This chapter focuses on communications the AAMDC must establish, operate, and maintain in order to accomplish its theater AMD mission.
5-1. The C4I system integrates systems of doctrine, organizations, facilities, communications, computers, supporting intelligence, and missile warning and cueing by sensors and ground stations. A coherent AMD requires timely and accurate data and systems to plan, monitor, direct, control, and report AMD operations. C4I capabilities must support the principles of centralized planning, decentralized execution and coordinated efforts by forces assigned AMD tasks. A dedicated theater tactical signal battalion is central to the capability to support the operational requirements of the AAMDC.
5-2. The mission of the G6 section is to plan, establish, and maintain AAMDC communications both horizontally and vertically for technical and procedural interoperability with ARFOR, joint, and multinational elements to support a coherent AMD. Included in the mission are those communications internal to the AAMDC TOC within the Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System (AMDPCS).
5-3. The G6 has numerous responsibilities to fulfill in order to execute AAMDC C4I requirements:
5-4. Functions of the G6 section are communications planning, communications operations, and automation management and information systems security. The organizational structure of the G6 is shown in Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1. G6 Organization
5-5. G6 planning begins with the commanderís estimate of the situation, objectives, and overall concept of operations. Communications planning is affected by METT-TC. Communications architectures may vary from theater to theater. AMD communications which support an architecture designed for one theater may not satisfy the requirements of another theater. The G6 plans and coordinates with both the senior Army G6/J6 theater service component, the JCCC, and the designated joint interface control officer (JICO) to submit common user or dedicated voice and data requirements.
5-6. The G6 section reviews the mission and operations order, ensures current internal communications will allow execution of AMD operations within the TOC, and plans external communications to meet the METT-TC aspects of the overall AMD mission. The force projection operations cycle (Chapter 3), may allow time to make adjustments to internal communications requirements (such as software upgrades, power conversion, and terrain database upload), so the TOC will be fully mission capable upon arrival in theater. The G6 ensures AAMDC field standard operating procedures (FSOP) provide basic information on TOC emplacement, internal communications procedures, and external communications requirements.
5-7. Overall planning responsibilities of the G6 include:
5-8. AAMDC communications are established and maintained using all available media, including tactical service component, sustaining base, strategic, commercially leased, multinational, and host nation communications, to support AMD operations. Communications must support high-speed TOC systems with massive data storage, retrieval and dissemination capabilities. The following types of information are exchanged:
5-9. Overall operational responsibilities of the G6 include:
Automation Management and Information Systems Security
5-10. Automation management and information systems security functions require proper planning, established procedural safeguards, and continual oversight from the G6 section. These G6 responsibilities include:
THEATER COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORT
5-11. The AAMDC maintains organic subscriber equipment for common and dedicated ("dial-and-hold") voice and data support, acquires evolving technology and systems, and tasks for signal equipment in accordance with its contingency missions. The AAMDC requires external signal support connectivity to a network centric C4I joint theater communications system to link vertically and horizontally with joint, multinational, and subordinate elements for joint or combined operations.
5-13. External communications consist of military ACUS (or the future WIN), commercial public switched networks, and specialized leased communications. For voice, high-speed data, video, and imagery connectivity to joint multinational component commands and lateral AMD units, the AAMDC requires EAC level tactical transmission, switch media, and modular capability package support currently not organic to the AAMDC. These terrestrial (line-of-sight) or satellite-based military communications include ACUS capable networks and modular power projection Army command, control and communications (power PAC3) contingency liaison team signal packages, as well as long haul communications systems.
5-14. A theater level tactical signal battalion with a mix of switching and long haul transmission capable systems/modular packages assigned to the AAMDC is required to provide multichannel voice, high-speed data, video and imagery to joint C4I facilities, and the assigned and attached ADA brigades and AMD units. A bandwidth on demand capable of VTC, air picture data, COP and information exchange/automated decision support is required between the AAMDC, joint C4I facilities, and each assigned or attached ADA brigade or AMD unit. The assigned bandwidth will be managed by the Integrated System Control (ISYSCON). ADA signal battalion systems managed by the ISYSCON provides the technical means to support a complete view of the battlefield wide area network configurations and network operational status.
5-15. The AAMDC also requires a limited, single-channel tactical satellite (TACSAT) system to operate as a dedicated C2 and coordination voice net with deployed AMD units throughout the AOR (refer to Fig 5-2, AAMDC C2 and Coordination Net). The AAMDC is the net control station (NCS) for this net. This C2 and coordination net is essential as an early entry net and through subsequent phases of an operation to transmit critical operational information to deployed AMD units, critical logistical support locations, and joint C4I facilities. The TACSAT system will allow the AAMDC to maintain contact over large geographical distances that are part of present and projected theaters. The deployments in these theaters exceed the normal doctrinal distances for current organic relay communications capabilities, and are in areas that have limited ACUS (or commercial backbone support is austere), thereby preventing line-of-sight communications and data systems from assured connectivity. TACSAT terminals will also be required organic to the ADA Brigade and Battalion level. The AAMDC Headquarters will require additional terminals to provide connectivity to Army, Joint, and Allied AMD units, and critical logistical units in theater. In some operations, the AAMDC may have to provide both ends of the TACSAT link. This may require the AAMDC to issue a TACSAT terminal to another unit, such as a Joint AMD C4I facility or a multinational AMD C4I facility. TACSAT is a critical link during early phases of a deployment when ADA batteries may be inserted as part of a contingency force to protect widely dispersed critical assets listed on the CINCís DAL. The AAMDC will require additional terminals for use by batteries in early entry operations or for designated master battery operations as part of a mission tailored AMD Task Force. These additional TACSAT terminals will be maintained at the AAMDC until an operational requirement dictates issue of the terminals.
Figure 5-2. AAMDC C2 and Coordination Net
5-16. For external inter-theater and intra-theater communications sustaining base support, the AAMDC TOC requires access for its telephones with a commercial public switched network for commercial long distance dialing or tie-in to a host nation's communications infrastructure. The AAMDC also operates with specialized leased communications and emerging technologies such as use of the net trunking radio system, cellular phones, or international maritime satellite (INMARSAT) terminal. A T-1 connection (1.544 megahertz bandwidth telecommunications channel) or larger will normally be required for SIPRNET connectivity into a theater of operations. The senior Army G6/J6 component in theater validates AAMDC technical requirements, while the JCCC coordinates with the Theater Signal Command (TSC) for signal support and availability. Pre-positioned and non-organic on-site signal units/modular packages are OPCON to the TSC's Joint Systems Control (JSYSCON) for technical direction and reporting, since the AAMDC does not have the resources nor the management functions to plan or engineer these additional assets into the external networks.
AAMDC THEATER NETWORKS
5-17. Theater networks are characterized by a broad-based set of joint users who access database information from multiple sources via an information network grid (for example, an interconnected set of networks and systems for information services). The network centric grid system consists of sensor grids (for example, grids from space, air, sea, and ground based sensors generating battlespace awareness); engagement grids (for example, grids of air, sea, and ground based shooters exploiting battlespace awareness); and an information grid currently comprised of ACUS communications systems. In the future, it will also consist of WIN component system threadís supporting computational and/or control nodes that synchronize live combat power and simulations for battlespace awareness. The AAMDC must be able to access the network centric grid system through a variety of push or pull operations by its four operational elements. There may also be an operational benefit to using the emerging broadcast systems. The Global Broadcast System (GBS) is an example of a system that may be used as a large throughput communications system. The GBS will not allow total connectivity to all assigned units or coordinating C4I facilities, and is limited in its transmitting capability, but it may provide needed communications services when it is fully fielded.
5-18. Guiding principles for AAMDC connectivity to the theater are that its communications and automated information systems must be:
5-19. An example of an existing "smart push" information feed is the intelligence information broadcast over the network by various collectors and processing stations. An example of an existing "intelligent pull" feed is the logistics and sustainment data requested from a database by various units and users. Both feeds are representative of the spectrum of available support information exchange/automated decision support that the AAMDC requires in theater.
AREA COMMON USER SYSTEM (ACUS): AAMDC CONNECTIVITY REQUIREMENTS
5-20. Figure 5-3 shows AAMDC connectivity requirements within a theater. Information entries correlate with the previously discussed general categories of information -- situational awareness, C2, operations and intelligence, and administrative/logistics. The AAMDC C2 and support systems include both
Figure 5-3. AAMDC Connectivity Requirements.
communications and automation systems for access to inter-theater and/or intra-theater common- user services. AAMDC's connectivity into the theater communications system relies on the area common-user system (ACUS). The ACUS, primary provider for the Army EAC ADA community, assures AAMDC users access to theater level network switching, gateway access, and redundancy to robustly support AMD operations. AAMDC users own and operate the requisite subscriber terminals to connect to external information systems.
ARMY DATA DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (ADDS): MULTI-TADIL ARCHITECTURE
5-21. The single most operationally important network to the AAMDC is the multi-TADIL network, sometimes referred to as the joint data network (JDN). It is used almost exclusively for distributing air picture data and C2 data such as real-time tracks, unit status information, engagement status, and force operations orders among joint service AMD systems and C2 level nodes. Key data links of the net are the backbone TADIL-J (Link 16), TADIL-A (Link 11A), and TADIL-B (Link 11B). The net is migrating towards a total TADIL-J network. However, until all participants have TADIL-J capability, non TADIL-J units may enter the network using TADIL-A and/or TADIL-B.
5-22. Figure 5-4 shows a typical JDN architecture, with primary and alternative links. TADIL-A and TADIL-B links are generally for systems not yet TADIL-J (JTIDS) capable, and for back-up or secondary network contingencies.
Figure 5-4. Typical TADIL-J Architecture/Joint Data Network (JDN)
The serial TADIL-J is used to exchange data in TADIL-J format over long haul media such as ACUS, cable or satellite. Presently, serial TADIL-J provides a limited capability for theater data exchange until a Joint Range Extension (JRE) capability becomes available. JRE will provide extended range connectivity between Army, joint and multinational units within a theater of operations. It will enable TADIL-J information to be exchanged over distances greater than 30 km, or over lesser distances in areas where the line-of-sight is restricted by mountains, vegetation, buildings or other terrain features (natural or manmade).
5-23. Associated with the JDN are four supporting, servicing, and overhead voice networks. These nets are described in CJCSM 6120.01B, Joint Multi-TADIL Tactical Operating Procedures (JMTOP) and are used to oversee JDN operations, manage and control the net, and ensure air picture quality. These are the Air Defense Command and Control Net (ADCCN) at Figure 5-5, the Track Supervision Net (TSN) at Figure 5-6, the Data Coordination Net (DCN) at Figure 5-7, and the Voice Product Net (VPN) not shown. The ADCCN is an operations net and will be terminated at C2 nodes.
Figure 5-5. Army AMD Participants in the Air Defense C2 Net (ADCCN)
It will normally operate on TACSAT or HF radio. Both types of radio will provide non-line-of-sight connectivity, which will be necessary in many tactical deployments. The TSN, which is controlled from the JICO cell, is a
Figure 5-6. Army AMD Participants in the Track Supervision Net (TSN)
data management net, and will be terminated at data control locations. This net will operate normally on TACSAT or HF radio for the same reasons as the ADCCN. Another reason for operating on a broadcast system is to allow several participants to solve a data investigation or correct a situation concurrently. The DCN terminates in locations that physically contain the equipment that terminates the JDN. It will be used by the JICO and
Figure 5-7. Army AMD Participants in the Datalink Coordination Net (DCN)
network participants to engineer the circuits for maximum availability and minimal conflict of data sources. It will normally operate via dial-up procedures over the secure tactical telephone network. Contact with one participant at a time by one member of the JICO cell is preferable for engineering of the JDN. The VPN is not shown as this net should be monitored by the JICO and is not specified for Army AMD participants. When participating, the Army ICO has a key role in establishing, monitoring, and maintaining both the JDN and these supporting networks.
5-24. The Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) Class 2 radio (the Army uses the Class 2M model) is a computerized radio developed to provide joint forces with a high speed high volume information transfer system, with characteristics especially suited to AMD operations. It requires a separate computer to initialize and monitor its operation, and a separate information processing system to drive and interpret its outgoing and incoming information. The AAMDC uses its JTIDS radio primarily to monitor the air picture from the JDN. The AAMDC plays a key role in the JDNís planning. The JDN must be coordinated, planned and designed in advance of implementation. The Army ICO, residing in the G6 staff, coordinates with Army AMD units, the Army AMD network design facility (NDF), and the JICO to plan the network design.
5-25. C4I for the AAMDC mission must be accomplished using existing joint and service C4I systems and resources efficiently to ensure integration with other operational functions and to optimize scarce resources. The C4I system enables and integrates AMD operations. It provides timely threat assessment, tactical warning, mission assignment, targeting data, and post strike assessment. AMD C4I capabilities must support the principles of concurrent planning, decentralized execution and coordinated efforts by forces assigned AMD tasks. There is an absolute requirement for vertical and horizontal technical and procedural interoperability, both from a joint and multinational aspect. AAMDC currently relies on external signal support, both area common user voice and common and dedicated data for "push or pull technology" in a common operating environment. To optimize AMD operations and ensure a responsive, robust, interoperable C2 structure, the AAMDC requires a dedicated theater tactical signal battalion. The signal battalion will address part of the increasing demands being placed on AAMDC inter-and intra-theater tactical, commercial, and specialized leased communications, along with tie-in to multi-TADIL nets. The G6 is the focal point for properly planning, coordinating, and overseeing the integration of requested services into the AAMDC network centric portion in theater.