The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the authors and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other official documentation.


Update 03/19/99


Senate Links NMD Policy To Arms Reduction Talks. Aerospace Daily, Mar 17, 1999, p 394

The Senate, in a 99-0 vote yesterday, passed an amendment offered by Sen Mary Landrieu (D-LA) to the Cochran-Inouye bill, linking US policy on NMD to continued arms reduction talks with Russia. The amendment's easy passage is expected to facilitate bipartisan support for the bill and make it less likely that President Clinton will veto.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD legislation Landrieu

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 01


WMD Proliferation On Agenda For NATO Summit. Aerospace Daily, Mar 17, 1999, p 395

The problem of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) will be high on the agenda of an upcoming NATO summit, according to Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott.

Descriptors, Keywords: WMD NATO summit Talbott

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 02


PAC-3 Intercepts Target In Seeker Characterization Test. Aerospace Daily, Mar 16, 1999, p 391

A PAC-3 missile, during a seeker characterization test yesterday at White Sands Missile Range, NM, intercepted and destroyed an incoming ballistic missile target. A jubilant Lockheed Martin Vought Systems spokesman declared that the successful test "demonstrates once again that hit-to-kill technology is viable."

Descriptors, Keywords: PAC-3 seeker test hit-to-kill

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 03


Several Cost Options For Sea-Based NMD, Lyles Says. Aerospace Daily, Mar 15, 1999, p 383

BMDO Director LtGen Lester Lyles last week told lawmakers it would be possible to develop a version of sea-based NMD for less than the high-end $19b cost estimate. A Pentagon study has concluded that such a system could be built for between $16b and $19b, while a Heritage Foundation report has concluded than an $8b sea-based NMD could be built in four years.

Descriptors, Keywords: sea-based NMD cost

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 04


Revision In TMD Upper Tier Competition Possible, Lyles Says. Aerospace Daily, Mar 18, 1999, p 405

If successful tests of THAAD and NTW systems are conducted over the next year, the Pentagon would revise its plans and request more money for both to proceed on similar tracks, BMDO Director Lyles said yesterday.

Descriptors, Keywords: TMD Upper Tier competition THAAD NTW

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 05


Airborne Laser Team Counters Criticism, Defends Restructured Program. Aerospace Daily. Gildea, Kerry, Mar 19, 1999, pp 409, 412

A report by a team under retired AF Gen Robert T. Marsh, sent to Congress yesterday, warns of numerous technical hurdles in the ABL program, but also endorses a restructure of the program, which stretches the schedule by a year and adds risk reduction testing. Prime contractor Boeing and the ABL Systems Program Office say they have almost doubled the amount of testing with the program restructure, and believe simulation and ground tests conducted so far show the ABL can perform as planned.

Descriptors, Keywords: ABL Marsh Boeing

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 06


USAF Explores Non-Lethal Capability For Urban Warfare. Aerospace Daily, Mar 18, 1999, pp 406-407

The US Air Force may spend more R&D dollars on non-lethal devices and systems for use in urban warfare, according to Maj Gen Norton A. Schwartz, AF director of strategic planning. Promising weapons include laser-guided munitions, smart fuzes, deep penetration weapons and next-generation miniature munitions.

Descriptors, Keywords: USAF urban warfare Schwartz

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 07


Washington Outlook: Cooperation Considered. Aviation Week & Space Technology. Asker, James R., Mar 15, 1999, p 23

The Pentagon is assessing whether it wants to join Israel in expanding its BPI missile defense program. Israel is working on a high altitude, long endurance UAV that would fire a high speed missile to intercept a ballistic missile immediately after launch. Washington supports BPI development as part of the Wye River Agreement, and now the system's role may be expanded to attack the mobile launcher as well as the ballistic missile itself, said LtGen Lester Lyles, BMDO director. The ballistic missile's plume heats its launcher, creating a large infrared signature that can be targeted by the UAV-launched interceptor. Before committing to the program, BMDO is trying to determine the technical feasibility and cost of the dual-role system.

Descriptors, Keywords: Wye River Agreement Israel Boost Phase Intercept BPI UAV Dual Role

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 08


Testing Begins On BMDO Co-Sponsored Thruster. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, p 13

The first test of a 5kW Hall Effect Thruster System (HETS) was held last month in a vacuum chamber at NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, said center Director Donald J. Cambell. The $10m project began in March 1997 and is sponsored by BMDO and NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology.

Descriptors, Keywords: thruster HETS NASA Cambell

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 09


BMDO Issues Wide Band Gap R&D BAA. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, p 16

BMDO has issued a one-time Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for technical proposals concerning wide band gap R&D. The agency anticipates having about $9.8m to award and expects the receipt of offers in the range of $750,000 for each topical research area selected.

Descriptors, Keywords: BAA wide band gap research

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 10


China Proposes Ban On Weapons In Space. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, p 7

China has proposed that the United Nations negotiate a ban on weapons in outer space. The US delegation to the UN did not respond to the proposal, which was made last week at the UN Conference on Disarmament.

Descriptors, Keywords: China space weapon UN

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 11


AFRL Balloon Launch Successful. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, p 10

An AFRL balloon and payload was successfully launch from Holloman AFB, NM Feb 24. Payload was later recovered near Loving, NM. The flight test supported balloon technology for the High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE).

Descriptors, Keywords: AFRL HABE balloon

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 12


JLENS Faces JROC This Month. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, pp 3-4

The Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS) project expects to go before the Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) March 22, says Col Herb Carr, who runs the joint project office. JLENS is designed to provide an airborne sensor platform for over-the-horizon land attack cruise missile defense. Raytheon is prime contractor.

Descriptors, Keywords: JLENS JROC Carr cruise missile detection aerostat

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 13


Patriot PAC-3 Makes First Intercept. BMD Monitor. Roosevelt, Ann, Mar 19, 1999, pp 1, 10

Hitting a bullet with a bullet, the Patriot PAC-3 missile intercepted a Hera missile reentry vehicle target during a Seeker Characterization Flight (SCF) test at White Sands Missile Range, NM, on Mar 15. The successful test bolsters support for hit-to-kill technology. Extensive article includes quotes from BMDO Director Lyles and Air & Missile Defense PEO BG Daniel L. Montgomery.

Descriptors, Keywords: PAC-3 intercept Hera seeker test hit-to-kill

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 14


Perry Readies North Korea Policy Report. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, p 2

Former SecDef William J. Perry is drafting a report with recommendations to the President detailing his comprehensive review of US policy toward North Korea. Perry made an official visit to both Korea and Japan earlier in the month. He is currently promoting his new book, "Preventive Defense: A New Strategy for America," written with Ashton B. Carter, former assistant SecDef under Perry.

Descriptors, Keywords: Perry North Korea

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 15


Considerations Of Commercial Space Loom Large In Wargame. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, pp 11, 18

How commercial space is involved in future military operations is starting to loom large as impressions emerge from the Space and Missile Defense Game III held Feb 17-25 in Colorado, said LTC Steve Zappalla, Army After Next (AAN) Project Officer at Army Space and Missile Defense Command. Game included players from BMDO, JTAMDO, the NMD office and others.

Descriptors, Keywords: wargame space Zappalla SMDC

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 16


Navy Theater Wide ALI Flight Test This Summer. BMD Monitor, Mar 19, 1999, pp 8-9

By the end of this summer, the Navy wants to successfully flight test the Aegis LEAP (Lightweight Exoatmospheric Projectile) Intercept (ALI) missile, an upper tier missile for the NTW program. The ALI demonstration is the first step in the NTW Block I tactical weapon system. Extensive article includes illustrations and chart of NTW funding.

Descriptors, Keywords: NTW funding test Aegis LEAP Intercept ALI

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 17


Senate Begins Considering Amendments To NMD Bill. Defense Daily, Mar 16, 1999, p 5

Sen Thad Cochran (R-MS) yesterday introduced an amendment to his NMD bill that would make deployment of a system subject to the annual congressional authorization and appropriations process. Cochran's NMD bill (S.257) would make it US policy to deploy a system as soon as is technologically possible.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD Cochran amendment S.257

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 18


Senate Amends NMD Bill, Key Democrats Drop Opposition. Defense Daily. Foote, Sheila, Mar 17, 1999, p 1

Yesterday, when the Senate unanimously passed an amendment stating that it is US policy to continue negotiations with Russia to eliminate nuclear weapons, Sen Carl Levin (D-MI), who had previously led Democratic opposition to the bill said that he will now support the NMD bill.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD Senate Levin amendment Russia negotiations

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 19


US Officials Brief Russian Duma On Missile Threats. Defense Daily. Wolfe, Frank, Mar 16, 1999, p 6

A high level delegation of US officials has briefed the Russian Duma legislature on the findings of the bipartisan Rumsfeld Commission. The commission has assessed the emerging threats posed by rogue nations developing ballistic missiles.

Descriptors, Keywords: Russia US delegation Duma Rumsfeld Commission missile threat rogue nation

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 20


PAC-3 Seeker Test Successful. Defense Daily. Keeter, Hunter, Mar 16, 1999, p 1

The Lockheed Martin PAC-3 missile successfully intercepted a ballistic missile target on March 15. Actually striking the Hera target missile was not the principle objective of the test, but is viewed by service and industry officials as a bonus for the program which has been struggling with cost overruns.

Descriptors, Keywords: PAC-3 seeker test intercept ballistic missile target Hera

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 21


Senate Overwhelmingly Approves NMD Bill. Defense Daily. Foote, Sheila, Mar 18, 1999, p 6

On 03/17/99 the Senate overwhelmingly approved a bill making it US policy to deploy a NMD system, in a 97-3 vote that showed Republicans and Democrats are finally agreeing that the US should commit to build a limited defense. "This legislation represents a consensus that we should deploy a system, not just spend money on research and development," Sen Thad Cochran(R-MS), sponsor of the bill, said.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD Senate Cochran NMD deployment

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 22


House Passes Its Own Version Of NMD Bill. Defense Daily, Mar 19, 1999, p 4

One day after the Senate passed its version of the legislation, the House yesterday approved by a vote of 317 to 105 its own version of a bill making it US policy to deploy a NMD system.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD House US policy deployment

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 23


With Slip, Air Force Still Short $240 Million On SBIRS High. Defense Daily. Atkinson, David, Mar 17, 1999, p 2

The Air Force's decision earlier this year to delay the deployment of the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) by two years to control costs has not resulted in the complete elimination of cost problems with the program, according to the service.

Descriptors, Keywords: SBIRS AF costs deployment

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 24


Politics Hinders Joint Gulf Missile Defense. Defense News. Finnegan, Philip, Mar 22, 1999, pp 1,27

The US and its Persian Gulf allies face many obstacles in improving defenses against ballistic missile attack. Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the US are working to link their Patriot batteries, but other countries, for a variety of reasons, have been reluctant to participate.

Descriptors, Keywords: Kuwait Saudi Arabia US Patriot Missiles BMD Ballistic Missile Defense Middle East

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 25


Cost of SBIRS High May Hit $3.3 Billion. Defense News. Ferster, Warren, Mar 22, 1999, p 22

The Space Based Infrared System (SBRIRS) High may cost about $1b more than expected. The system includes geostationary orbiting satellites, infrared sensors and ground systems. Secretary of Defense William Cohen has written to Senator John Warner (R-VA), Chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee to inform him that the program is underfunded in light of recent cost growth. Costs have increased due to a two year delay from 2002 to 2004 for the first launch, and other factors.

Descriptors, Keywords: SBIRS Cost Growth Cohen Warner

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 26


Commercial Satellite Stings Wargames. Defense News. Ferster, Warren, Mar 22, 1999, p 26

The outcome of recent US Army wargames has demonstrated the unexpected and unpredictable influence of commercial satellites on future war. A conflict involving commercial satellites would have profound effects on commercial and civilian activity dependent on satellites, resulting in political, economic and social disruptions.

Descriptors, Keywords: Wargames Commercial Satellites Space Warfare

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 27


DoD Fortifies Test Rules for Cyber Security. Defense News. Seffers, George I., Mar 22, 1999, pp 3, 28

Pentagon officials have drafted new testing standards to aid the military in protecting the security of its new information systems. Both operational testing and electromagnetic and environmental effects will be examined.

Descriptors, Keywords: Information Warfare Countermeasures Testing Standards Electromagnetic Effects Environmental Effects

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 28


China Targets Space Arms; Seeks To End US Missile Defense Program. Defense News. de Selding, Peter, Mar 22, 1999, pp 4,28

The Chinese government is urging the United Nations to ban weapons in space and to force the US government to abandon development of a ballistic missile defense system.

Descriptors, Keywords: China UN US BMD Space Based Weapons

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 29


Japan Missile Defense Tops R&D Funding List. Defense News. Usui, Naoaki, Mar 22, 1999, p 14

Japan's parliament has approved a budget which allots 37.2 b yen for missile research. Missile project funding, including Theater Missile Defense (TMD), is considerably increased. Japan's TMD research responsibilities include development and prototype fabrication of the nose cone, kinetic warhead, infrared seeker and the second stage rocket engine of the US Navy's Theater Wide antimissile system. Other missile projects include basic technologies for a new cruise missile, Ka-band seeker technology, and hybrid rocket engine technology.

Descriptors, Keywords: Japan R&D TMD Theater Wide

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 30


Pentagon Bolsters NTW Development; But Navy Fears Premature Decision Date. Defense News. Holzer, Robert, Mar 22, 1999, pp 1, 27

Navy leaders welcome the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) plans to accelerate development of Navy Theater Wide (NTW). However, they are concerned that the selection date (December 2000) for choosing between NTW or the Army's Theater Wide High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system is too soon. Their concerns come as a result of AF Lt. Gen. Lester Lyles' memo detailing the Navy's new schedule for development. Navy officials are worried that the decision date will not allow for all the tests they want to do on the SM-3 Standard antiair missile and Aegis LEAP.

Descriptors, Keywords: NTW THAAD Lyles SM-3 Standard NMD BMDO Aegis LEAP

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 31


Basis For Pentagon Approval Of Airborne Laser 'Questionable'. Defense Week. Donnelly, John, Mar 15, 1999, pp 1, 14

A draft GAO report calls the Air Force's highly touted test performance of the ABL "questionable". The GAO recommends the Pentagon delay ordering a second Boeing 747 freighter, worth $152m, because it will be ordered a full year before the system is scheduled to try to intercept a target missile.

Descriptors, Keywords: Air Force ABL GAO report

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 32


China Spying Called More Harmful Than Tech Transfers. Defense Week. Capaccio, Tony, Mar 15, 1999, p 16

Intelligence failures that allowed China to steal US military secrets hurt national security more than technology transfers by Hughes Electronics Corp. and Loral Space & Communications Ltd., Rep Norm Dicks (D-WA) says.

Descriptors, Keywords: Dicks China US technology transfer intelligence spying

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 33


House Armed Services Committee Passes National Missile Defense Bill. Inside Missile Defense. Rosenfeld, Stephanie, Mar 10, 1999, pp 14-15

By a vote of 50-3, HASC cleared a NMD bill, H.R. 4, declaring it US policy to deploy a national missile defense.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD H.R. 4 US policy deploy Weldon HASC

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 34


Peller Tells Lawmakers NMD Risk Is In Schedule, Not Viability Of System. Inside Missile Defense. Sirak, Michael, Mar 10, 1999, pp 13-14

John Peller, Boeing VP and Program Manager for NMD, told a Senate panel recently that the biggest challenge ahead for NMD program engineers lies not in the viability of hit-to-kill technology, but rather in their ability to integrate the system under a still compressed and high-risk NMD schedule.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD testimony Senate Peller hit-to-kill technology risk schedule viability

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 35


BMDO Director Devises Plan To Reduce Missile Defense Program Costs. Inside Missile Defense. Rosenfeld, Stephanie, Mar 10, 1999, pp 4-5

Acknowledging that rising costs have caused considerable delays and concerns, LtGen Lyles, BMDO Director, told lawmakers late last month that he has devised a plan to bring down expenses without compromising performance of missile defense programs.

Descriptors, Keywords: Lyles testimony costs missile defense performance

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 36


Sea-Based NMD Most Effective As Supplement To Land-Based System. Inside Missile Defense. Sirak, Michael, Mar 10, 1999, pp 9-10

During a hearing of the Senate Armed Services strategic forces subcommittee on NMD on Feb 24, LtGen Lyles, BMDO Director, said that the bottom line of a classified study on sea-based assets to NMD is that a sea-based NMD capability is technically feasible.

Descriptors, Keywords: sea-based NMD Lyles testimony Strategic Forces subcommittee

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 37


Weldon: Challenges To Hit-To-Kill Technology Readiness Unfounded. Inside Missile Defense. Costa, Keith J., Mar 10, 1999, pp 5-6

At a House Armed Services subcommittee hearing on ballistic missile defense programs last month, Rep Curt Weldon (R-PA) said charges made by missile defense critics on the viability of hit-to-kill technology are unfounded and lack perspective.

Descriptors, Keywords: Weldon hearing hit-to-kill technology readiness ballistic missile defense

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 38


Taiwan Missile Defense Talk Could Have Huge Impact On US-China Relations. Inside Missile Defense. Sirak, Michael, Mar 10, 1999, pp 1, 6-8

Senior Chinese leaders have stepped up their rhetoric in opposition to potential US-Taiwanese TMD cooperation in the aftermath of Secretary of State Madeleine Albright's visit to Beijing early last week, calling such collaboration "an encroachment on China's sovereignty and territorial integrity" and a "last straw" in US-China relations.

Descriptors, Keywords: China US relations Taiwan TMD

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 39


BMDO, Boeing Consider Modification Of NMD Ground-Based Interceptor. Inside Missile Defense. Sirak, Michael, Mar 10, 1999, pp 1, 15-16

BMDO and industry officials are maintaining the option of modifying the design of the rocket booster for the NMD interceptor in the event unforeseen engineering problems occur in flight testing or the need arises for increased booster performance, acknowledged defense officials last week.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD ground based interceptor modification

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 40


DOT&E: Restructured NMD Timeline Still Fraught With Risk. Inside Missile Defense. Sirak, Michael, Mar 10, 1999, pp 1, 10-11

According to Philip Coyle, DOT&E, the multibillion-dollar NMD program continues to face potential setbacks. "In the long term the risk has been reduced somewhat, but little has changed in the near term," he claims.

Descriptors, Keywords: Coyle NMD timeline risk DDR deployment readiness review

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 41


House Committee To Begin Hearings Later This Month On North Korea Policy. Inside the Pentagon. Costa, Keith J., Mar 18, 1999, p 20

The House International Relations Committee will conduct hearings this month and in April to review Clinton administration policy toward North Korea. Hearings in April will feature former SecDef William Perry, who is presently conducting a comprehensive review of US policy toward North Korea.

Descriptors, Keywords: Congress House North Korea policy Perry

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 42


White House: Plans To Modify ABM Treaty May Be Ready In Two Months. Inside the Pentagon. Costa, Keith J., Mar 18, 1999, p 3

Steve Andreasen, a National Security Council director for defense policy and arms control, announced at a Cato Institute policy forum this week, that the US could have plans ready on how to amend the 1972 ABM Treaty within the next few months. The amendments, if deemed necessary, would support a decision to deploy an NMD system.

Descriptors, Keywords: ABM Treaty Andreasen Cato

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 43


Senate Budget Committee Clears $10 Billion Boost In Defense Spending. Inside the Pentagon. Duffy, Thomas, Mar 18, 1999, pp 1, 10-11

Senate Republicans have crafted a budget plan that would increase defense spending for FY2000 by $10b in budget authority and $1.5b in budget outlays over the FY99 level that included more than $9b in emergency spending. The House Budget Committee also unveiled an FY2000 spending plan yesterday that has an identical $290b topline for defense. Article includes chart comparing committee's mark with President's budget.

Descriptors, Keywords: Congress defense budget

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 44


Senate Overwhelmingly Approves National Missile Defense Legislation. Inside the Pentagon. Duffy, Thomas, Mar 18, 1999, p 3

Following a hard-fought partisan battle, Sen Thad Cochran (R-MS) saw his bill calling for the deployment of an NMD system as soon as technologically possible clear the Senate floor yesterday, by a 97-3 vote. Only Democratic Sens Leahy (VT), Wellstone (MN) and Durbin (IL) voted against the bill.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD legislation

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 45


AFRL Balloon Flight A Success. Military Space, Mar 15, 1999, p 5

The High Altitude Balloon Experiment (HABE), managed by AFRL for the BMDO is part of a research program to validate acquisition, tracking and pointing technologies for directed energy weapons. Such technologies could be used in a space based laser. AFRL will accomplish this by designing an electro-optical payload and performing a series of ground tests and two high altitude balloon experiments on the payload. The balloon tests are to start late this year with the balloons flying to 85,000 feet. The first flight will test the payload and balloon systems with actual technology validation taking place during the second flight. During the second flight the payload will shine a laser on a boosted target and actively track the target.

Descriptors, Keywords: High Altitude Balloon Experiment HABE SBL ATP

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 46


Status Of Norms Against Nuclear Testing. Nonproliferation Review. Bunn, George, Jan 01, 1999, pp 20-32

This article provides evidence suggesting that a worldwide norm against testing now exists even though the CTBT has not gone into effect. It will describe different kinds of international norms and outline how lawyers and international relations experts determine whether they exist. Then, using this methodology, the article will show that a politically binding norm now applies to India and Pakistan, two of the three de facto weapon states; and a legally binding one applies to the third (Israel), as well as the five nuclear weapon states that are parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and to all of the nonnuclear weapon states party to the NPT. A nontesting norm of one kind or the other appears to apply to all countries of the world. Whether this norm is strong enough to keep the current moratorium on testing alive only time will tell. This article will conclude, if testing results, the adverse consequences for international efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to additional countries will be severe.

Descriptors, Keywords: nonproliferation nuclear testing norm CTBT India Pakistan Israel US Britain China France Russia politics treaty international relations law violation commitment no-test NPT SALT II moratorium disarmament nonaligned movement weaponization

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 47


Russian Nuclear And Missile Exports To Iran. Nonproliferation Review. Webling, Fred, Jan 01, 1999, pp 134-143

This report summarizes Russia's exports of nuclear and missile technology and materials to Teheran, based on open source data. This includes officially acknowledged deliveries, plans for future exports, cancellations of negotiated sales, and credible reports of unsanctioned or clandestine exports. It presents a compilation of what is known about Russia's exports of sensitive technologies to Iran. The results of this case study will be used to assess Russia's commitment to international nonproliferation regimes.

Descriptors, Keywords: nonproliferation Russia Iran nuclear missile export dual use IAEA enrichment milling fuel rod NIKIET research reactor international relations LEU training VVER-1000 missile propulsion guidance

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 48


Reincarnation Of COCOM: Explaining Post-Cold War Export Controls. Nonproliferation Review. Lipson, Michael, Jan 01, 1999, pp 33-51

The Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual Use Goods and Technologies is the first post-Cold War export control regime. This article explains the regime's emergence and implications in terms of three contending theories of international relations: realism, neoliberalism, and constructivism. More specifically, it addresses the question of why the Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), which was established during the Cold War, was replaced by an organization taking Wassenaar's form, and what this tells us about post-Cold War international security cooperation. Wassenaar's structure is a combination of factors emphasized by each of the three major theories: security concerns, self-interest bargaining among states, and norms of appropriate state behavior in the international community.

Descriptors, Keywords: CoCom Post Cold War export control Wassenaar Arrangement dual use international relations policy law realism neoliberalism constructivism NATO negotiation New Forum notification requirements membership target performance

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 49


Giving Nonproliferation Norms Teeth: Sanctions And The NPPA. Nonproliferation Review. Rydell, Randy J., Jan 01, 1999, pp 1-19

This article provides a legislative history of the Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act of 1994 (NPPA). The article attempts to explain the reasoning behind the sanctions provisions of the legislation and demonstration of the strong bipartisan support for the provisions. The article then critiques two of the major objections to the sanctions: that they do not work and are too inflexible. Finally, the article reviews recent developments in US policy and proposes an alternative way to move forward that recognizes the valuable contribution sanctions can make to strengthening nonproliferation norms.

Descriptors, Keywords: nonproliferation legislation NPPA nuclear proliferation prevention politics sanctions nuclear explosive device detonation statute Glenn arms sales exemption Pakistan reform IAEA enactment history S1128 bomb component SFRC finances waiver

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 50


Physicists Pursue Dialogue On Security And Arms Control On Indian Subcontinents. Physics Today. Kumagai, Jean, Mar 01, 1999, pp 75-76

The political ramifications of the nuclear tests on the subcontinent have had an impact on Indian-Pakistani discussions within the physics community on arms control and security. The conversations among the physicists range from open forums to private, off the record workshops, both formal and informal. The science groups have resolved that all countries must agree to no first strike use of nuclear weapons; free exchanges of scientists through Asia must be promoted; and all countries must strive to reduce conventional and nuclear arsenals. These will be the springboard for additional discussions later this year.

Descriptors, Keywords: physics security arms control nonproliferation India Pakistan Pugwash International first strike nuclear test CISAC international relations

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 51


Physicists In Politics. Physics Today. Gottfried, Kurt, Mar 01, 1999, pp 42-48

As part of an anniversary of the American Physics Association, Physics Today focused on the evolving role physicists have played throughout the century. The article suggests that physicists became most active politically following the Second World War, prompted by the bombing of Hiroshima. The article includes a section on the ABM Treaty and the rise and fall of "Star Wars." It discusses UCS and FAS concerns about the SDI program, as well as the "APS Directed-Energy Weapons Study" which stated that some UCS and FAS concerns about SDI were valid.

Descriptors, Keywords: physicist UCS FAS APS politics Star Wars SDI Teller Reagan ABM treaty history PSAC OTA directed energy weapon Hiroshima

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 52


Return To Star Wars. Popular Science. Vizard, Frank, Apr 01, 1999, pp 56-61

Article discusses briefly the history of the so-called Star Wars program initiated by Pres Reagan during the Cold War, then turns to a discussion on the future use of weapons in space, and the new direction towards space-based warfare in the Air Force and the US Space Command. Includes a technical description, with illustrations, of the Space-Based Laser (SBL) program.

Descriptors, Keywords: SBL Star Wars space warfare

UPDATE: Mar 19, 1999, No. 53