Closing the Gaps
Securing High Enriched Uranium in the
Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
by Robert L. Civiak
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Executive Summary
Proposal 1
Proposal 2
Proposal 3
Appendix A
Appendix B
Acronyms and Abbreviations


The Federation of American Scientists

The Federation of American Scientists conducts analysis and advocacy on science, technology and public policy, including national security, nuclear weapons, arms sales, biological hazards, secrecy, and education technology. This tradition of bridging the scientific community and the public policy arena began in 1945, when FAS was founded by members of the Manhattan Project. FAS has maintained this connection through its Board of Sponsors, which is composed of over 50 Nobel laureates, and though ongoing collaborative research projects on the technical issues behind security policy.

About the Author

Robert Civiak has been doing research and analysis in nuclear weapons policy and related areas for more than 23 years. He received a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Pittsburgh in 1974. From 1978 through 1988, he was a Specialist in Energy Technology and Section Head in the Science Policy Research Division of the Congressional Research Service at the Library of Congress. During the spring and summer of 1988, he was a Visiting Scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. From November 1988 through August 1999, he was a Program and Budget Examiner with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in the Executive Office of the President. At OMB, he was responsible for oversight of the national security activities of the Department of Energy, including DOE’s nonproliferation programs. He also coordinated OMB activities regarding privatization of USEC and implementation of the Russian HEU agreement. Civiak currently resides in Lebanon, New Hampshire, where he continues to do research and policy analysis on nuclear weapons, arms control, and uranium enrichment issues as an independent consultant.


This project was a team effort. Matthew Bunn of Harvard University first suggested proposals one and two, and Oleg Bukharin of Princeton University provided his draft paper, “US Russian Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Cooperation,” upon which the third proposal is based. Thanks also go to Frank von Hippel for helping get this project started and for providing thoughtful suggestions for improving it. Michael Levi managed this project, and Jaime Yassif provided research support. All of these people reviewed and provided many useful comments on drafts of the entire paper, and Sally James produced the graphic design. The author would like to thank them all for their contributions. Finally, the author would like to thank the Federation of American Scientists’ Strategic Security Project for its generous support during the preparation of this report and for its production.