Logistic Support Operations
1. Purpose. This chapter provides logistic support considerations for the planning and conduct of joint NBC defense operations.
2. Overview. Logistic support for NBC defense operations will be performed during any state of the full range of military operations. The combatant commander must plan for logistic support operations for joint NBC defense. The combatant commander should cover all these aspects of logistic support in the portions of campaign plans and orders that address NBC defense in the theater.
3. Logistic Operations
a. Combatant Commander Directive Authority. Within a theater, the combatant commander exercises directive authority over logistic operations.
(2) The combatant commander has the authority to issue and implement directives to transfer logistic functions between or among Service components within the AOR under wartime or crisis conditions. This authority is designed to ensure effective execution of approved operations plans, provide effectiveness and economy in operation plan, and prevent unnecessary duplication of facilities and functions among the Service components.
This support is primarily in the functions of supply, maintenance, transportation, civil engineering and health services, and services associated with non-materiel support actions. Combatant commanders exercise command and control of the logistic effort through Service component commanders so that they can shift support effort to the critical place and time. Logistic commanders must initiate NBC defensive procedures to limit exposure of their units and facilities to NBC attacks and to protect personnel and supplies from NBC contamination. Where protection is not assured, NBC defense calls for decontamination of critical support materiel. Most logistic functions become more difficult under NBC conditions. Medical units must implement systems to treat and evacuate larger numbers of casualties, who may also require special handling before, during, and after treatment. The supply system must provide needed protective clothing, shelters, and munitions to support the operations. The combatant commander identifies functions and services available from host nation (HN) assets. US units may train and equip personnel from US, coalition, and HN forces to ensure their survival.
c. Logistic Support for NBC Readiness. Logistics in an environment in which NBC warfare is anticipated must be considered from the aspect of the overall logistics effort under NBC conditions and logistic sustainment of the NBC defense effort itself. Adequate logistic support is vital to all combat operations, which must continue under all conditions. When developing a plan, the combatant commander balances requirements against limited resources. The challenge is to accomplish the mission with assets available. Logistical considerations often drive the COA open to a commander.
(b) Integration. Tactical and operational plans must fully integrate logistic considerations and must include requirements for NBC defense. Protection of supplies and equipment is included. The effects of contamination on main supply routes (MSRs), supply points, and fixed sites are incorporated into overall planning.
(c) Continuity. All forces must continuously receive supplies and services to maintain their fighting strength.
(d) Improvisation. Logistic organizations must improvise to meet unforeseen emergencies. Degradation of logistic operations under NBC conditions will require alteration of work schedules because of increased times needed to handle contaminated supplies and equipment, as well as work in protective clothing. Logistic planners should plan for expedient covers and shelters to protect critical items from contamination. Logistic commanders will prioritize and accomplish only mission-essential tasks.
(e) Responsiveness. The logistic system must be versatile and able to react rapidly. The hazards and potential damage caused by WMD may require relocation of support bases and medical service support, major redirection of supply flow, reallocation of transportation and construction means, or short-notice transfer of replacement personnel or units from one part of the theater to another. Plans must be made for a surge capability for NBC related equipment for a theater in which the use of WMD are anticipated.
4. Services Support
a. Decontamination of Equipment. Decontamination of equipment is performed to prevent casualties, increase unit and individual effectiveness, and limit the spread of contamination. All personnel perform operational decontamination of their skin and equipment. Decontamination companies provide units with decontamination support required beyond unit capabilities. Decontamination units accomplish this through the use of large- scale decontamination equipment. Decontamination is provided for equipment; stockpiles of materiel; and facilities, terrain, and MSRs on a priority basis. Supported unit commanders establish priorities. Decontamination companies decontaminate higher priority materiel, facilities, and MSRs. The natural weathering process, or the supported unit with organic resources, decontaminates lower priority items. Unit plans for decontamination of large areas must include maximum use of HN equipment and materiel. Commanders should ensure that all items of equipment that cannot be decontaminated are identified during their advance planning.
b. Clothing Exchange and Shower. A personal clothing exchange and shower services are available throughout all levels of command. The standard is to provide at least a weekly bath for personal hygiene and an exchange of clothing for each Service member. This will be done on an accelerated basis in an NBC environment, as determined by the Service component.
c. Equipment Recovery and Evacuation. The recovery and evacuation of equipment is essential to sustaining military operations. Even in an NBC environment, units cannot consider equipment, especially NBC protective equipment, expendable once it becomes inoperative and contaminated. The feasibility of recovering equipment that is contaminated must be carefully considered in every case. The item must be decontaminated and recovered, if practical. If the situation will not allow the equipment to be decontaminated and the contamination is severe enough to prevent recovery and evacuation, the location will be noted and reported for later recovery. Each Service component should develop procedures for the recovery and evacuation of contaminated equipment.
d. Mortuary Affairs Policy, Standards, and Procedures. In an NBC environment, mass fatalities may result from a combination of effects such as burns, fragmentation, internal damage from nuclear blast overpressures, radiation, disease from biological warfare, and the consequences of chemical agent exposure. Theater decisions will be made as to the disposition of remains. Contaminated remains may have to be buried in place following emergency burial procedures. If there are decontamination capabilities that will render remains harmless both internally and externally, remains will be decontaminated when time and available assets permit. However, if they cannot be decontaminated, they are buried at the site of recovery and the site is clearly marked accordingly. In instances of mass fatalities, the theater commander, on advice of the Joint Mortuary Affairs Office (JMAO), gives permission for mass burials of fatalities. The JMAO will direct and control later disinterments. For detailed instructions on handling contaminated remains, see Joint Pub 4-06 and Service manuals FM 10-63, AFM 143-3, and FMFM 4-8.
e. Emergency Destruction and Evacuation of US Nuclear Munitions and Captured NBC Munitions
(b) Render unserviceable in accordance with EOD procedures.
(c) Mark and abandon (record the location).
(2) The evacuation of NBC munitions requires the establishment of transportation procedures. IAW Joint Pub 4-0, the combatant commander will usually be supported by technical representatives from the Army Materiel Command and the United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). Department of Energy (DOE) could also play a role in this mission. The requirement for the prior notifications contained in PL 91-121 as amended are applicable. When WMD are evacuated from an OCONUS location, the NCA will direct the appropriate coordination with the host or allied nation through the Department of State.
(3) Enemy NBC munitions that are in danger of being recaptured or that pose a unique challenge to safety may require destruction. Procedures similar to those for friendly munitions will be followed. Service EOD units will prepare technical intelligence reports on all captured NBC munitions and fuzing systems.
b. Water Production for Decontamination. Decontamination places excessive demands on the water supply system. Water support does not maintain contingency stocks of water to accommodate the demands of an NBC environment. Water supply units will produce potable water and can decontaminate water to acceptable levels for decontamination of personnel and unit equipment. Potable water is not required for decontamination; however, potable water may have to be used if nonpotable water is not available. Units must use their organic equipment to transport water.
7. Host Nation Support (HNS). NBC defense operations must be coordinated with combined forces and HN to augment US capabilities. Existing HNS systems and capabilities should be used. HNS forces for NBC warning, reporting, and decontamination may be under the control of US chemical units. The overall goal is maximum effectiveness of NBC defense efforts in the theater.
8. Combined Support and Friendly Forces Considerations. Customarily, logistic support is a national responsibility. US forces may provide the support to or receive support from an allied or coalition nation. A factor that multiplied the effectiveness of the logistic effort in Operation DESERT STORM was the support provided to different nations.
b. Standardization and Interoperability of Logistic Support. In planning and executing combined operations, the combatant commander and our allies can achieve cost savings and increased effectiveness by implementing standardization and interoperability of allied logistic support. An effective realignment of logistic support from a national to an area concept requires an alliance or coalition-wide emphasis on standardization and interoperability.
9. Nuclear Survivability and NBC Contamination Survivability Standard. Mission critical equipment should meet all Nuclear Survivability (NS) and NBC Contamination Survivability (NBCCS) standards. NS and NBCCS standards are designed to ensure that US equipment is hardened to exposure to specific WMD effects, compatible enough to be used in MOPP IV, and decontaminatable so that it can be purged of absorbed agent and returned to service without danger to the equipment operators.
10. Environmental Considerations. Environmental considerations differ among theaters because some environments are more vulnerable to the impact of NBC warfare than others. The impact on the environment is not directly proportional to the amount of flora and fauna present. Some deserts have a more delicate ecosystem than the most intricate rain forest. A potential source of contamination that must be addressed during NBC defensive operations is the spread of contamination during maneuver, decontamination, or other NBC operations. In peacetime, environmental concerns are dealt within diplomatic circles, but outside the United States, Department of Defense is required to comply with environmental standards of general applicability by Executive Order 13088.