Command and Control
The focus of this chapter is the AAMDCís command and support relationships with all components and subordinate units. The roles of the commanding general of the AAMDC as senior Army ADA commander, theater Army air and missile defense coordinator (TAAMDCOORD), and deputy area air defense commander (DAADC) reflect the theater command and control structure. Coordination and liaison are essential to effective air and missile defense.
roles of aamdc commander
2-1. The commanding general of the AAMDC has the two roles common to every ADA commander. He is both the commander of the ADA forces assigned to him, and the air and missile defense coordinator for the Army commander he supports. In addition he may be appointed the DAADC. These three roles reflect the total theater involvement of the AAMDC. Figure 2-1 shows these relationships.
Figure 2-1. Senior ADA Commander, TAAMDCOORD and DAADC Relationships.
SENIOR ADA COMMANDER
2-2. The commanding general of the AAMDC is the Army proponent for the air and missile defense combat function. He has total responsibility for active air and missile defense planning within the Army forces and when assigned for the entire land force. The CG, AAMDC develops the air and missile defense annex to the ARFOR OPLAN for protection of the priorities of the Army forces commander, the joint forces land component commander (JFLCC), if appointed, and the joint force commander. The commander ensures that organic, assigned, and supporting ADA units accomplish air and missile defense objectives in support of the Army forces commanderís, JFLCCís, if appointed, and joint force commanderís concepts of operations. These responsibilities include recommending air and missile defense missions for the other members of the combined arms team and integrating with the other components and the AADC.
2-3. The Army commanderís requirement to provide air and missile defense to the force is no different than the requirement to provide maneuver, fire support, or logistics. The Army forces commander must ensure that forces at all levels have adequate air and missile defense and must reinforce those defenses when necessary. Additionally, the Army forces commander is required to provide air and missile defense to selected geopolitical assets. The AAMDC is the Army forces commanderís primary air and missile defense resource and means to accomplish the above missions. The AAMDC performs the majority of operational level air and missile defense missions, while corps and divisional ADA units accomplish the majority of the tactical level air and missile defense missions.
THEATER ARMY AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE COORDINATOR
2-4. The AAMDC commander is the TAAMDCOORD for the Army forces commander. As such, he is an integral member of the Army forces commanderís staff planning team. The CG, AAMDC and his representatives in the Army forces command post plan air and missile defense operations to support the Army forces commanderís, JFLCCís, if appointed, and joint force commanderís concept of the operation.
2-5. The TAAMDCOORD, with input from the G2, assesses the air and missile threat. He recommends air and missile threats to the FSCOORD for incorporation into the deep attack plan. The TAAMDCOORD recommends active, passive, and other combined arms measures in the air and missile defense estimate. The TAAMDCOORD recommends air and missile threats as OCA and DCA priorities. After staff coordination and approval of the air and missile defense estimate, the TAAMDCOORD develops the air and missile defense annex to the Army operations plan. Appendix B provides a more detailed description of the air and missile defense annex.
2-6. The TAAMDCOORD also coordinates with higher and lower air and missile defense elements, as well as with adjacent units. Coordination ensures vertical and horizontal integration of air and missile defense operations throughout the battlefield. The TAAMDCOORD coordinates with the joint force commander, component commanders, and area air defense commander (AADC) at the theater and joint level. He also coordinates with the lower echelons such as corps or equivalent units. The TAAMDCOORD also coordinates air and missile defense with multinational forces.
2-7. The complimentary relationship between the roles of the CG, AAMDC as senior ADA commander and TAAMDCOORD is evident. Coordination with the AADC and others is further explained in the following paragraphs.
DEPUTY AREA AIR DEFENSE COMMANDER
2-8. Based on the factors of METT-TC, the joint force commander (JFC) and area air defense commander (AADC) will determine whether a DAADC should be designated. Normally, the commander of the AAMDC assumes the role of the DAADC because the AAMDC has the necessary personnel and equipment to support the DAADC mission. This designation formalizes the relationship between the land-based air and missile defense assets dedicated to theater level missions and the AADC, and ensures fully integrated and synchronized air and missile defense operations.
2-9. The DAADC, and the robust AAMDC liaison team that supports the AADC/DAADC relationship, provide the following support to the AADC:
2-10. Although the AAMDC commander may serve as a "deputy" AADC, the DAADC normally would not assume the role of the AADC if the AADC were incapacitated. The DAADC is not a true deputy commander in that sense. The DAADC's primary responsibilities are to assist the AADC in planning, coordinating, integrating, and synchronizing land-based air and missile defense operations. Neither the AAMDC commander nor his staff has the tactical, technical, or procedural expertise and capability to perform all of the functions of an AADC in a joint environment.
THEATER COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS
2-11. This section is based on the emerging doctrine in Joint Publication 3-01, Joint Doctrine for Countering Air and Missile Threats. It illustrates that the AAMDC not only will have a command relationship with the Army forces commander, but also will have a support relationship with the AADC and may even have a command relationship with the AADC and JFLCC. Theater command and control relationships are shown in Figure 2-2.
Figure 2-2. Theater Command and Control Relationships.
2-12. Joint doctrine provides a great deal of flexibility in establishing command and support relationships. The JFC in one theater may establish entirely different command and support relationships in his theater than another JFC based on the factors of METT-TC.
Joint Force Commander
2-13. The JFC exercises combatant command or operational control (OPCON) over assigned or attached forces to ensure unity of effort. The JFC provides authoritative direction to subordinate commanders on objectives, priorities, missions, and apportionment of joint capabilities and forces. This includes establishing priorities for countering air and missile threats for the theater or joint operations area (JOA). The JFC normally exercises control of joint counterair through the joint force air component commander (JFACC). The JFC normally designates the JFACC as the supported commander for theater / JOA-wide counterair operations. The JFC establishes and the AADC implements theater / JOA-wide defense priorities through promulgation of a joint air defense plan. The JFC normally designates an airspace control authority (ACA), who has overall responsibility for establishing and operating the airspace control system. The JFC may apportion component capabilities to the JFACC or AADC for counterair missions. The JFC also determines the most appropriate command authority over forces made available. Typically for OCA, land forces are in direct support. Normally for DCA, surface-based forces are provided in direct support also.
Joint Force Air Component Commander
2-14. The JFC will normally designate a JFACC to integrate the capabilities and command and control of joint air assets. Normally, the JFACC is the service component commander having the preponderance of air assets and the capability to plan, task, and control joint air operations. The need for a JFACC is based on the JFCís overall mission, concept of operations, missions and tasks assigned to subordinate commanders, forces available, duration and nature of joint air operations desired, and degree of unity of command and control of joint air operations required. The responsibilities of the JFACC, AADC, and ACA are interrelated and normally should be assigned to one individual.
2-15. Since the attainment of air superiority is normally an area of responsibility (AOR) / JOA-wide priority, the JFC normally designates the JFACC as the supported commander for theater / JOA-wide counterair operations. If an AADC is not appointed, the AAMDC would be in direct support of the JFACC.
2-16. The JFC assigns the JFACCís authority and responsibilities. They normally include, but are not limited to, joint counterair planning, coordinating, allocating, and tasking based on the JFCís concept of operations and air apportionment decision. Other responsibilities of the JFACC relating to joint counterair operations include the following:
Area Air Defense Commander
2-17. The JFC normally assigns overall responsibility for DCA operations to a single commander designated as the AADC. Normally, the AADC is the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) capability to plan, coordinate, and execute integrated air defense operations. The JFC will also define the support relationship between the AADC and supporting commanders; however, the AADC is normally the supported commander for theater / JOA-wide DCA operations. The AAMDC is normally in direct support of the AADC. Components will provide representatives, as appropriate, to the AADCís headquarters to provide specific weapon systems expertise as well as broader mission expertise. The AADC, with the support of the service or functional component commanders, develops, integrates, and distributes a JFC-approved joint air defense plan. As the supported commander for theater / JOA-wide DCA, the AADC establishes weapons control procedures and measures for all DCA weapons systems and forces. However, this does not restrict commandersí authority to take those immediate actions required to defend their forces from a hostile act or demonstrated hostile intent. Primary responsibilities of the AADC include the following:
Airspace Control Authority
2-18. The JFC normally designates an ACA who has overall responsibility for establishing and operating the airspace control system. The ACA also develops policies and procedures for airspace control that are incorporated into an airspace control plan (ACP) and promulgated throughout the theater. A key responsibility of the ACA is to provide the flexibility needed within the airspace control system to meet contingency situations that necessitate rapid employment of forces. The ACA coordinates through the ACP the use of airspace, including integration with the host nation and deconfliction of user requirements. The ACA must be able to rapidly implement airspace control measures in the dynamic counterair environment to enhance freedom of action of components while preventing fratricide. The ACP is implemented through the airspace control order (ACO). All counterair forces (offensive and defensive) are subject to the ACO. However, this centralized direction by the ACA does not imply OPCON or tactical control (TACON) over any asset.
2-19. The JFC may apportion component capabilities and forces to the JFACC or AADC to support theater / JOA-wide counterair missions. The JFC determines the most appropriate command authority over forces made available to conduct defensive and offensive counterair. Typically for OCA, land forces are in direct support; however, regardless of the command and control relationship, the AAMDC normally supports OCA operations through the DOCC. Normally, for forces made available to the AADC for DCA, surface-based forces are in direct support also. Regardless of the command relationship, all active defense forces made available are subject to the ROE, airspace, weapons control measures, and fire control orders established by the AADC and approved by the JFC. As the supported commander for theater / JOA-wide DCA, the AADC will be granted the necessary command authority to deconflict and control engagements and to exercise real-time battle management.
2-20. The AAMDC is normally under the command of the Army forces commander. If a JFLCC is designated, the AAMDC may be OPCON or TACON to the JFLCC.
2-21. The CG, AAMDC commands all echelon above corps ADA forces. These are normally brigade-size units. The AAMDC may also have other forces assigned or attached under its command. Corps and divisional ADA units are under the command of the echelon maneuver force commander and do not fall under the command of the AAMDC. However, since the CG, AAMDC is also the TAAMDCOORD, there is a strong coordination relationship.
2-22. Most joint operations are conducted within the context of an alliance or coalition. However, each multinational operation is unique. The international situation, along with the perspectives, motives, and values of each ally or coalition member, may vary. The JFC should evaluate key considerations and differences involved in planning, coordinating, and conducting counterair operations in a multinational environment. Agreement on threats and a clearly defined, responsive, and interoperable C2 structure are crucial to effective multinational operations. The JFC must be prepared to negotiate with multinational partners when planning and developing ROE, airspace control measures, weapon control measures, and other appropriate areas. All critical forces and geopolitical areas should receive adequate protection from air and missile threats. Sharing intelligence and warning information is also vital to ensuring unity of effort.
2-23. The AAMDC is the largest organization of its kind for land-based air and missile defense. It is the ideal choice to conduct coordination with multinational land-based partners. It is also the logical choice for command and control of such forces if made available. Therefore, multinational EAC air defense forces may be OPCON to the AAMDC.
coordination and liaison
2-24. The AAMDC conducts extensive coordination and liaison with external Army and joint agencies. Figure 2-3 shows the key roles of the TAAMDCOORD, DAADC, and liaison teams (sometimes referred to as coordination teams) in this robust effort.
Figure 2-3. Coordinating the Air and Missile fight.
joint force commander
2-25. The AAMDC provides situational awareness to the JFC primarily on the missile threat, but also includes the total air threat against land forces. At the joint targeting coordination board, the AAMDC brings a TMD focus to the process. The AAMDC recommends priority adjustments based on METT-TC. Usually the CG, AAMDC is the personal representative of the Army forces commander.
army forces commander / joint force land component commander
2-26. The TAAMDCOORD integrates Army / land force air and missile defense operations. The AAMDC is the key force protection provider. The AAMDC integrates with the battlefield coordination detachment (BCD), which is the ARFOR liaison to the service component commander designated as the JFACC, in order to synchronize operations.
2-27. At the deep operations coordination center (DOCC) and analysis and control element (ACE), the AAMDC liaison teams assist with the air and missile IPB and bring an air and missile focus to deep operations. The AAMDC nominates AMD targets for prosecution either within the air tasking order (ATO) cycle or as a time sensitive target. The AAMDC DOCC LNOs assist in the target nomination process, provide the AAMDC with non-TMD deep targets of interest, inform the AAMDC of the availability of Army attack assets, and monitor the status of the target nomination request.
joint force air component commander /area air defense commander
2-28. The DAADC function is the coordination mechanism for the JFACC / AADC. The DAADC performs integration and parallel planning to ensure efficient coordination and rapid response to the JFACCís / AADCís air and missile needs. The DAADC ensures the Armyís / land forcesí contribution to the joint air and missile defense fight is properly planned, synchronized, and executed. Normally, the AAMDC sends a robust LNO team to support the AADC and DAADC requirements. As the senior Army air defense element at the AADCís location, the AAMDC LNO team is the primary interface at the JAOC for all land-based active air defense force operations.
joint force maritime component commander
2-29. A liaison team from AAMDC deploys to the JFMCC to coordinate airspace control measures, logistical requirements, and DCA missions. If a JFMCC is not appointed, the AAMDC will send the LNOs to the commander naval forces and/or marine forces.
Joint Special Operations Component Commander
2-30. The AAMDC provides the JSOCC with the AMD IPB, intelligence reports, air defense locations and rules of engagements and TM target nominations. The team also shares SOF restricted fire areas, non-AMD related intelligence products and enemy air defense locations.
Subordinate ADA brigades
2-31. EAC ADA brigades send a liaison team to the AAMDC to coordinate future operations and planning. This facilitates force protection throughout all phases of the operation. The brigades are able to monitor theater requirements as well as resolve support issues. This liaison provides the bridge to the operational level of air and missile defense warfare.
corps and divisional ada units
2-32. Although the AAMDC does not send an LNO team to corps ADA brigades, the corps ADA brigade may send LNOs to the AAMDC. If there are no corps ADA LNOs at the AAMDC, the active defense section of the AAMDC and the corps air defense element (CADE) ensure AMD coordination.
2-33. Multinational units normally send LNOs to the AAMDC in order to integrate in the joint integrated air defense system. Based on releasability and disclosure requirements, multinational LNOs may be located in a separate area away from daily TOC operations.