Chief Designer A. Raspletin of TSKB Almaz undertook the development of the S-225 road-mobile anti-missile and anti-aircraft system. It was developed between 1965 and 1978. This was a two-echelon ABM system intended for interception of one or two warheads. The S-225 included a phased array radar for target tracking and interceptor guidance, a station for transmission of commands, anti-missile interceptors with nuclear warheads, and the command homing posts 5YA26 (designed by the OKB Novator) and 5YA27 (designed by the Fakel). It was planned to receive target designation for the system from the Dnestr-M radars stationed in the trans-polar area (RO-1 in Murmansk) and Latvia (RO-2 in Riga), and later from the Donets radars.
The open literature provides few insights into the details of this system. Components apparently consisted of:
This system, incorporating various improvements over the ABM-1, was under active development in the early 1970's. According to Western assessments, this system was possibly conducted in parallel with the more capable ABM-X-3 system, as a hedge against the failure of that development effort. Work apparently halted in the late 1970's.