hard.copy Update 01/15/99



Pentagon Reviewing Request By Turkey For Patriot Missiles. Aerospace Daily, Jan 15, 1999, p 77

The Pentagon is reviewing a request from Turkey for a Patriot missile defense capability, according to Pentagon spokesman Capt Mike Doubleday. Turkey has not requested a specific number of Patriots, he said, but rather a capability.

Descriptors, Keywords: Turkey Patriot missile

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 01


Senators Blast Clinton On Aid To North Korea Proposal. Aerospace Daily, Jan 14, 1999, p 70

Sen John McCain (R-AZ) and Sen Frank Murkowski (R-AK) yesterday expressed their concern about Administration proposals to assist North Korea economically while it continues "aggressive behavior" and development of ballistic missiles.

Descriptors, Keywords: McCain Murkowski Senate North Korea

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 02


Intel Seat. Aerospace Daily, Jan 11, 1999, p 43

Rep Curt Weldon (R-PA), one of the House's top advocates of ballistic missile defense, is hoping to get a seat on the House Intelligence Committee.

Descriptors, Keywords: Weldon Congress intelligence committee

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 03


Congress Returns Export Control Over Satellites To State Department. Arms Control Today, Howard Diamond, Oct 01, 1998, p 25

The 1999 defense bill returns export control of satellites from the Commerce Department to the State Department, following an interagency review. The reversal was prompted in part because of revelations that Loral Space and Communications and Hughes Electronics may have provided unauthorized assistance to China in the reconstruction and analysis of a failed satellite launch.

Descriptors, Keywords: US China Congress export control satellite technology Loral Hughes engagement policy Munitions List dual use

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 04


US, N. Korea Meet On Missiles; Japan, S. Korea Press On Defenses. Arms Control Today, Craig Cerniello, Oct 01, 1998, p 24

There was little progress to report in the third round of US-North Korea missile talks held in New York on October 1. The US encouraged North Korea to discontinue development and export of ballistic missiles and technologies in exchange for loosening US sanctions. North Korea has resisted US pressure, consistently seeking financial compensation for lost revenue from missile exports.

Descriptors, Keywords: US DPRK North Korea South Korea ROK Japan economic sanction MTCR missile export Taepo Dong nuclear weapons program TMD JDA Aegis Navy theater wide

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 05


DoD Official Says NMD System May Require Treaty Withdrawal. Arms Control Today, Craig Cerniello, Oct 01, 1998, p 23

John Hamre testified before the Senate Armed Services Committee in October that the US would need to withdraw from the ABM treaty if the US decided to deploy a national missile defense system. The testimony was the strongest statement to date by a member of the Clinton administration of the relationship between the ABM Treaty and NMD. The Clinton administration has said that the NMD system may require modifications to the treaty depending on how the system is implemented. Later Cohen testified before Congress that he recommended preliminary discussions with Russia on the NMD deployment issue.

Descriptors, Keywords: Hamre Clinton Cohen Ralston 3+3 NMD ABM Treaty SASC Levin Lott Helms MOU Russia Belarus Kazakhstan Ukraine Gingrich TMD deployment

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 06


CIA Holds To Assessment Of Ballistic Missile Threat To US. Arms Control Today, Craig Cerniello, Oct 01, 1998, p 24

Robert Walpole, a national intelligence officer for the CIA, revealed key aspects of the CIA's classified 1998 Annual Report to Congress on Foreign Missile Developments. Walpole stated that the ICBM threat from rogue states is unlikely to materialize before 2010, with the possible exception of North Korea, a prediction consistent with the 1995 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE 95-19). This is the administration's most significant rebuttal to the Rumsfeld Commission Report. Walpole pointed out that both reports concur on North Korea's ballistic missile capabilities, the importance of foreign assistance in the spread of missile technology, and that in some scenarios warning times may be drastically reduced.

Descriptors, Keywords: Walpole CIA assessment ballistic missile threat Rumsfeld North Korea Taepo Dong-2 Alaska Hawaii NMD Iran Iraq Russia China Shahab-3 START accidental launch

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 07


Washington Outlook: Wedding Plans. Aviation Week & Space Technology, James R. Asker, Jan 11, 1999, p 425

Japan is apt to join in the Navy Theater Wide missile defense program. The Tokyo government recently asked its parliament for approval. The cooperation would focus on developing a lightweight nose cone and advanced propulsion for the Standard Missile SM-3 interceptor, an advanced kinetic energy warhead, and sensor technology for the radar and missile, Navy officials said. Japan's involvement could speed development of the U.S. system, now scheduled to enter service in 2010.

Descriptors, Keywords: Japan Navy Theater Wide Missile Defense International Cooperation SM-3 Standard Missile

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 08


Army Corps Of Engineers Join NMD Effort. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 7

BMDO's NMD Joint Program Office signed a charter with the Army Corps of Engineers on Dec. 15, formally linking the program office with the engineers for the development of a future NMD capability. The corps will provide real estate support, site design and construction. It will also make sure the required permits are obtained and required documentation is completed.

Descriptors, Keywords: Army Corps Engineers NMD

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 09


China Airs Concerns Over US/Japan TMD Work. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 2

Japan's plans to join the US in TMD research has elicited a negative response from China.

Descriptors, Keywords: TMD Japan China

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 10


PAC-3 Seeker Flight This Month. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 6

The Program Executive Office, Air and Missile Defense (PEO/AMD) plans a Patriot PAC-3 seeker characterization flight test this month, after the target missile went awry in a planned test Dec. 14, before the Patriot missile was launched. The timing of the test depends on the availability of a new target and when the test can fit into the White Sands Missile Range schedule.

Descriptors, Keywords: PAC-3 seeker test White Sands

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 11


BMDO S&E Directorate Plans 21 Awards For Research Equipment. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 11

BMDO will negotiate with 21 academic institutions for awards under the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program, which supports the purchase of state-of-the-art equipment costing more than $50,000. The equipment would augment or develop new capabilities to perform cutting edge research vital to the DoD. All award winners and their research topics are listed in the article.

Descriptors, Keywords: BMDO research engineering contract award

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 12


GAO: DoE Can't Produce Key Nuclear Weapons Component. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 11

The Dept. of Energy "lacks the capability to produce a key nuclear weapons component" for use in the nuclear stockpile, according to a report by the General Accounting Office (GAO), and that component is the plutonium trigger, or "pit" which starts the chain reaction in a nuclear weapon. The GAO report, RCED-99-1 "Nuclear Weapons Component Issues," was done for the Senate Armed Services Committee, and was released Nov. 9.

Descriptors, Keywords: GAO DoE nuclear weapon component

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 13


Russian Firm To Destroy SLBMs. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 2

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) plans to award a sole source contract to the Krasnoyarsk Machine Building Plant in Russia for the elimination and destruction of 48 Pacific Fleet Sea Launched Ballistic Missiles (SLBMs).

Descriptors, Keywords: SLBM Russia DTRA

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 14


BMDO Loses A Long Time Technology Official. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 6

Dwight Duston, assistant deputy for technology at BMDO, has resigned to accept a position in the private sector. A replacement has not been named.

Descriptors, Keywords: Duston resignation

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 15


TMDSE Expected To Evaluate Patriot PAC-3. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 9

Theater Missile Defense System Exerciser (TMDSE) system will be installed in the Joint National Test Facility (JNTF) in Colorado this summer, and is expected to perform its first evaluation, associated with the Patriot PAC-3, Initial Operational Test & Evaluation scheduled for late FY99 or early FY00. TMDSE is the only hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) test that is able to integrate the entire TMD Family of Systems and test interoperability issues between the separately developed TMD systems. TMDSE uses distributed interactive simulation to send real-time threat scenarios to real tactical sensors and weapon systems, located in different geographic areas. An international configuration is being designed to support US-allied interoperability.

Descriptors, Keywords: TMDSE JNTF PAC-3 test evaluation HWIL hardware loop family system interoperability

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 16


Successful Gel Missile Propulsion System Test Fired. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 10

The first successful firing of an innovative gel missile propulsion system was conducted last month at the Army's Redstone Arsenal, AL. TRW and teammate Talley Defense Systems developed the gel propulsion system under the Future Missile Technology Integration (FMTI) program. The next milestone for the system is a flight test, which is scheduled to take place this winter at Eglin AFB, FL.

Descriptors, Keywords: gel propulsion test FMTI Redstone Eglin

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 17


Gehman: Joint Requirements, Exercises, Vital, But Tough To Do. BMD Monitor, Ann Roosevelt, Jan 08, 1999, pp 1,8

ADM Harold W. Gehman, Jr., CINC USA Command, in addressing the Association of the US Army space and missile defense conference in Texas last month, stressed the importance of jointness in today's military procurement process. He cited the TMD Capstone Requirements Document as "an important milestone on the path to jointness." Interoperability is crucial on the battlefield, he said, and must be addressed upfront in the acquisition process. The most difficult challenge is identifying and resolving discrepancies between the CRD and the existing service TMD ORDs, Gehman said.

Descriptors, Keywords: Gehman joint requirement experiment TMD CRD interoperability family system USA Command JE

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 18


Fiscal 1999 Science Program For BMDO Research And Engineering Directorate. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 7

BMDO has announced topics for its Fiscal 1999 scientific research program, including distributive computing and simulation; multi-sensor tracking; opto-electronic computer networking; and 19 other research topics. Competitive CPFF contracts are anticipated throughout the year. This is a modification to BAA #99-02.

Descriptors, Keywords: BMDO science research contract award

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 19


AFRL Wants Ballistic Missile Tech R&D. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 15

The Ballistic Missile Technology Demonstration program office of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Space Vehicles Directorate is soliciting proposals on research to advance and demonstrate the use of technologies for ballistic missile technology programs. Technologies of interest include: precision strike of buried targets; missile component reclamation systems; missile surveillance testing; GPS receivers with anti-jam capability; and aero shell materials for reentry vehicles. Proposals for the five areas are due by March 10.

Descriptors, Keywords: AFRL ballistic missile technology research


UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 20


ACDA Part Of Foreign Affairs Reorganization Sent To Congress. BMD Monitor, Jan 08, 1999, p 5

The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) will be integrated into the State Dept. on March 28, as one part of the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998. The Under Secretary of State for arms control and international security will have policy oversight of the missions of arms control, nonproliferation, and political-military affairs. Other agencies affected include the US Information Agency which will be integrated into the State Department on October 1.

Descriptors, Keywords: ACDA State Dept. USIA arms control disarmament reorganization

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 21


Stevens Says Adding Money To Defense May Be Difficult. Defense Daily, Sheila Foote, Jan 14, 1999, pp 1-2

Senate Appropriations Committee (SAC) Chairman Ted Stevens (R-AK) is concerned that congressional defense advocates will have a tough time winning support for appropriating extra dollars for defense this year unless Congress and the administration agree to raise the caps on federal discretionary spending.

Descriptors, Keywords: federal discretionary spending cap Stevens defense SAC appropriations

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 22


Berger: US Ready To Make Any Necessary Changes To ABM. Defense Daily, Frank Wolfe, Jan 14, 1999, pp 5-6

National Security Adviser Sandy Berger told a non-proliferation conference this week that the US stands ready to modify, "with our other treaty parties," the 1972 ABM Treaty with the Soviet Union should such changes be required in order to deploy the NMD system.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD deployment ABM Treaty Berger US Russia nonproliferation modify

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 23


Shelton Hints Delay Likely On NMD Program. Defense Daily, Frank Wolfe, Jan 11, 1999, pp 2-3

According to Army Gen Shelton, chairman of the JCS, the five test flight failures of the Army's THAAD system mean research and development on another top priority ballistic missile defense system, NMD, will likely be extended.

Descriptors, Keywords: Shelton NMD ballistic missile defense THAAD delay 3+3 deployment development

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 24


Pentagon To Delay Deployment Of SBIRS Satellites. Defense Daily, Frank Wolfe & David Atkinson, Jan 12, 1999, p 4

The Pentagon is to extend the deployment date of two ballistic missile tracking satellite systems. The Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) High and Low satellites are to replace the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites--a program begun in the 1970s. The fielding of SBIRS High will be pushed back to 2004 while SBIRS Low will wait for deployment until 2006 at the earliest.

Descriptors, Keywords: SBIRS High Low satellite ballistic missile tracking deployment

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 25


Shelton: NMD 'Probably' Won't Get Go-Ahead In 2000. Defense Week, John Donnelly, Jan 11, 1999, pp 1, 9

In the most direct to date statement from a senior official about the likelihood of the military recommending or the president deciding to approve deploying the strategic-defense system now under development Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Army Gen Shelton said, "Given the success rate so far, it probably means [in 2000] we're going to have to continue with the research and development. It's not a matter of money. The program is funded. It's the technology challenge."

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD deployment Shelton technology challenge

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 26


Clinton Met Chiefs Less Than Half Way. Defense Week, John Donnelly, Jan 11, 1999, p 13

The gap between what the Joint Chiefs of Staff asked for in defense spending last September and what the Clinton administration gave them in January is far wider than has been reported.

Descriptors, Keywords: Joint Chiefs Clinton supplemental defense spending gap

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 27


Needed To Counter "SAMbushes": F-22. Defense Week, Greg Alan Caires, Jan 11, 1999, p 2

The recent targeting of allied aircraft by Iraqi surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) brings into bold relief the threat that greater numbers of increasingly sophisticated SAMs pose to friendly aircraft. The incidents also underscore the need for the Air Force's stealthy, agile new fighter, the F-22 Raptor.

Descriptors, Keywords: SAM surface to air missile F-22 Raptor Air Force

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 28


Peters Calls For Postponing Space-Based Laser Demonstration Until 2010. Inside Missile Defense, Gigi Whitley, Jan 13, 1999, pp 19-21

Responding to congressional critics who chide the AF for failing to move toward putting weapons in space, acting AF Secretary F.Whitten Peters said the AF will try to deploy a Space-Based Laser demonstration around 2010.

Descriptors, Keywords: SBL AF Peters demonstration deployment

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 29


Navy Officer Studies Ballistic Missile Defense Issues For Future Force. Inside Missile Defense, Peter J. Skibitski, Jan 13, 1999, pp 8-9

In a paper published and released in December by the Naval War College entitled, "Theater Ballistic Missile Defense from the Sea--Issues for the Maritime Component Commander," CDR Charles Swicker says that a host of critical issues, logistics, command, control, and intelligence, and rules of engagement--will challenge the maritime component commander of a joint force in 2008, particularly in the area of theater ballistic missile defense.

Descriptors, Keywords: study paper Swicker BMDTBMD sea joint force

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 30


Additional $7 Billion For NMD Will Fund Initial Deployment Or More R&D. Inside Missile Defense, Daniel G. Dupont, Jan 13, 1999, pp 10-12

DoD's addition of $7b for NMD will cover initial deployment expenses or increased R&D depending on the threat and the readiness of the technology for deployment, according to JCS Gen Shelton. The long-expected additional NMD funding was added to the Defense Department budget as part of a $110b increase recently proposed by the Clinton administration. BMDO's budget is expected to be increased by more than $1b per year over fiscal years 2000 through 2005 to cover NMD and other program shortfalls.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMD budget boost funding supplemental deployment R&D technology readiness threat Shelton

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 31


Upcoming Minutemen In Flight Will Be Risk Mitigator For June NMD Test. Inside Missile Defense, Michael C. Sirak, Jan 13, 1999, p 12

The NMD JPO plans to use the launch of an AF Minuteman III ICBM scheduled for February 10 to collect data that will help mitigate risk for the upcoming June NMD integrated flight test.

Descriptors, Keywords: NMDS JPO AF Minuteman launch ICBM date risk integrated flight test IFT

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 32


Bell: Sea-Based NMD Option Must Be Weighed In Greater Arms Control Context. Inside Missile Defense, Michael C. Sirak, Jan 13, 1999, pp 13-14

According to Robert Bell, special assistant to the president for defense policy and arms control, developing a sea-based NMD would require careful consideration of issues regarding the ABM Treaty and greater arms control implications, in addition to examining merely the technical viability of such a system.

Descriptors, Keywords: Bell sea-based NMD ABM Treaty arms control

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 33


Patriot-CEC Demo To Create PAC-3 Engage-On-Remote Capability. Inside Missile Defense, Michael C. Sirak, Jan 13, 1999, pp 1,5-8

The US Atlantic Command is sponsoring a three-year advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD) that will allow the PAC-3 system to engage low-flying cruise missiles that are not in the line of sight of the system's radar, but detected, tracked and identified by other land-,sea-, or air-based sensors linked to the Navy's Cooperative Engagement Capability.

Descriptors, Keywords: Patriot PAC-3 CEC demonstration ACTD cruise missile Navy

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 34


US-Israeli Projects To Receive FY00 Supplemental Missile Defense Funding. Inside Missile Defense, Stephanie G. Rosenfeld, Jan 13, 1999, pp 2-3

The Clinton administration has earmarked $250m in FY99 supplemental missile defense spending for the Arrow missile and other projects under development with Israel.

Descriptors, Keywords: Clinton TMD US Israel FY99 supplemental funding budget Arrow

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 35


Talks On ABM Pact Changes To Occur Only After NMD Architecture Is Chosen. Inside Missile Defense, Michael C. Sirak, Jan 13, 1999, pp 1, 14-15

Robert Bell, special assistant to the president for defense policy and arms control, said recently that the Clinton Administration has no intention of engaging the Russians in on possible modifications to the ABM Treaty until the objective NMD deployment architecture has been chosen.

Descriptors, Keywords: Bell NMD ABM Treaty arms control Clinton Russia modification deployment architecture

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 36


President Claims ABM Treaty Is Still In Force, Russia Remains A Party. Inside Missile Defense, Michael C. Sirak, Jan 13, 1999, pp 1, 25-26

In response to an October 1998 letter from eight senior Senate Republicans on the legal status of the ABM Treaty, President Clinton asserts that the 26-year old pact continues to be in force even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Further, the president reiterates that Russia is clearly a party to the agreement both now and in the event the Senate should reject an amendment that would multilateralize the treaty. A copy of Clinton's letter is included with this article.

Descriptors, Keywords: Clinton letter ABM Treaty Senate Russia

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 37


New Congress Reorganizes Defense Authorization, Appropriations Panels. Inside the Pentagon. Daniel G. Dupont, Jan 14, 1999, pp 7,9

The new 106th Congress has brought changes to defense authorization and appropriations committees in both houses. Chief among Senate Armed Services (SASC) changes is the promotion of Sen. John Warner (R-VA) to chairman, and the addition of a new subcommittee focused on emerging threat and non-traditional warfare.

Descriptors, Keywords: Congress committee SASC HASC

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 38


New Senate Armed Services Committee Structure. Inside the Pentagon, Jan 14, 1999, p 8

This is a table of the newly-restructured Senate Armed Services Committee, including subcommittee chairmen and programmatic responsibilities.

Descriptors, Keywords: Congress committee SASC

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 39


THAAD's Future, Other Missile Defense Matters Remain Undecided. Inside the Pentagon. Daniel G. Dupont, Jan 14, 1999, p 2

The infusion of $110b into the FYDP has contributed to the delay in determining missile defense program funding. About $7b is expected to be added to NMD, and funds are now available for the continuance of MEADS at some level. THAAD and NTW, however, remain in limbo, and the proposed merger of these two upper-tier programs is now thought to be unlikely.

Descriptors, Keywords: THAAD NMD NTW MEADS funding

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 40


White House Aide Thinks US Can Meet 1999 North Korea Policy Goals. Inside the Pentagon. Keith J. Costa, Jan 14, 1999, pp 9-10

The National Security Council's Gary Samore, special assistant to the president for nonproliferation and export controls, has expressed optimism that the administration will satisfy requirements set by Congress for continued funding of the 1994 US-North Korea Agreed Framework. Samore made his remarks at a Jan. 11 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace conference on nonproliferation issues in Washington, DC.

Descriptors, Keywords: North Korea Agreed Framework Samore nuclear nonproliferation

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 41


Final PBD To Protect Airborne Laser Funds in FY00. Inside the Pentagon, Jan 14, 1999, p 11

Air Force officials have succeeded in convincing OSD to provide the necessary funds for the ABL missile defense system in FY2000 and add more money to the service's budget estimate for ABL in FY01.

Descriptors, Keywords: ABL funding

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 42


Pakistan Ready To Test New Solid-Fuel SSM. Jane's Intelligence Review, Jan 01, 1999, p 4

Pakistan is ready to test a 750km-range solid fuel surface-to-surface missile, the Shaheen. Ground tests have been completed on the missile designed to counter the Indian Prithvi SS-150s and SS-250s. The advantage of the Shaheen is that it allows more rapid response to crises with India than the Hatf V/Ghauri SSM. The Shaheen is also lighter and easier to move.

Descriptors, Keywords: India Prithvi Pakistan solid fuel SSM Shaheen Ghauri Hatf readiness nuclear deterrence Shakti test sanction

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 43


On Hackers, Crackers, And Phreakers. Jane's Intelligence Review, Jan 01, 1999, pp 50-54

After a brief description of the differences among hackers, crackers, and exploitation professionals, the author discusses potential methods that computer security can and has been compromised and the real and potential economic, political, and military damage caused by computer vandalism.

Descriptors, Keywords: hacker cracker phreaker cyberassailant information warfare electronic warfare exploitation financial transaction currency devaluation stock market C3I Tomahawk SIPRNET NIPRNET internet air traffic controller blue boxes jamming

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 44


Navalised Prithvi Causes Confusion. Jane's Intelligence Review, T.S. Gopi Rethinaraj, Jan 01, 1999, p 4

Indian Navy watchers -- including officers within the Indian navy -- were surprised by the announcement made on 30 November that a navalised Prithvi missile will be deployed aboard surface ships by January 26. It is unclear whether it will be a demonstration, showpiece, or fired. Probable ships have not, to the best of most military analysts' knowledge, been retrofitted to provide a stable launch platform for the missiles. For that matter, the naval Prithvi has also not been flight tested so far. The Indian Chief of Naval Staff denied the existence of the Sagarika submarine launched missile, declaring it to be an Internet myth. Other sources, however, maintain that the Sagarika does in fact exist and that the navy has been pursuing a two pronged research program to develop a cruise and ballistic missile Sagarika.

Descriptors, Keywords: India Prithvi missile ship CNS DRDO deployment Sagarika cruise Kilo submarine Admiral Gorshkov Viraat Godavari class

UPDATE: Jan 15, 1999, No. 45