding
peace between Israelis and Palestinians.
economy shows promise with the opening of
Qualified Industrial Zones and the Aqaba
Special Economic Zone, but Jordan continues to
experience water shortages, as well as high
unemployment and deficit spending.
This makes it heavily dependent on its
neighbors (Israel, Syria, and Iraq) for water
and Central Asia
South Asia, Pakistan's support of ENDURING
FREEDOM has been fundamental to our success. The Pakistanis have committed
substantial national resources to the fight
against terrorism, and President Musharraf has
taken firm action against terrorism, arresting
a number of leaders and hundreds of followers
of Kashmiri terrorist groups and the Al Qaida
He has also frozen the accounts of
known terrorists and banned fundraising to
support Kashmiri militancy.
He has pursued these actions despite
recent tensions with India, and he continues
on a path toward democracy and sustained
US has expressed gratitude to the Pakistani
people for their support during ENDURING
FREEDOM by lifting sanctions and granting
In the coming months we should continue
this support and build closer security
The Pakistani military remains a
stabilizing force within Pakistan and further
security cooperation will serve to bolster
Afghanistan, the removal of the Taliban regime
and associated Al Qaida supporters holds the
promise for change.
It also holds the promise of greater
security for Afghanistan's neighbors and bodes
well for stability throughout the region.
Although faced with many challenges in
rebuilding a country devastated by more than
20 years of war, Afghanistan has improved
prospects for the future.
Central Asian States are dedicated partners in
the Global War on Terrorism.
Each country declared its support for
the US immediately after the attacks of 11
September 2001, and Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and
Tajikistan have offered basing rights for
units involved in ENDURING FREEDOM.
This was a difficult decision given
their proximity to the conflict in
Afghanistan, their recent history as part of
the Former Soviet Union, and the threat posed
by the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan.
We will expand our security cooperation
efforts in Central Asia in the coming year.
in the Horn of Africa also responded
positively to President Bush's call for
support against worldwide terrorism.
Unfortunately, the Horn of Africa
remains in a state of conflict and
Well over 21 million people remain at
risk of starvation as wars exacerbate natural
disasters, forcing people to leave their homes
in search of food, medical care, and safety.
is a case-in-point, where anarchy and open
conflict flourish as the Transitional National
Government (TNG) attempts to establish its
Mogadishu remains in turmoil, while
Somaliland and Puntland, the semi-autonomous
regions in northern Somalia, have fared
better, holding elections and building limited
infrastructure, military forces, police
forces, and judicial systems.
It is likely that Somaliland will
continue to be the most stable region in
Puntland's stability is threatened as
ousted President Yusuf's forces battle
President Jama Ali Jama's forces for control
of major cities.
This fight will continue to split along
clan lines until a clear victor emerges.
Rumors of pending US attacks against
terrorist elements in Somalia have caused al-Ittihad
al-Islamiya (AIAI) and suspected Al Qaida
elements to shift in and out of the country.
Reported AIAI elements in Somalia have
moved away from known camps to escape possible
civil war is the longest ongoing conflict in
The government is using increased
revenues from oil sales to support actions
against the rebels, and Sudanese rebel forces
continue to lose ground as their support bases
slowly dry up.
It is likely that the government's
forces will increasingly take control of more
areas in the south, causing rebel forces to
seek shelter in neighboring states.
With Inter-Governmental Agency for
Development Peace Talks unable to reach
consensus, we expect the war to continue with
little chance of mediated peace in the near
and Eritrea are moving forward cautiously in
the peace process.
The UN Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea
(UNMEE) continues to monitor the common border
with an estimated 4,000 peacekeepers, and the
UN Boundary Commission is currently meeting in
Ethiopia and Eritrea have
stepped up their political rhetoric against
each other and are becoming increasingly
anxious as the border announcement draws near.
If either country is dissatisfied with
the results of the Boundary Commission, the
situation could deteriorate rapidly.
the leadership of President Moi, Kenya is
working to add stability to the Horn of
several recent regional peace summits, Kenya
is seeking peaceful solutions to the conflicts
in Sudan and Somalia while internally, the
Kenyan people are concerned about presidential
While the Kenyan Constitution is clear
on term limits, it is possible that it will be
amended to allow Moi to remain in power.
Expect a degree of internal tension in
Kenya until this issue is resolved.
President Guelleh expressed his solidarity
with the US following the 11 September attacks
and has acknowledged US concerns over the
possible presence of AIAI and Al Qaida in Somalia.
In the past five months we have seen
credible reporting of Al Qaida and its
regional affiliate, AIAI, targeting western
interests in Djibouti for its support of
Djibouti continues to have economic
difficulties but the government has taken only
limited steps to improve the situation and to
better monitor fiscal performance. Significant positive results have not been observed.
OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM
USCENTCOM area of responsibility was a
dangerous neighborhood prior to 11 September.
The events of that day galvanized a
command already heavily engaged in the region.
Our operations thus far in support of
ENDURING FREEDOM represent the first steps in
what we all know will be a long, difficult,
and dangerous campaign.
We have been successful to this point,
but much work remains to be done.
I have visited Afghanistan several
times since the campaign started and can
attest to the dramatic changes coalition
forces have brought to the lives of the Afghan
and dedicated men and women in uniform,
side-by-side with diplomats, arm-in-arm with
Anti-Taliban Afghans, supported by the
American people and the international
community, executing an unconventional war --
these are the characteristics of the fight
11 September 2001, I was enroute to Pakistan
to meet with President Musharraf to discuss a
number of issues, among them security
cooperation and terrorism.
The events of that day caused me to
return immediately to Tampa, Florida, where my
staff was already working along with Defense
and other government agencies to ensure what
we refer to in the military as "command and
control survivability" while continuing to
develop "situational awareness."
On 12 September the Secretary of
Defense directed the preparation of
"credible military options" to respond to
For Central Command, that directive
guided the preparation of the plan we see
unfolding in Afghanistan today.
The concept, which I briefed to the
President on 21 September, proposed that "US
Central Command, as a part of America's
Global War on Terrorism . . . would destroy
the Al Qaida network inside Afghanistan along
with the illegitimate Taliban regime which was
harboring and protecting the terrorists."
involved not only an evaluation of the enemy
situation, but also the history of military
operations in Afghanistan and the political
and military situation across the region.
This "mission analysis" resulted in
my recommendation of a military course of
action which was approved by Secretary
Rumsfeld on 1 October. I briefed the concept to President Bush on 2 October, and he
directed that combat operations should begin
on 7 October -- 26 days after the attacks on
New York and the Pentagon.
would involve the full weight of America's
national power, and would include significant
contributions from the international
Coalition nations were already joining
the fight against terrorism and many were
sending military liaison teams to our
headquarters in Tampa.
The coalition has grown to more than 68
nations, with 27 nations having
representatives at our headquarters.
the cooperation and support of this coalition
and the integration of virtually every agency
of our government, we have executed multiple
"Lines of Operation," attacking
simultaneously on several fronts.
Our intention from the outset was to
seize the initiative and reinforce success,
while keeping in mind the lessons of previous
campaigns in Afghanistan -- avoid
"invading," and work with (rather than
against) the people.
A critical enabler of the strategy was
the coordination of basing, staging, and
This political-military coordination
set (and maintains) the conditions necessary
to execute and support sustained combat.
Among the lines of operation which
characterize the campaign have been "Direct
Attack of the Leadership of Al Qaida and the
Taliban," and the provision of
"Humanitarian Aid" to the Afghan people. Another line has focused on "Destroying the Taliban
Military," using unconventional warfare
forces alongside Afghan opposition groups
whose goals were consistent with our own.
And, "Operational Fires" directed
by horse-mounted Special Forces troopers have
also proven to be unique and successful.
Additionally, we have employed Special
Operations Forces in "Reconnaissance and
Direct Action" roles while maintaining the
capability to introduce "Operational
Maneuver" (conventional forces) if required.
Through the course of the operation,
more than 100 "Sensitive Site"
exploitations have been conducted, seeking
evidence of Al Qaida/Taliban or weapons of
As forces have attacked "Caves and
Tunnels" to deny our enemy safe harbor,
"Radio Broadcast and Leaflet Programs"
have effectively informed the population of
our goals and encouraged enemy forces to
success of these lines of operation, which
have been applied simultaneously rather than
sequentially, is a matter of record. On 7 October, the Taliban controlled more than 80% of
Afghanistan, and Anti-Taliban forces were on
Al Qaida was entrenched in camps and
safe houses throughout the country.
Afghanistan was, in fact, a terrorist
By October 20th we had
destroyed virtually all Taliban air defenses
and had conducted a highly successful direct
action mission on the residence of Mullah Omar
in the middle of the Taliban capital, Qandahar.
this time frame Special Forces detachments
linked up with Anti-Taliban leaders and
coordinated operational fires and logistics
support on multiple fronts. Twenty days later, the provincial capital of Mazar-e Sharif
rapid succession, Herat, Kabul, and Jalalabad
By mid-December, US Marines had secured
Qandahar Airport and the Taliban capital was
in the hands of Anti-Taliban forces.
Within weeks the Taliban and Al Qaida
were reduced to isolated pockets of fighters.
On 22 December I traveled to Kabul to
attend a moving ceremony marking the
inauguration of the Afghan interim government
-- 78 days after the beginning of combat
the Taliban have been removed from power and
the Al Qaida network in Afghanistan has been
We continue to exploit detainees and
sensitive sites for their intelligence value
in order to prevent future terrorist attacks
and to further our understanding of Al Qaida
-- their plans, membership, structure, and
We are investigating each site to
confirm or deny the existence of research
into, or production of, chemical, biological,
or radiological weapons.
Coalition forces continue to locate and
destroy remaining pockets of Taliban and Al
Qaida fighters and to search for surviving
The coalition continues to grow and
remains committed to America's Global War on
the 169 days since 11 September, our forces
have amassed a remarkable record of
Following are but a few examples.
All positioning and most of the
resupply of forces in the theater has been
accomplished by air as a result of a
remarkable effort by US Transportation
In addition to providing the firepower
and "staying power" of two carrier
battlegroups, the Navy steamed USS KITTY HAWK
7,000 miles at flank speed to establish an
afloat, forward operating base for Special
In terms of operational fires, Navy,
Marine, and Air Force pilots have delivered in
excess of 18,000 munitions, of which more than
10,000 were precision guided.
During DESERT STORM we averaged 10
aircraft per target; in ENDURING FREEDOM we
have averaged 2 targets per aircraft.
Our airmen have flown the longest
combat fighter mission in our nation's
history (more than 15 hours), and conducted
the longest surveillance mission (26 hours).
The extensive use of unmanned aerial
vehicles has permitted around- the-clock
surveillance of critical sites, facilities,
and troop concentrations.
Our psychological warfare operators
have delivered more than 50 million leaflets,
and transport crews have delivered 2.5 million
humanitarian daily rations, 1,700 tons of
wheat, and 328,200 blankets.
More than 5,000 radios have been
provided to the Afghan people, and our
broadcast capabilities continue to bring music
to people for the first time in more than six
We also have made enormous improvements
in our ability to bring firepower to bear
Through improved technology and
training, the Tomahawk targeting cycle has
been reduced from 101 minutes during ALLIED
FORCE to 19 minutes during ENDURING FREEDOM,
with half of our Tomahawks having been fired
are now in the preliminary stages of capturing
the lessons of this campaign.
It is too early to draw final
conclusions because the fight continues, but
we do have some emerging insights.
Combining the resources and
capabilities of the Defense Department,
Central Intelligence Agency, and other
agencies of the Federal government has
produced results no single entity could have
Similarly, adopting flexible coalition
arrangements has enabled us to leverage the
strengths of individual nations.
"The mission has determined the
coalition; the coalition has not determined
operation continues to be commanded and
controlled from Tampa, Florida with fielded
technology providing real-time connectivity to
air, ground, naval, and Special Operations
Forces operating 7000 miles away.
Our forces were deployed from 267
bases; are operating from 30 locations in 15
nations; and currently over-fly 46 nations in
the course of operations.
Yet, our ability to "see" the
battlefield literally and figuratively at each
location provides unprecedented situational
cooperation, diplomacy, and
military-to-military contacts have built
relationships that have proven invaluable
during the campaign.
Humanitarian airdrops; economic and
security assistance to coalition partners and
regional allies; visits to the region by
senior Administration, Congressional, and
military officials; and a US commitment to
post-conflict reconstruction of Afghanistan
have permitted us to build upon these
Our investment in security cooperation
has been repaid tenfold in access to basing,
staging, and over-flight rights with regional
We must not underestimate the worth of
our commitment to these programs.
guided munitions are more than a force
They have reduced the numbers of air
sorties required to destroy targets and have
resulted in unprecedented low levels of
this perspective, use of precision
has produced a positive strategic effect.
we have said in the past, the availability of
strategic airlift is critical to the success
of operations that require force projection.
Our current airlift fleet requires
strict management and innovative scheduling
and our experience in ENDURING FREEDOM would
seem to validate the testimony the committee
received last year -- we must expand our
strategic lift capabilities.
importance of combined and joint operations
training and readiness has been revalidated.
The power of a well-trained air-ground
team has permitted the combination of 19th
Century Cavalry and 21st Century
precision guided munitions into an effective
continuous, unimpeded flow of intelligence
remains key to success on the battlefield.
Human intelligence is essential when
mission objectives include locating,
identifying, and capturing or killing mobile
targets. This requires people on the ground. Similarly, unmanned aerial
vehicles have proven their worth in the skies
We must continue to expand their use,
develop their capabilities, and build and
deploy more of them.
Information Operations also have been
vital to the success of ENDURING FREEDOM.
Psychological operations, electronic
warfare, and a number of special capabilities
have proven their value and potential.
Continued development of these
capabilities is essential.
these are only glimpses of lessons we may take
from the campaign in Afghanistan.
Much study is required to separate
"useful truths" as they may relate to the
enduring nature of warfare, from observations
which, while interesting, may not offer much
as we prepare for an uncertain future.
Bush said in a joint statement with Chairman
Hamid Karzai, that our two nations have
committed to building "a lasting permanent
solution for Afghanistan security needs . . .
based upon strengthening Afghanistan's own
We will work with Afghanistan's
friends in the international community to help
Afghanistan stand up and train a national
military and police force." We are working today with Afghanistan's Interim Authority to
fulfill this promise.
The standup of the International
Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Kabul is
an example of progress to date.
The ISAF's daily operations with local
police are providing needed security and
stability for the citizens of Kabul, and
USCENTCOM will continue to support these
Our operations to this point represent a first step in what will be a long
campaign to defeat terrorism.
The terrorist attacks of 11 September
have impressed upon all of us the importance
of taking the fight to the enemy and
maintaining the initiative.
Our command remains "on the offensive" as part of ENDURING FREEDOM.
There is much work left to be done, and
to quote the President again, "It
will take as long as it takes."
continues to enforce UN Security Council
resolutions 688 and 949 in order to protect
Iraq's population from their own government,
deter enhancement of Iraq's military
capability, and prevent Iraqi aggression
against its neighbors. To accomplish this, our Joint Task Force-Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA)
enforces a no-fly zone over southern Iraq.
During 2001, JTF-SWA forces flew more
than 16,000 sorties in support of this
operation with almost 7,000 in Iraqi airspace. Iraq engaged our aircraft with surface-to-air missiles or
anti-aircraft weapons 300 times in 2001, and
our forces responded to these provocations on
Through ongoing MIO we are
enforcing UN mandates to prevent illicit trade
with Iraq and limit the smuggling of Iraqi oil
by sea. Pressure
by US, Canadian, Australian, United Kingdom,
and other regional navies, combined with the
willingness of Gulf Cooperation Council States
to accept diverted smugglers, has reduced the
level of smuggling in the Arabian Gulf.
During 2001, MARITIME INTERCEPTION
OPERATIONS successfully boarded 1,275 vessels
and diverted 112 found to be in violation of
OPERATION DESERT SPRING
Through DESERT SPRING,
USCENTCOM contributes to the defense of Kuwait
and Saudi Arabia and deters Iraqi aggression.
which conducts combined training with the
Kuwaitis, employs infantry, armor, special
operations, attack helicopter, and Multiple
Launch Rocket System assets, under the command
and control of Combined Joint Task
The units represent both active and
reserve components with an average deployed
strength of approximately 2,500 personnel.
of the success we have enjoyed in gaining
basing, staging and over-flight rights for
ENDURING FREEDOM is attributable to an active
security cooperation program.
The USCENTCOM Theater Security
Cooperation Plan provides direction and a
common vision to shape the security
This plan integrates the activities of
our command with those of other US government
agencies, non-governmental and private
volunteer organizations, and our friends and
draws resources from various agencies, the
Department of State, the Office of the
Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, the
Defense Security Cooperation Agency, and the
Cooperation activities are divided into eight
Significant aspects of several of these
are summarized below.
and Combined Training -- The Joint and
Combined Exercise Program is integral to
The goals of the program are to ensure
access to the region, demonstrate commitment
to regional security through presence, enhance
warfighting readiness, and improve coalition
During fiscal year 2002 we planned 74
exercises with the annual BRIGHT
STAR exercise in Egypt serving as our capstone event.
In May of this year, EAGLE RESOLVE, a
senior-level symposium and coordination
exercise in Qatar, will be our principal
mechanism for advancing the Cooperative
Defense Initiative -- an effort
to enhance the ability of the states of the
Gulf Cooperation Council, Jordan, and Egypt
to operate in chemical and biological
We are also assisting in the
restructuring of Central Asian State
militaries through seven special
operations-focused exercises and border
These events focus on countering
insurgency, fighting terrorism, and
interdicting the trafficking of narcotics and
REGIONAL COOPERATION is another annual
multinational peacekeeping exercise we will
conduct with Central Asian States and NATO.
In late July, we will sponsor the
GOLDEN SPEAR symposium in Kenya, bringing
together the Ministers of Defense, Chiefs of
Defense, and Foreign Ministers of 11 East
African nations to formulate regional
strategies for humanitarian assistance and
During the remainder of this year, we
will execute several major sub-regional
exercises in Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar,
Kenya, and the United Arab Emirates.
Education and International Military Education
and Training (IMET) -- These programs are
low-cost, high-value investments which help
shape the future security environment.
They afford military members of
regional states the opportunity to attend
courses in our military institutions.
Attendance at schools, such as Command
and Staff Colleges and Senior Service Schools,
supports Congressionally mandated
democratization initiatives. And, participation in these programs exposes regional
military officers and civilians to the
concepts of military professionalism, respect
for human rights, and deference to civilian
authority. An estimated 975 students from the Central Region are
scheduled to attend training this year.
Assistance -- Foreign Military Financing (FMF)
and Sales Programs have sown the seeds of
trust and interdependence which continue to
bear fruit in ENDURING FREEDOM.
Our work with the Central Asian States,
including small grants through FMF has proven
These initiatives are important to
building relationships, as well as to
Continued support of security
assistance will enable USCENTCOM to improve
the capabilities of friendly nations, enabling
them to provide for their own security.
Humanitarian Assistance -- These
activities focus on developing a
self-sustaining, indigenous, disaster-response
Since ENDURING FREEDOM started, our
humanitarian assistance efforts have focused
In the future we will reenergize our
efforts in the rest of the region. We will work to complete projects related to mine awareness
and victim assistance, disaster preparedness,
transportation of DOD excess non-lethal
property, public health surveys, medical and
dental support, and veterinary health over the
Demining -- USCENTCOM provides training in
Yemen, Oman, Djibouti, and Jordan.
This program instructs military and
civilian personnel in demining tactics,
techniques and procedures, with the goal of
establishing local train-the-trainer programs.
Our operations offer significant
benefits to both the host country and the US
by providing urgently needed humanitarian
support, while enhancing US military
our mission, ongoing operations, the need for
continued security cooperation and the
concerns stated above, our key requirements,
as reflected in my integrated priority list,
focus on deploying, building combat power, and
executing combat operations.
The diverse and volatile nature of the
region requires military capabilities that are
versatile as well as agile.
-- One of the critical enablers in the
execution of current
With few permanently stationed forces
in the region, our power projection capability
depends upon strategic lift and robust land-
and sea-based prepositioned assets.
Our ability to deploy forces and
equipment quickly remains the linchpin for
responding to contingencies in USCENTCOM's
area of responsibility.
procurement of the C-17, modernization of the
C-5, and support of the Civil Reserve Air
Fleet Program are critical to meeting major
theater war deployment timelines.
Our requirements for strategic and
intra-theater airlift are addressed adequately
in Mobility Requirements Study 05.
We support expanding the C-17 aircraft
buy, and funding for the C-5 Aircraft
Reliability Enhancements and Re-engining
The procurement of Large,
Medium Speed, Roll-on/Roll-off ships is on
track and will significantly enhance our lift
Under the current procurement plan, we
will meet USCENTCOM force and sustainment
deployment timelines with these vessels and
Ready Reserve Fleet assets by the end of FY03.
Control, Communications, and Computers (C4)
-- Robust C4 is imperative for situational
awareness and to ensure real-time command and
We are developing a deployable command
and control headquarters that will provide the
necessary flexibility to direct operations
throughout our area of responsibility.
complex strategic environment in our area
requires a reliable and secure Command,
Control, Communications, and Computers
Additionally, intelligence, operations,
and support systems increasingly rely on
assured communications bandwidth.
We have made progress in enhancing our
theater systems and have been successful in
getting critical information directly to the
warfighters; however, there is still work to
are concerned with the lack of available
satellite bandwidth as the current military
satellite infrastructure is saturated.
The Predator and Global Hawk unmanned
aerial vehicles demand large bandwidths and
currently use nearly twenty-five percent of
that which is available from commercial
As we look toward the future, we need a
secure, joint theater infrastructure that
takes advantage of fiber optic cable and
commercial satellite services now available in
the Gulf States, and must also consider
approaches to support forces in the Central
Coalition Coordination Center, located at our
Headquarters in Tampa now supports National
liaison teams from 27 Nations.
This poses an increasing demand on our
We must factor in these requirements
and ensure our ability to expand to meet
coalition requirements in the future.
-- The goal of our force protection
is to protect our personnel, family members
residing overseas, and infrastructure from
acts of terrorism.
Over the past year, several
improvements have been made to our program.
We have revised our Antiterrorism
Operating Procedures, incorporated policy
changes, and streamlined our terrorism threat
assessment and force protection condition
part of this process improvement, our
vulnerability assessment teams have taken a
country wide approach to identify and
eliminate potential 'seams' and 'gaps'
in our force protection coverage.
We have expanded our assessments from a
focus on the physical security of sites to a
more comprehensive look at vulnerabilities and
patterns that could be exploited by
These include travel routes, lodging
sites, and air and seaports of debarkation.
Our objective is to harden these areas
and mitigate risk.
combat the ever-changing terrorist threat, we
must continue to take advantage of
technological solutions to force protection
Physical security systems are needed to
improve our ability to screen personnel and
vehicles and to detect the presence of
explosives. Additionally, perimeter surveillance systems are needed to
enhance our ability to detect intruders.
Critical manpower increases are also
required in order to provide our component
commanders with the manning necessary to
accomplish their antiterrorism
the attacks of 11 September 2001, USCENTCOM
has challenged all previous assumptions
concerning terrorism, as well as the methods
for prevention of terrorist attacks.
Our goal is to provide the right level
of protection and response capabilities for
all US assets.
Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
-- This tiered-system
enables our forces to react rapidly and
decisively to changes on the battlefield. Predator and Global Hawk unmanned
aerial vehicles have been proven to be
invaluable in providing long dwell
surveillance, tracking, positive
identification, and collateral and strike
Global Hawk, for example, flew sorties
approaching 30 hours in duration and imaged
over 600 targets during a single mission over
intelligence, surveillance, and
strategy is sound but is constrained by the
scarcity of assets -- both platforms and
trained linguists and analysts.
The necessity of maintaining
24-hour focus on disparate targets amplifies
the effects of critical shortages in key
surveillance platforms and crews.
We are forced to choose between
applying resources to competing high-value
targets in different locations.
Continued congressional support is
essential to these vital intelligence
programs, which are central to our ability to
provide force protection and actionable
intelligence to our combat forces.
-- The importance of continued investment in
Security Cooperation cannot be overstated.
It is not a "one size fits all"
program; it must be tailored to our interests
in each country. We have designed our program to assure regional allies,
friends, and partners of our long-term
Because of the great diversity seen in
this region, we make use of a wide range of
Overseas Humanitarian Disaster and
Civic Aid programs enable us to conduct
demining and humanitarian assistance actions,
which are vital tools for maintaining our
influence in many of the economically
challenged nations in the region.
The Warsaw Initiative, Traditional CINC
Activities, and Cooperative Threat Reduction
funding enable participation in exercises,
symposia, officer and noncommissioned officers
exchanges, and small unit training.
Joint Chiefs of Staff Exercise Program must
continue to be funded robustly.
This program tests our doctrine,
command and control arrangements, and tactics
during command post and field-level training
to confirm the feasibility of our planning
These exercises include participants
and representatives from numerous nations as
noted earlier, IMET is a valuable cooperative
education program that has paid the US
dividends for decades.
Similarly, Foreign Military Financing
continues to be a vital tool to enhance
cooperative security and pursue US interests
in our region.
We are advocates of this program for
Afghanistan so that we can fund the very
important work of helping that country build a
viable, professional military, subordinate to
legitimate civilian authority.
will continue to pursue cooperative security
opportunities throughout the region.
The most effective way to do this is by
putting US boots on the ground, US ships in
ports, and US aircraft in the skies alongside
the forces of our regional partners.
Prepositioning and Forward Presence
-- Prepositioning military assets in the
region helps mitigate our time-distance
challenge, ensures access, demonstrates our
commitment to the region, and facilitates
sustainment of deployed forces.
The Navy and Marine Corps Maritime
Prepositioning Force program, comprised of
Maritime Prepositioned Ship Squadrons 1, 2,
and 3, maintains a high materiel readiness
fully fielded the Maritime Prepositioning
Force Enhancement Program will provide each
Squadron a fleet hospital, a Navy mobile
construction battalion, an expeditionary
airfield, and additional warfighting
The Squadron-1 and -2 Enhancement ships
are already on station.
The Army's prepositioning program is
advancing on schedule with a goal of placing a
heavy division of equipment in the region.
The brigade set in Kuwait maintains
high operational readiness and is exercised
The prepositioned site in Qatar (Camp
As Saliyah) houses the second brigade set and
a division base set is estimated to be
completed before the end of FY03.
Challenges in this area remain in
reaching our end state objectives for
equipment on hand, modernization, and filling
our sustainment stockage levels.
The afloat combat brigade, APS-3, is
complete, and combat ready.
A second afloat combat brigade will
augment APS-3 and should be in place by August
plans are to fill 83% of the equipment
requirement in the near term. We support 100% fill of this requirement.
The Air Force Harvest Falcon bare-base
materiel program is vital to USCENTCOM.
These assets support the rapid
generation of temporary bases and have been
employed effectively to facilitate key bases
in ENDURING FREEDOM.
Failure to preposition these bare-base
sets would result in further over tasking
critical strategic lift assets at the start of
Over the past decade, the demand for
Harvest Falcon assets by all CINCs has been
The pace of ENDURING FREEDOM, and other
operations before it, has continually
surpassed the Air Force's ability to replace
and repair what has been used.
Currently, on-hand Harvest Falcon
assets are 51% mission capable.
Combat Systems and Combat Systems
Support -- We depend on Combat Systems
and Combat Systems Support to project power
rapidly, maintain full spectrum information
dominance, and prevent deterioration of
equipment and capabilities.
While various Service programs provide
a wide variety of capabilities to our assigned
forces, we have identified several systems of
particular interest to the Command.
ENDURING FREEDOM demonstrated the
effectiveness of precision guided munitions in
improving target effects, lowering collateral
damage, and allowing a single aircraft to
attack multiple targets.
Funding for these systems must remain a
Amphibious lift is critical to
execution of our presence mission, overcoming
access challenges, and projecting power as
part of USCENTCOM's contingency operations.
The ability to shape the battlefield in
high- threat environments requires a fully
funded, next-generation Amphibious Transport
We look to the Army for sustained
funding and the fielding of additional AH-64D
Apache Longbow Helicopters and for the Family
of Medium Tactical Vehicles.
The capabilities inherent in the V-22
Osprey are invaluable to both Special Forces
and conventional forces in the USCENTCOM
immediate focus is the Global War on
In the near-term, Saddam Hussein will
continue to challenge our resolve.
In the long-term, Iran's moves toward
regional hegemony could be of greater concern.
The Central Region is as dynamic as it
Weapons of mass destruction,
state-to-state conflict, terrorism, and
general instability will continue to place
special demands on our people and on our
cooperation with regional militaries will
remain a vital ingredient in enhancing
stability and security in this area.
As ENDURING FREEDOM demonstrates,
security cooperation equals access and goes a
long way toward building trust and confidence
with our friends and allies.
Along similar lines, our presence
strengthens our relations with nations hosting
volatility of this region requires that
USCENTCOM remain adaptable and agile.
Without a large footprint in the
region, we must be truly deployable.
Responsive command, control, and
communications during peace, crisis, and
conflict will remain key to our ability to
accomplish the mission.
real story of all our ongoing operations is a
story of the human spirit -- US and coalition
men and women in uniform and civilian patriots
-- those who serve and those who support,
those who command and those under command.
From Special Forces troopers
representing nine nations in Qandahar to the
"Red Shirt" ordnance handlers aboard our
aircraft carriers, to Jordanian medics serving
in a hospital in Mazar-e Sharif, new standards
of excellence are being set.
Our aviators and airlift specialists,
intelligence analysts, staff specialists,
those who stand sentinel, and members of
government agencies whose bravery will likely
never be known, are working hand-in-hand
toward a common goal, each of them serving
tirelessly without complaint, many in harm's
way and under extreme environmental
They come from many nations, but are
unified by their sense of duty and selfless
Our pride in these people is boundless,
our thanks the same.
They are the means by which we will
a great work, On War, published in
1873, Baron Carl Von Clausewitz affirmed that
successful war requires a "trinity" of the
people, the government, and the military.
Our operations today rest firmly upon
the foundation of that trinity.
The will and support of the American
people, represented by Members of Congress and
our Commander-in-Chief, have left nothing to
The men and women of Central Command
express their profound appreciation to the
American people, to this body, and to our
Commander-in-Chief for continuing steadfast
On January 2, 2002, the Secretary of
Defense established the Missile Defense
Agency to manage the development of
effective missile defenses.