Logistic Support Operations

1. Purpose. This chapter provides logistic support considerations for the planning and conduct of joint NBC defense operations.

2. Overview. Logistic support for NBC defense operations will be performed during any state of the full range of military operations. The combatant commander must plan for logistic support operations for joint NBC defense. The combatant commander should cover all these aspects of logistic support in the portions of campaign plans and orders that address NBC defense in the theater.

3. Logistic Operations

a. Combatant Commander Directive Authority. Within a theater, the combatant commander exercises directive authority over logistic operations.

b. Logistic Support in an NBC Defense Posture. The Department of Defense has designated the US Army as the executive agent for the DOD Chemical and Biological Defense Research, Development, and Acquisition Program. The US Army implements this responsibility through a joint Service agreement and chairmanship of a joint Service review group and a joint panel on chemical biological defense, reporting to the joint logistic commanders. The US Army also chairs a joint Service coordination committee to assist in chemical defense equipment logistic prioritization and allocation of resources worldwide. Logistic organizations provide support and assistance to sustain forces.

This support is primarily in the functions of supply, maintenance, transportation, civil engineering and health services, and services associated with non-materiel support actions. Combatant commanders exercise command and control of the logistic effort through Service component commanders so that they can shift support effort to the critical place and time. Logistic commanders must initiate NBC defensive procedures to limit exposure of their units and facilities to NBC attacks and to protect personnel and supplies from NBC contamination. Where protection is not assured, NBC defense calls for decontamination of critical support materiel. Most logistic functions become more difficult under NBC conditions. Medical units must implement systems to treat and evacuate larger numbers of casualties, who may also require special handling before, during, and after treatment. The supply system must provide needed protective clothing, shelters, and munitions to support the operations. The combatant commander identifies functions and services available from host nation (HN) assets. US units may train and equip personnel from US, coalition, and HN forces to ensure their survival.

c. Logistic Support for NBC Readiness. Logistics in an environment in which NBC warfare is anticipated must be considered from the aspect of the overall logistics effort under NBC conditions and logistic sustainment of the NBC defense effort itself. Adequate logistic support is vital to all combat operations, which must continue under all conditions. When developing a plan, the combatant commander balances requirements against limited resources. The challenge is to accomplish the mission with assets available. Logistical considerations often drive the COA open to a commander.

d. Reconstitution. On the NBC battlefield, organizations may be subject to catastrophic losses. When such losses occur, each affected unit must be brought back to operational effectiveness or replaced. The reconstitution role of Service components is to restore debilitated or destroyed units from available assets. First, there must be an assessment of the criticality of the function. If the function is determined to be critical, it must be resumed. Second, the unit must be assessed for remaining capability in terms of personnel and equipment. Using the surviving assets as a base, component commanders must determine what personnel and equipment each unit will need to return to an acceptable level of effectiveness. Personnel may come from the replacement system, medical channels, or other organizations that perform less critical functions. The required equipment may come from the supply system, maintenance facilities, or other organizations.

4. Services Support

a. Decontamination of Equipment. Decontamination of equipment is performed to prevent casualties, increase unit and individual effectiveness, and limit the spread of contamination. All personnel perform operational decontamination of their skin and equipment. Decontamination companies provide units with decontamination support required beyond unit capabilities. Decontamination units accomplish this through the use of large- scale decontamination equipment. Decontamination is provided for equipment; stockpiles of materiel; and facilities, terrain, and MSRs on a priority basis. Supported unit commanders establish priorities. Decontamination companies decontaminate higher priority materiel, facilities, and MSRs. The natural weathering process, or the supported unit with organic resources, decontaminates lower priority items. Unit plans for decontamination of large areas must include maximum use of HN equipment and materiel. Commanders should ensure that all items of equipment that cannot be decontaminated are identified during their advance planning.

b. Clothing Exchange and Shower. A personal clothing exchange and shower services are available throughout all levels of command. The standard is to provide at least a weekly bath for personal hygiene and an exchange of clothing for each Service member. This will be done on an accelerated basis in an NBC environment, as determined by the Service component.

c. Equipment Recovery and Evacuation. The recovery and evacuation of equipment is essential to sustaining military operations. Even in an NBC environment, units cannot consider equipment, especially NBC protective equipment, expendable once it becomes inoperative and contaminated. The feasibility of recovering equipment that is contaminated must be carefully considered in every case. The item must be decontaminated and recovered, if practical. If the situation will not allow the equipment to be decontaminated and the contamination is severe enough to prevent recovery and evacuation, the location will be noted and reported for later recovery. Each Service component should develop procedures for the recovery and evacuation of contaminated equipment.

d. Mortuary Affairs Policy, Standards, and Procedures. In an NBC environment, mass fatalities may result from a combination of effects such as burns, fragmentation, internal damage from nuclear blast overpressures, radiation, disease from biological warfare, and the consequences of chemical agent exposure. Theater decisions will be made as to the disposition of remains. Contaminated remains may have to be buried in place following emergency burial procedures. If there are decontamination capabilities that will render remains harmless both internally and externally, remains will be decontaminated when time and available assets permit. However, if they cannot be decontaminated, they are buried at the site of recovery and the site is clearly marked accordingly. In instances of mass fatalities, the theater commander, on advice of the Joint Mortuary Affairs Office (JMAO), gives permission for mass burials of fatalities. The JMAO will direct and control later disinterments. For detailed instructions on handling contaminated remains, see Joint Pub 4-06 and Service manuals FM 10-63, AFM 143-3, and FMFM 4-8.

e. Emergency Destruction and Evacuation of US Nuclear Munitions and Captured NBC Munitions

5. Supply Support. The combatant commander is responsible for effective coordination of supply support among the Service components. When practical to improve economy of effort, common item support may be assigned to a Service component commander, normally the predominant user. The combatant commander is also responsible for the allocation of critical supply resources within the command.

6. Transportation. An NBC environment will increase the importance of alternative modes and routes. This makes centralized movement control imperative. Highway regulation point teams from movement control centers will use NBC and intelligence reports to monitor contaminated routes and regulate traffic on MSRs. As necessary, they will recommend diverting supply convoys to alternate routes. Coordination is made using the services of the Joint Movement Center (JMC).

7. Host Nation Support (HNS). NBC defense operations must be coordinated with combined forces and HN to augment US capabilities. Existing HNS systems and capabilities should be used. HNS forces for NBC warning, reporting, and decontamination may be under the control of US chemical units. The overall goal is maximum effectiveness of NBC defense efforts in the theater.

8. Combined Support and Friendly Forces Considerations. Customarily, logistic support is a national responsibility. US forces may provide the support to or receive support from an allied or coalition nation. A factor that multiplied the effectiveness of the logistic effort in Operation DESERT STORM was the support provided to different nations.

9. Nuclear Survivability and NBC Contamination Survivability Standard. Mission critical equipment should meet all Nuclear Survivability (NS) and NBC Contamination Survivability (NBCCS) standards. NS and NBCCS standards are designed to ensure that US equipment is hardened to exposure to specific WMD effects, compatible enough to be used in MOPP IV, and decontaminatable so that it can be purged of absorbed agent and returned to service without danger to the equipment operators.

10. Environmental Considerations. Environmental considerations differ among theaters because some environments are more vulnerable to the impact of NBC warfare than others. The impact on the environment is not directly proportional to the amount of flora and fauna present. Some deserts have a more delicate ecosystem than the most intricate rain forest. A potential source of contamination that must be addressed during NBC defensive operations is the spread of contamination during maneuver, decontamination, or other NBC operations. In peacetime, environmental concerns are dealt within diplomatic circles, but outside the United States, Department of Defense is required to comply with environmental standards of general applicability by Executive Order 13088.

07-10-1996; 10:29:10