DRAFT - February 1998



This chapter discusses the Army's role in Support and Stability Operations (SASO) and how ADA may support the operation. The prime focus of our Army is warfighting--the use of force--yet its role in Support and Stability Operations is critical. The use of Army forces in activities conducted during periods of peace helps keep the day-to-day tensions between nations below the threshold of conflict. Typical peacetime operations include nation assistance, security and advisory assistance, counterdrug, antiterrorism, arms control, support to domestic civil authority, and peacekeeping operations.



THE ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

PRINCIPLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


DEPLOYMENT PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

FORCE SUSTAINMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


The role of the US Army in SASO is not new. From its beginning, the Army has performed many missions that do not require direct combat. These missions included protecting our citizens as the country's border expanded, building roads, bridges and canals, and assisting nations abroad.

Whether the mission is peacekeeping, nation assistance, civil disturbance, support for insurgency and counterinsurgency, or noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO), situations of great complexity and sensitivity are likely to be present. The solutions to the situations may not be present or may not be in the interest of the long term objectives. Army leaders may find themselves facing difficult problems that require new thinking and actions to resolve. The US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) has published TRADOC PAM 525-56 Planner's Guide for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW). This publication provides excellent guidance in the planning and conduct of MOOTW. Support and Stability Operations are accomplished in the environments of peace and conflict. These activities are also conducted immediately following the cessation of hostilities.


SASO that involve our forces in direct combat adhere to the well established principles of war. There are six principles that serve as planing and execution guidelines of combat operations. Some, such as the principles of objective and security, apply equally to noncombat operations. Unity of command requires modification as described below. The Army has supplemented the principles of objective, security, and unity of command with the principles of legitimacy, perseverance, and restraint, which are more suited to noncombat operations.

The relative application of each principle will vary depending on the specific operation. ADA commanders must balance these principles against the specific requirements of their mission and the nature of the operation. Properly applied to the situation at hand, these principles balance the Army’s response to challenges and confrontations in war and SASO. The six principles as they apply to Air Defense are:


Direct every military operation towards a clearly defined, decisive and attainable objective. Each separate operation must be integrated with every other to contribute to the ultimate strategic aim. Leaders of AD units must understand the strategic aim, set appropriate objectives, and ensure that these contribute to unity of effort with other agencies.


Seek unity of effort toward every objective. Our military command structure is suited to achieve unity of command and effort in war. However, in SASO this may be more difficult to attain. In such operations other government agencies will often have the lead. AD commanders may answer to a civilian chief, such as an ambassador, or may themselves employ the resources of a civilian agency. Command arrangements may often be only loosely defined, causing commanders to seek an atmosphere of cooperation rather than command authority. Commander consider how their actions contribute to initiative that are also political, economic, and psychological in nature.


Sustain the willing acceptance by the people of the right of the government to govern or of a group or agency to make and carry out decisions. Committed AD forces must sustain the legitimacy of the operation and of the host government. Legitimacy derives from the perception that constituted authority is both genuine and effective and employs appropriate means. If committed forces solve an immediate problem within a nation or region but detract from the legitimacy of the government in so doing, they may have acted detrimentally against long-term, strategic aims. AD commanders must realize that their actions solve near-term problems and also support long-term strategic aims and legitimacy of the government.


Prepare for the measured, protracted application of military capability in support of strategic aims. SASO may be of short or long duration. Peacetime operations may require years to achieve the objectives. Underlying causes of confrontation and conflict rarely have a clear beginning or a decisive resolution. It is important that AD commander assess quick contingency response options against their long term contribution(s). This does not preclude decisive military action but does require careful, informed analysis to choose the right time and place for such action. Commanders balance their desire to attain short term objectives quickly with a sensitivity for the long-term strategic aims and the restraints placed on operations.


Apply appropriate military capability prudently. The actions of AD soldiers and units are framed by the disciplined application of force, including specific rules of engagement (ROE). In SASO, these ROE will be more restrictive, detailed and sensitive to political concerns than in war. These rules may change frequently during operations. Restraints on weaponry, tactics, and levels of violence characterize the environment. The use of excessive force could adversely affect efforts to gain or maintain legitimacy and impede the attainment of both short and long-term goals/objectives.


Never permit hostile factions to acquire an unexpected advantage. The presence of US forces in nations around the world may provoke a wide range of responses by factions, groups or forces of an unfriendly nation. Regardless of the mission, the commander must protect his force at all times. He must be ready constantly to counter activity which could bring harm to his units or jeopardize his mission. He should never be lulled into believing that the nonhostile intent of his mission does not put his force at risk. Inherent in this responsibility is the need to be capable of rapid transition from a peaceful to a combat posture. The intrinsic right of self defense from the unit to the individual level applies to all operations.


SASO are described as "activities". SASO activities are being performed by the armed forces of the United States on a global scale. The specific SASO activities affecting the US Army are outlined in FM 100-5 "Operations". ADA units must be capable of participating in SASO to the level required, and as the mission dictates.

ADA units, as contributors of purely defensive capabilities, have become the units of choice for several types of SASO missions in support of national interests. As regional conflicts and instability increase around the world, the armed forces and specifically Army air defense artillery must remain prepared to perform the entire spectrum of global missions when and where required.

Activities during SASO occur unilaterally or in conjunction with other military operations. These actions can take place at different times or simultaneously in different places. Each "activity" has different requirements. The basic planning questions which apply in each operation are:

· Are there any special training requirements for the personnel participating in the operation?

· What are the special logistics requirements to support the operation?

--Special supplies

--Special requisitioning procedures

--Waivers to current Army Regulations to allow requisition of special supplies and excessive quantities of supplies outside the normal requisitioning procedures.

· What are the special physical security requirements which must be added to the normal standard operating procedures (SOPs)?

· What are rules of engagement for use of air defense weapons?

--What are conditions for firing weapons?

--Who authorizes the firing of weapons?

· What role does AD play in the activity?



Peace operations encompass three types of activities: support to diplomacy, peacekeeping and peace enforcement. The environment of peace operations and the related concepts, principles, and fundamentals, are described in FM 100-23, "Peace Operations".

(1) Support to Diplomacy

The components of support to diplomacy include peacemaking, peace building, and preventive diplomacy. Support to diplomacy takes place in peace or conflict and is conducted to prevent conflict. Military actions contribute to and are subordinate to the diplomatic peacemaking process. Many of these actions are the typical, day-to-day operations conducted by the military as part of its peacetime mission.

(a) Peace Making. Peacemaking is a process of diplomacy, mediation, negotiation, or other forms of peaceful settlement that end disputes and resolve the issues that led to conflict. Military activities that support peacemaking include military-to-military relations and security assistance operations. Other military activities, such as exercises and peacetime deployment, may enhance the diplomatic process by demonstrating the engagement of the US abroad.

(b) Peace Building. Peace building consists of postconflict actions, primarily diplomatic, that strengthen and rebuild civil infrastructures and institutions in order to avoid a return to conflict. It also includes mechanisms that advance a sense of confidence and well-being and support economic reconstruction. Military as well as civilian involvement is normally required. Peace building activities include restoring civil authority, rebuilding physical infrastructures, and reestablishing commerce, schools, and medical facilities.

(c) Preventive Diplomacy. Preventive diplomacy involves diplomatic actions taken in advance of a predictable crisis to prevent or limit violence. In more tense situations, military activities may support preventive diplomacy. Such support may include preventive deployments of Patriot, other shows of force, or higher levels of readiness. The objective is to demonstrate resolve and commitment to a peaceful resolution while underlining the readiness and ability of the US to use force if required.

(2) Peacekeeping Operations

Peacekeeping operations support diplomatic efforts to maintain peace in areas of potential conflict. They stabilize conflict between two or more belligerent nations and as such require the consent of all parties involved in the dispute.

The US may participate in peacekeeping operations when requested by the United Nations (UN), with a regional affiliation of nations, with other unaffiliated countries, or unilaterally. US personnel may function as impartial observers, as part of an internal peacekeeping force, or in a supervisory and assistance role.

Peacekeeping often involves ambiguous situations requiring the peacekeeping force to deal with extreme tension and violence without becoming a participant. These operations follow diplomatic negotiations that establish the mandate for the peacekeeping force. The mandate describes the scope of the peacekeeping operation in detail. It typically determines the size and type of force each participating nation will contribute. It also specifies the terms or conditions the host nation intends to impose on the presence of the force or mission and a clear statement of the functions the peacekeeping force is to perform.

The peacekeeping force deters violent acts by its physical presence at violence-prone locations. It collects information through means such as observation posts, patrols, and aerial reconnaissance.

ADA may play a major role in this operation. ADA will deter enemies from using TBMs, ABTs, and UAVs. ADA units will deploy to the area to provide air defense protection over geopolitical targets and critical assets. THAAD and Patriot will be key systems in support of this operation. Support to NATO and the Republic of Korea are historical examples of this type of operation. The continuing presence of US forces in Saudi Arabia provides a current example of peacekeeping operations. Special ROE apply to this type of operation and are usually more restrictive.

ADA provides capabilities which are critical for other types of peace keeping operations as well. AD units are integrated into the joint counterair campaign to enforce no-fly zones and safe havens established by the United Nations. In these types of operations, the establishment ROE, air defense procedures and measures, and a fully capable BM/C4I system is critical. Of major concern in peace keeping air defense operations, is the identification of friendly aircraft operating in the no-fly zone or safe haven.


Nation assistance supports a host nation's efforts to promote development--ideally through the use of host nation resources. The interagency orchestration of all the elements of national power is essential for success. It must be supportive of both the ambassador's country plan and the CINC's regional plans. The goals of nation assistance are to promote long-term stability, develop sound and responsive democratic institutions,

develop supportive infrastructure, promote strong free-market economies, and provide an environment that allows for orderly political change and economic progress. These can only be accomplished through education and the transfer of essential skills to the host nation, which will enable it to meet its own needs independent of external support. Nation assistance missions may occur in any environment.

Air defense will play a minor role in nation assistance activities. A possible role would be the use of air defense soldiers to help train host nation personnel in the use of communications equipment and assisting in the establishment of command and control nodes. This activity would require AD leaders to coordinate with the ambassador's in-country teams to preclude possible interference with an established security assistance program.


Security assistance consists of the group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act, the Arms Export Act, and other related statutes. Through security assistance programs, the United States provides materiel, military training, and defense-related services by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales to further its national policies and objectives. A predominant interface of the US Army with host nations occurs through the Security Assistance Training Program (SATP). This program has two primary subcomponents - the International Military Education and Training Program (IMETP) and the Foreign Military Sales Program (FMSP).

(1) International Military Education and Training Program

This Program, IMETP is designed to enhance the proficiency, professional performance, and readiness of foreign armed forces. The United States conducts international education and training in CONUS as well as in the host nation. This typically takes the form of formal course, orientation tours, and on-the-job training. The Air Defense Artillery School plays a major role in training allied soldiers on the use of ADA systems. Allied soldiers learn how to use, employ, and maintain the equipment. ADA units may be tasked to provide on-the-job training.

(2) Foreign Military Sales Program

This FMSP allows designated governments to purchase military equipment, services, and training from the United States. The sale of defense items may require training on the operation and maintenance of military equipment. Mobile training teams, resident instruction in US Army schools, and similar methods are used to conduct this training. The FMSP differs from the IMETP in the recipient pays for the equipment, services, and training. The ADA brigade and its subordinate units do not participate in the FMSP, however the ADA school does.


At the direction of the National Command Authorities (NCA), US military forces may assist either insurgent movements or host nation governments opposing an insurgency. In both instances, the military instrument of US national power predominantly supports political, economic and informational objectives.

The United States will use its military resources to provide support to a host nation's counterinsurgency operations in the context of foreign internal defense (FID) through logistical and training support. FID is the participation by civilian and military agencies in any of the action programs another government takes to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency. The US ambassador, through the country team, provides the focal point for interagency coordination and supervision of FID. Military support to FID is provided through the unified CINC. Depending on the threat, the AAMDC may support this type of operation.


Noncombatant evacuation operations (NEO) relocate threatened civilian noncombatants from locations in a foreign country or host nation. These operations may involve US citizens abroad whose lives are in danger, it or could also include selected host nation citizens, third world country nationals, or members of non-government organizations. NEO occur in a peaceful, orderly fashion or may require forcible means. The Army may conduct NEO in the environments of SASO or war.


Military efforts support and complement, rather than replace, the counterdrug efforts of other US agencies, the states, and cooperating foreign governments. Army support can occur in any or all phases of a combined and synchronized effort to attack the flow of illegal drugs at the source, in transit, and during distribution. Army participation in counterdrug operations will normally be in support of law enforcement agencies.

Support to host nations includes assistance to their forces to destroy drug production facilities; collaboration with host nation armed forces to prevent export of illegal drugs; and nation assistance to help develop economic alternatives to production, exportation, and distribution of drugs. Support to interdiction efforts centers on monitoring and detecting illegal drugs in transit as well as integrating command, control, communications and intelligence systems. US forces may well assists host nation forces at war while they are in an operation other than war posture.

Support for domestic counterdrug operations includes military planning and training assistance for domestic law enforcement agencies, participation by the National Guard, equipment loans and transfers, use of military facilities, and other assistance as requested and authorized. This support may expand as national policy and legal prohibitions evolve.

Air defense sensor surveillance and intelligence reporting will be the primary role for ADA units. The sensors are ideally suited to provide long range surveillance support to this type of operation. This support will normally be provided to US customs and border patrol organizations along the US border, but may be used to detect aircraft suspected of transporting contraband. An example of this support is the border surveillance provided by 2-1 ADA to Joint Task Force VI.


Peace enforcement operations are military operations in support of diplomatic efforts to restore peace between hostile factions which may not be consenting to intervention and may be engaged in combat activities. Peace enforcement implies the use of force or its threat to coerce hostile factions to cease and desist from violent actions. Units conducting peace enforcement, therefore, cannot maintain their objective neutrality in every

instance. They must be prepared at all times to apply elements of combat power to restore order, separate warring factions, and return the environment to conditions more conducive to civil order and discipline.

ADA units may play a major in role in providing force protection and protection of geopolitical assets from missile or air attack. By denying one of the warring parties the advantage of air power, peace may be established quicker. An area where ADA may see increasing participation is the enforcement of no-fly zones. This is evidenced in South Korea and Saudi Arabia with the employment of the Patriot missile system.


A show of force is a mission carried out to demonstrate US resolve in which US forces deploy to defuse a situation that may be detrimental to US interests or national objectives. Shows of force lend credibility to the nation's commitments, increase regional influence, and demonstrate resolve. These operations can influence other governments or politico-military organizations to respect US interests and international law. They can take the form of combined training exercises, rehearsals, forward deployment of military forces, or introduction and buildup of military forces in a region. The appearance of a credible military force can underscore national policy interests and commitment, improve host-nation military readiness and morale, and provide an insight into US values.

Air defense units are ideally suited for this role. Patriot Batteries deployed to Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain after the Persian Gulf War are examples of Show of Force. Air defense provides a defensive weapon system so the introduction of ADA forces does not lead to further escalation of tensions. A belligerent nation will not consider deployment of an air defense unit as raising the level of hostilities. Early deployment of ADA shows US national resolve. It positions the unit in-country to support follow-on contingency operations. Air defense will provide a forward presence and defend APODs and SPODs which support the protecting force in the deployment phase of a contingency operation..


The Army conducts attacks and raids to create situations that permit seizing and maintaining political and military initiative. Normally, the United States executes attacks and raids to achieve specific objectives other than gaining or holding terrain. Attacks by conventional ground, air, or special operations forces acting independently or in concert are used to damage or destroy high-value targets or to demonstrate US capability and resolve to achieve a favorable result. Raids are usually small-scale operations involving swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information, temporarily seize an objective or destroy a target. Raids are followed by a rapid, preplanned withdrawal. These operations also occur in war.

Operations Just Cause and Desert One are two historical examples of this type of operation. Air defense SHORAD units are ideally suited for this type of operation. Air defense provides force protection and defense of critical assets which support the development of the raiding or attack party. The Iranian Raid in Desert One is an example where air defense SHORAD units were used. Avenger might be used if the threat was significant and sufficient lift assets are available. Lift assets are generally limited in this type of operation therefore SHORAD are likely for deployment.


The Department of State is the lead US agency in combating terrorism overseas or on the high seas; the Department of Justice (the Federal Bureau of Investigation) has this responsibility within the US. The Department of Transportation (Federal Aviation Administration) combats terrorism related to aircraft in flight within the territories of the US. The Department of Defense supports each of these agencies in these activities.

Combating terrorism has two major subcomponents--antiterrorism and counter-terrorism. During peacetime, the Army combats terrorism primarily through antiterrorism. These actions consist of passive defensive measures taken to minimize vulnerability to terrorism. Antiterrorism is a form of force protection and, thus, the responsibility of Army commanders at all levels.

Counter-terrorism is the full range of offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. Army elements, such as special operations forces, assist in this interagency effort by applying specialized capabilities to preclude, preempt, and resolve terrorist incidents abroad. Counter-terrorism occurs in conflict and war; antiterrorism occurs across the continuum.

Since ADA units may face a terrorist threat during SASO, they must be prepared to implement antiterrorism measures. In addition, if terrorists or other hostile regional powers possess the means to conduct terrorist activities using aircraft or missiles, ADA units may be deployed to protect US or host nation forces and facilities.


Humanitarian assistance operations provide emergency relief to victims of natural or man-made disasters when initiated in response to domestic, foreign government, or international agency requests for immediate help and rehabilitation. Disaster relief operations include activities such as refugee assistance, food programs, medical treatment and care, restoration of law and order, damage and capabilities assessment, and damage control (to include environmental cleanup or other programs such as firefighting). The Army can provide logistics support to move supplies to remote areas, extract or evacuate victims, establish emergency communications, conduct direct medical support operations, and render emergency repairs to vital facilities. The Army also can provide manpower for civil relief or assist civil authorities with public safety.

ADA units may be tasked to participate in this type of operation. The supported forces G5 must coordinate with local authorities to outline the procedures for ADA to follow in support of civilian relief efforts. The G4 will establish special requisition procedures to obtain supplies to support this operation. The legal section must provide guidance to unit commanders on any special matters. Care must be exercised not to violate civil laws or create unfair competition to local contractors assisting in the relief operation. The air defense unit will not be using its equipment as originally intended. The G3 will establish special training programs to train air defense soldiers on any special requirements and restrictions.

Army elements involved in international disaster relief operations are often responsible for supporting the implementation of assistance programs developed by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance within the Department of State. Domestic disaster relief efforts are generally under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), although immediate response is permitted to prevent loss of life and property. The Army's global reach, its ability to rapidly deploy, and its capability to operate in the most austere environments make it ideally suited for these missions.

ADA units may be tasked to participate in this type of operation; however, they are not particularly suited to perform these tasks due to specialization of authorized equipment. Some examples of an ADA unit providing humanitarian assistance and disaster relief are the firefighting teams provided by 1-3 ADA and 1-52 ADA during the Yellowstone Fires in 1988 and the use of transportation assets of 3-62 ADA during Hurricane Andrew relief.


Arms control focuses on promoting strategic military stability. It encompasses any plan, arrangement or process regarding control over the numbers, types, and performance characteristics of weapons systems. This extends not only to weapons themselves but also to command and control, logistics support and intelligence-gathering mechanisms. Army units provide assistance in monitoring the proliferation of weapons and technology, in verifying the status of arms control agreements, and in demilitarizing munitions and hardware.

ADA units do not normally play a role in this type of operations. However ADA soldiers may be selected to serve on arms control teams.


When appropriate governmental authority directs the armed forces to assist in domestic emergencies within CONUS, the Army has primary responsibility. Army units support disaster relief, humanitarian assistance, and similar operations.

Federal law authorizes the domestic use of military force to suppress domestic violence or insurrection, but the Constitution and Federal law impose restrictions on the use of the military in this manner. the Constitution and federal law, however, restrict its use in this manner.


The AAMDC commander manages the resources in his command. These resources are personnel, equipment, funds, and time.


The personnel assigned to AAMDC organizations have very complex skills. Some of these skills can be directly applied to SASO. The amount of manpower available to the AAMDC assets is fixed by the applicable TOEs. Some personnel may be requested for liaison, however, there are limitations on manpower available for SASO.


The equipment assigned to AAMDC organizations has specific purposes. Some of the equipment can be used to support SASO requirements. The number and types of equipment available to the AAMDC assets are fixed by the applicable TOEs. Special equipment and logistics support requirements to support SASO have to be identified, received, made operational and personnel trained.

c. Funds

Identify resources for the operation. Involve organization resource managers at the earliest stages of planning. Funding for SASO will be available to support these activities. This funding should be provided to preselected organizations and units. This would allow for the personnel of these units to train for a specific mission or set of missions to support SASO. It would reduce costs in purchasing special equipment for all AAMDC organizations and or units by selecting certain organizations and or units to handle one or more of the SASO activities. Expenditures of funds in this manner would provide cost benefits for manpower and or personnel utilization, special SASO equipment requirements, and better use of time. Identify and plan for required contracting support to enable timely acquisition of host nation/allied assets as required.

d. Time

The proper use of time to service tactical mission requirements and SASO activities will result in clearer focus of resources. The assignments of the specific organizations and or units to SASO activities will result in a better use of time by not requiring all organizations or units to train and equip for all SASO activities. It would allow for a more equitable use of time to train for the tactical missions to include force protection operations.


The AAMDC commander must provide force notification to prepare for immediate deployment and movement in support of SASO. Notification should include a staging location and time when forces are to assemble with all appropriate personnel, supplies, arms, ammunition, and equipment required to accomplish the operation. The command must also:

· assemble all forces at the staging location and prepare them for transport.

· load forces, supplies, arms, ammunition, and equipment on appropriate transportation and transport to deployment location via ground, air, or surface (sea).

· emplace forces, supplies, arms, ammunition, and equipment at appropriate bed down locations.

· position forces so they can effectively reach the enemy with the majority of ADA power for best advantage in surprising/engaging enemy air forces.

· be prepared to navigate in unfamiliar air, sea, or ground environments in order that ADA forces may close with and destroy the enemy.

· move ADA forces to contact with enemy forces by ground, surface or air means.

· engage and destroy/neutralize enemy air assets.


The AAMDC will coordinate with TAACOM activities to ensure ADA units benefit from the below listed logistic functions and that sustainment of ADA units is timely, responsive, dedicated and implemented.

· Supply. Supply arms, equipment, ammunition, fuel, and food.

· Maintain. Repair and maintain arms and equipment regularly.

· Provide field services. Provide field services (food, clothing, bedding, laundry, etc.).

· Provide personnel services support. Provide personnel services such as finance, chaplain, legal, etc., to friendly forces.

· Provide medical/veterinary services support. Provide medical, dental, and veterinary support to friendly forces.

· Provide mapping, charting, and geodesy services support. Ensure maps and charts are available in appropriate coverage and proper amounts for use in the particular area. Provide appropriate geodesy data to support operations in SASO.


The AAMDC commander must coordinate to ensure the following activities are accomplished to leverage theater transportation assets:

· Provide organic transportation management. Manage, control, move and plan requirements for transportation services in an SASO environment.

· Possibly perform terminal operations. Establish terminal operations to receive, warehouse, load, and distribute equipment, fuel, and other materiel.


The AAMDC commander must coordinate the following actions with health service providers to ensure ADA soldiers receive proper medical care:

· Ensure medical/dental treatment. Ensure medical/dental treatment to ADA military forces in SASO.

· Coordinate to evacuate casualties. Provide evacuation support to ADA military casualties in SASO.

· Coordinate for provision of preventive medicine. Provide preventive medicine support to ADA personnel.


The AAMDC commander must ensure that ADA units are trained to perform SASO activities. ADA ARTEP and mission training plans detail training requirements necessary for ADA mission accomplishment. Certain tasks required to be performed during SASO may fall into the realm of common skill tasks. Others may have to be learned as required. Regardless of the SASO mission assigned to ADA units, they must anticipate demands and be prepared and trained to support SASO.