This chapter provides doctrine for air defense battle command. It addresses the aspects of command and control, the responsibilities of the commander as it relates to battle management. It also addresses the command system capabilities necessary to help the commander to integrate and coordinate functions and execute successful operations. Battle command is a vital factor in executing the tenets of Army operations, surviving, and winning quickly and decisively on future battlefields or in support and stability operations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BATTLE COMMAND CONCEPT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
ELEMENTS OF BATTLE COMMAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
COMMANDERíS RESPONSIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
AIR DEFENSE COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS . . . . 3-4
COORDINATION AND LIAISON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
JOINT BATTLE SYNCHRONIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
ARMY AIRSPACE COMMAND AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
BATTLE COMMAND C4I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
AAMDC CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
3-1 BATTLE COMMAND CONCEPT
Battle command is the art of battle decision making. It entails leading and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish missions at least cost to soldiers. Battle command includes visualizing the current and desired future states of friendly and enemy forces and then deciding how to get from one to the other at least cost. The commander assigns missions, prioritizes and allocates resources, selects the critical time and place to act, and knows how and when to make adjustments during the fight. In addition to deciding, battle command includes leading and motivating units toward the desired end state. In relationship to the "battlefield" this leadership must be up front. Leaders must be with soldiers. They must feel the pain and pride then decide the best course of action to accomplish the mission at least cost to soldiers.
Commanders assess; take risks; and see, hear, and understand the needs of subordinates and seniors. Commanders go where they can best influence the battle, where their moral and physical presence can be felt, and where their will to achieve victory can best be expressed, understood, and acted upon.
3-2 ELEMENTS OF BATTLE COMMAND
Battle command has two vital components--decision making and leadership. Both components demand skill, wisdom, experience, and courage. As such, command is more an art than a science. In battle, it is often guided by intuition and feel gained from years of practice and study. The two elements of battle command are tightly interwoven. They integrate leading, guiding and motivation with the knowledge to establish and define the limits of control throughout the course of a mission.
a. Decision Making
Decision making is knowing if to decide, then when and what to decide. Decision brings with it the cost of committing resources, foreclosing options, incurring risk, and revealing intentions to the enemy. Commanders anticipate the activities that will be put into motion once a decision is make. They know how irreversible some commitments will be once execution begins. Uncertainty and chance will always complicate decision making.
The commander cannot, and should not, attempt to know everything. However, he must know that which is important. The battle command system must provide him a solid base of information from which he can pick and choose what he needs. The commander must glean the information he knows to be vital from what is available and provided by others. He bears personal responsibility for defining the critical information, friendly or enemy, he must have. The commander cannot be a prisoner of a command post. He must retain access to the information he needs to command wherever he is on the battlefield. Battle command demands that leaders position themselves where they can best command without depriving them of the ability to respond to changing situations. The commander must be able to go where he can best assess the operation and risks and make the necessary adjustments.
Battle command demand that the commander retain his objectivity when making decisions and not be swayed by the passions of the moment. The successful commander requires a balanced detachment from the unimportant, with an instinctive recognition of what is important and what requires his direct involvement. The commander cannot attempt to address personally every action. Knowing what requires his attention and what can be handled by his staff and subordinate commanders is key to time management and a decentralized command environment.
Leadership is taking responsibility for actions of the command and the decisions which cause those actions. Commanders will be compelled to act without all the relevant information and must be prepared to deal with the consequences thereof. The lack of available information does not invalidate the responsibility of command. Forces, when put in motion, are not easily reversed. After forces have been put in motion, the commander must provide the strength and will to follow through with the choices, and the wisdom to know when they must be changed and further decisions made.
The commanderís strength of character and ability to motivate are among the most vital components of successful command. The commander serves as a role model. He promotes the proper ethical perspectives, sustains a positive and progressive command climate, and fosters a sense of organizational unity and cohesion. Commanders are technically and tactical proficient and possess the moral toughness that provides soldiers the will to fight.
3-3 COMMANDERíS RESPONSIBILITY
The role of the commander is key to the centralized planning conducted at each level of command. The commander does not merely participate in the processes--the commander drives them! From initial intelligence preparation of the battlefield through course of action development to the actual issue of orders and directives, the personal involvement of the commander is critical.
The commander is the key to concept formulation, planning, and executing at each level of command. The commanderís personal responsibility is formulating the single unifying concept. Commanders must understand the intent of the commander two levels up and understand the intent and concept of operation of the immediate senior commander. Commanders must also understand the battle from the perspective of adjacent units and subordinate commanders who must execute the decisions. The commanderís estimate and assessment process helps decide how to accomplish the assign mission.
Through personal assessment and war-gaming, commanders must determine and specify which critical and priority items of information they need to see and understand the battlefield and the flow of operations. The commander must focus the organization and battle command systems to give the information needed to conduct the estimate and refine the assessment driven by time or event. The commander must, however, still be prepared to make decisions and accept risk without complete information, recognizing that waiting for complete information, may result in lost opportunities to act. Too much information can paralyze a force as quickly as too little if the commander hesitates to act in ambiguous situations. The commander must tell the staff what information is important to get. Whatever factors are present, the commander is personally responsible for establishment of the commanderís critical information requirements and priority intelligence requirements.
Once the commander has the necessary information, he must possess the creativity and intuition to visualize the flow of events toward a future state. The commander formulates a concise expression of how elements of the command will operate together to accomplish their operational responsibilities and missions.
Commanders must be able to convey to subordinates a clear, concise statement of their intent for future operations which includes the purpose; what, how, and when they want specific tasks accomplished; and the desired end state. Their concept of the operation must include an overall scheme of operations, the necessary interfaces and coordination, the sequence from one phase to another, and the priorities and risks the commander is willing to take. Connectivity must exist between current operations and the branches and sequels of the future plan. While a portion of this future state may be directed by a higher level commanderís intent, the commander must possess the ability to envision the organizationís future state within its battle space.
While techniques and procedures may vary, planning and executing operations are continuous concurrent activities. Commanders must master time-space-resource-purpose relationships and understand the ways they affect friendly and enemy capabilities to achieve battle success. They must be able to orchestrate all functions affecting their battle space--intelligence, fires, force positioning, resourcing, deception, and timing. In addition, they must have a personal awareness of the battle to influence the tempo and impact of the operations. Commanders make necessary adjustments of current operations and possible modifications of future operations through interactions with other commanders and staffs as well as their own staffs.
Decision making and problem solving are not done in isolation. However, the commander must determine which decisions may be made by designated subordinates. Typical decisions retained by commanders are for changes in intent, mission, concept of operations, priorities (main effort, air, or missile defense), or major reallocation of means.
b. Air Defense Coordinator
As air defense coordinator (ADCOORD), the ADA commander and representatives in the force CP are responsible for active air and missile defense planning. The ADCOORD is an integral member of the commanderís staff planning team. The ADCOORD assists in integrating CA and TMD priorities into the forceís targeting process. The ADCOORD recommends attack operations priorities to the Deep Operations Control Cell (DOCC). He also recommends active, passive, and other combined arms air defense measures in the air defense estimate. After approval and staff coordination, the ADCOORD develops the air defense annex to the plan. The ADE provides the ADCOORDís representatives to the corps CPs. Appendix B provides a detailed description of the air defense estimate and annex. Chapter four (4) further discuses force projection operations.
The ADCOORD also coordinates with AD elements at higher and lower echelons, as well as at adjacent units. Coordination ensures vertical and horizontal integration of air defense coverage throughout the battlefield. In force-projection operations, this will include integration with joint or multinational counterair and theater missile defense participants.
c. Missile Defense Coordinator
The MDCOORD participates in TMD planning, integration and closely coordinates Army missile defense contributions to the overall TMD effort. The MDCOORD works closely with the DOCC/FSE, G2 and G3 to recommend prioritized TMD targets. The MDCOORD participates in active defense TMD planning, integration and closely coordinates with active defense elements in theater for TM engagements. The MDCOORD participates in passive defense TMD planning, integration and closely coordinates with passive defense elements to provide EW and alerting concerning possible impacts of WMD. The MDCOORD makes targeting recommendations, weighing them against other requirements of the commanderís plan competing for the same fire support. Many TMD targets fall into the category of deep targets.
d. Theater Area Air Defense Coordinator
The TAADCOORD performs several functions. He is the Army air defense coordinator to the JFLCC, the JFACC, and the AADC. The TAADCOORD ensures that the Army is an integral part of joint counterair and active missile defense operations and planning at the theater level. The TAADCOORD, as a special staff officer to the JFLCC, participates in the J3 or DCSOPS planning cells and assists in developing ARMY OCA and DCA input to the air operations plan. He participates in the integration of Army TMD operations. The TAADCOORD also participates in the AADCís DCA planning as ADCOORD and Army AD representative to the JAFACC. IN addition, the TADCOORD ensures that corps air and missile defense requirements are integrated into joint counterair and TMD planning. He deploys resources in both the combat and communications zones and influences tactical operations by shifting the ADA force between these two areas, based on the concept of the operation. See figure 3-, TAADCOORD functions.
FIGURE 3-XX TAADCOORD FUNCTIONS (PG 6-5 44-100)
e. Area Air Defense Commander
The JFC assigns overall responsibility for theater level defensive counterair and active defense TMD operations to a single commander. The AADC is normally the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capabilities and the command, control, and communications capability to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. His responsibilities will be defined by the JFC. Normally , the AADC performs the following functions:
· Integrates defensive counterair forces and operations
· Develops a data base of friendly TMD active defense capabilities to facilitate TMD planning.
· Develops and executes plans for JTMD active defense operations
· Develops and promulgates weapon control procedures and measures.
· Develops and executes plans for dissemination of missile warning information to components, allies, and host nation civil authorities.
3-4 AIR DEFENSE COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS
ADA has separate chains for command and control functions. The command and control chains are shown in Figure 3-1. If the Navy component commander were the area air defense commander, the operational control of all echelons above corps ADA forces would change. While there are no obvious command or control lines between the area air defense commander and corps and below ADA forces, corps forces still comply with theater AD rules of engagement and air defense weapon control procedures.
Figure 3-1. Theater air defense command and control chain1
a. Command Chain
The command chain links the theater commander, the Army component commander, the AAMDC commander, the ADA brigade commanders, and the ADA battalion commanders, for echelons above corps, in a successive chain. It also links the Army component commander, corps commanders, corps ADA brigade commanders, corps ADA battalion commanders, division commanders, and divisional ADA battalion commanders.
Command and control relationships for AD units are established by the joint force commander, joint force land component commander, and corps/division commanders according to joint doctrine. ADA forces assigned to corps and lower maneuver elements are under the operational control of the echelon commander. At echelons above corps, ADA Forces are under the operational control of the JFLCC.
Special command status can be formed by placing the ADA unit under tactical control, attachment, operational command, or operational control of another unit. These status create special operational, training, administrative, and logistical relationships among the ADA unit, its parent organization, and the receiving unit. Standard ADA support relationships can also be used.
(1) Tactical Control
Tactical control is the detailed, and usually local, direction and control of movement and maneuver necessary for mission accomplishment. The parent ADA unit commander retains training, administrative, and logistical responsibilities.
Attachment is the temporary placement of a unit within another organization. Subject to the limitations imposed by the attachment order and by the rules and procedures established by the area air defense commander, the commander of the organization receiving an attached ADA element will exercise the same degree of command and control over attached units as over organic units. This includes administrative and logistical support. The parent ADA unit commander retains the responsibility for the transfer and promotion of personnel.
(3) Operational Control
Operational command and operational control (US) are synonymous terms in a pure US environment. In this special command status, the commander receiving the ADA unit is responsible for--
· Composing subordinate forces. · Designating objectives.
· Assigning tasks. · Employing forces.
The parent ADA unit commander is responsible for--
· Administration. · Logistics.
· Discipline. · Training.
· Internal organization.
(4) Operational Command-NATO
Operational command is a special command status in which the receiving commander is responsible for--
· Assigning missions or tasks. · Reassigning forces.
· Deploying units. · Retaining or delegating tactical control.
(The parent ADA unit commander retains responsibility for administration and logistics.)
(5) Operational Control-NATO
Operational control gives the receiving commander responsibility for the direction of forces for specific missions or tasks usually limited by function, time, or location. (The parent ADA unit commander retains responsibility for administration and logistics.)
b. Support Relationships
Support relationships define specific arrangements and responsibilities between supporting and supported units. There are four support relationships.
(1) Direct support. In direct support (DS), the supporting unit provides dedicated support to a specific unit. A DS ADA unit provides dedicated air defense for a specific element of the force which has no organic air defense. The supporting ADA unit coordinates its movement and positioning with the supported unit.
(2) General support. An ADA unit in GS provides support for the force as a whole. It is not committed to any specific element of the supported force. It does not support a specific unit within the larger unit's area of operations. An ADA unit in GS remains under the control of its higher ADA commander, and is positioned by its ADA commander. GS is commonly used to protect EAC, corps, or division level assets.
(3) Reinforcing. A reinforcing ADA unit augments the coverage of another ADA unit and strengthens the air defense of the force. A reinforcing ADA unit is positioned to protect one or more of the reinforced unit's priorities as specified by the supported ADA unit commander. For example, a corps high- to medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) battalion could reinforce the ADA battalion assigned to the division.
(4) General support-reinforcing. An ADA unit with a GS-R mission provides support for the force as a whole and secondarily augments the support provided by another ADA unit. ADA units with a GS-R mission have a primary responsibility to provide support to the force as a whole within a specific area, but must coordinate with the supported ADA unit to reinforce the coverage of assets in the AO.
The ADA Support Relationships illustration (Figure 3-2) shows responsibilities associated with each ADA support relationship.
ADA SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS
Who establishes priorities?
The supported commander.
The ADA commander who established the support relationship.
The supported commander.
The ADA commander who established the support relationship.
Who positions ADA fire units?
The ADA commander with approval of the support commander.
The ADA commander in coordination with local ground commander.
The ADA commander with approval of reinforced ADA commander.
The ADA commander in coordination with reinforced ADA commander.
Who coordinates for terrain used by ADA fire units?
The supported commander.
The ADA commander who established the support relationship.
The reinforced ADA commander.
The ADA commander who established the support relationship.
With whom should liaison be established?
The supported unit.
As required and the reinforced ADA unit.
As required and the reinforced ADA unit.
With whom should communications be established?
The supported unit.
As required and the reinforced ADA unit.
As required and the reinforced ADA unit.
1. The term "positions" specifies the selection of the exact placement of individual fire units within the AO.
2. The parent ADA commander retains responsibility for administration and logistics.
Fig 3-2 ADA Support Relationships
b. Control Chain
The JFC normally assigns responsibility for overall air defense and airspace control to an Airspace Control authority (ACA). The ACA develops policies and procedures of airspace control that are incorporated into an airspace control plan (ACP) and promulgated throughout the area of responsibility or joint operating area. However, this centralized direction by the ACA does not imply operational control (OPCON) or tactical control over any air asset. Refer to Joint Pub 3-52, "Doctrine for Joint Airspace Control in the Combat Zone," and Joint Pub 3-56.1, "Command and Control for Joint Air Operations" for more details concerning the ACA, JFACC, and AADC.
The Area air defense Commander (AADC) is responsible for joint air defense. Normally, the AADC is the component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) capability to plan, coordinate, and execute integrate air defense operations. All DCA weapons systems and forces are subject to the weapons control procedures established by the AADC.
The CRC exercises engagement control of EAC brigades but normally delegates battle management functions. The AAMDC exercises OPCON less engagement control of EAC brigades. Component commanders will normally retain OPCON of their forces; however, the JFC may allocate component capabilities and forces to the JFACC and/or AADC to support theater and/or JOA -wide counterair missions.
When Army air defense units are assigned, attached, or organic to Army maneuver elements, they remain subject to area or region rules of engagement to ensure a coordinated and integrated air defense effort. The maneuver corps commander will have command of assigned, attached, or organic ADA units.
3-5 COORDINATION AND LIAISON
While automation and digitization are becoming bigger factors in battle command, the combat functions still require personal involvement. Since the commander cannot be at all places at all times, the staff and liaison teams support command intent and information needs.
a. Coordination Linkages
Staff coordination is a function of staff organization, command post configuration, doctrine, and local SOPs. The ADCOORD must have a representative in the staff cells to plan and execute deep, close, and rear operations. This representation provides horizontal and vertical coordination to the various elements of the joint force. These staff elements include intelligence, fire support, EW, Air Force staff, Army aviation, Navy and/or USMC air control systems, maneuver, and the Army airspace command and control (A 2C2) cell at all echelons of command. Staff coordination is possible due to the battle command structure that integrates the combat functions. The combat functions provide an interface among all staff elements at each level of command. The result is a vertical and horizontal integration of staff activity that serves to unify the effort of the force at all echelons.
Liaison is essential in multinational, joint, interagency, and combined arms operations. Robust liaison facilitates understanding, coordination, and mission accomplishment. Liaison personnel must be familiar with the staff and operational organizations, doctrine, and procedures of the force with which they will work as well as being subject matter experts on the air defense combat function.
The senior ADA organization in the theater is responsible to provide liaison to the land component commander, the battlefield coordination detachment, and the area air defense commander. It may also find it necessary to send liaison teams to the air headquarters of other services or multinational forces. In addition, liaison teams may also be required at other combat function locations, for logistics or intelligence for example.
Corps ADA brigade commanders provide liaison to the CRC, and all CPs of the corps and to select major subordinate commands. In some cases, it may be necessary to send liaison teams to divisions to supplement the divisional ADCOORD.
ADA battalion commanders provide liaison to the supported forces or the headquarters of the force in whose area they are operating. Dedicated liaison teams are provided to each committed and defended maneuver brigade task force or equivalent level force. ADA commanders as ADCOORD may supplement or replace liaison teams. At battalion task force and below, liaison teams are not provided on a dedicated basis. ADA leaders perform duties as ADCOORD, ADA commander, and AD staff officer.
3-6 JOINT BATTLE SYNCHRONIZATION
TMD units must see beyond their immediate tasks and objectives to recognize how their efforts fit within the concept of the operation. They counter the entire TM threat spectrum by integrating a system of systems called theater missile defense system. TMD commanders integrate their operations horizontally with all battlefield functions and operating systems and vertically with both higher and lower echelon missile defense units. Deep, close, and rear operations require continuos and simultaneous support.
Air defense units see beyond their immediate tasks and objectives to recognize how their efforts fit within the concept of the operations. They counter the entire aerial threat spectrum by integrating a system of systems. Air defense commanders integrate their operations horizontally with all battlefield operating systems and vertically with both higher and lower echelon air and missile defense units. Deep, close, and rear operations require simultaneous support.
3-7 MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS
TMD operations may be required within the context of an alliance, coalition, or other international arrangement. Requirements, responsibilities, and organizational considerations for conducting TMD in a multinational operations environment are similar to joint operations. However, special considerations and areas of emphasis are needed to ensure unity of effort with other national forces. Differences in doctrine, training, equipment, and organization should be identified and considered when determining multinational interoperability requirements for employing forces. When national forces of the multinational force are not uniformly capable of actively defending against threat TMs or attacking threat TM targets, provisions should be made to ensure TMD assets are provided for missile defense within multinational CINC-established priorities. Consensus on the TM threat, a clearly defined chain of command, and a responsive, interoperable C2 structure is crucial to successful multinational TMD operations. Considerations may also be given to assisting civil authorities in establishing passive defense measures of the civilian population and assets consistent with the overall mission. For detailed information on multinational TMD operations, see FM 100-8, Multinational Operations.
3-8 ARMY AIRSPACE COMMAND AND CONTROL
Army airspace command and control (A2C2) consists of those actions that ensure the synchronized use of A2C2 of those forces using the airspace. The A2C2 is linked to the airspace control authority (ACA) by communications, standardized procedures, and positive control activities. This integration becomes parts of the theater integrated airspace control system.
a. A2C2 System
A2C2 involves four basic functional activities. They are command and control, air defense, some aspects of fire support coordination, and air traffic control. The need to deconflict the airspace is the chief goal of A2C2. The A2C2 system must:
1. Expedite accomplishment of the tactical and operational mission.
2. Ensure that air defense weapons are free to engage all hostile aircraft within the prescribed rules of engagement while avoiding engagement of friendly aircraft.
3. Ensure that ground base fire support weapon systems are responsive to the maneuver commander and free to fire without posing an operational hazard to friendly aircraft operations.
4. Provide air traffic regulations and identification within assigned area of operations or designated area. (NOTE: See FM 100-103 for detailed information.)
b. Army Operations
Army operations are joint activities. This doctrine approach prescribes the use of all weapons, arms, and services fighting to the full width and depth of the battlefield. This battle extends to the third dimension. A2C2 maximizes joint force effectiveness by ensuring the concurrent employment of airspace users, synchronized in time, space and purpose to produce maximum power at the decisive point.
c. Army Operations Coordinator
The ground commander will be required to coordinate combat, combat support and combat service support forces simultaneously. This must be in the deep, rear and close operations. Potential users of the airspace include fire support assets, Army operations, air defense, and US and allied forces. Coordination will permit each user to maximize combat potential.
d. Battle Management
The AAMDC battle management tasks are centered on the force projection stages. The four tasks are to prepare, execute, evaluate and revise (doctrine, training, organization and hardware) to commit to the next war or SASO. Battle management includes both positive control and procedural control options. Planning is central to all battle management.
The preparation stages of force protection are training, mobilization, and predeployment. These stages are part of battle management. These stages are supported by continuous surveillance and C4I activities to get inside the possible threat's intelligence and strike cycle.
Battle management continues through the deployment, entry (unopposed and opposed), operations, and war termination and postconflict operations. These activities are the result of planning and coordination to ensure men and materiel arrive at the right place at the right time.
The focus of battle management is to continuously ensure the basic tenets of the Army's warfighting doctrine. The tenets, initiative, agility, depth and synchronization, are applied in the evaluation of battle and campaigns to seize our forces at every opportunity to achieve successful combat operations. We must recognize success as well as potential failure.
Force and engagement operations must be flexible so that forces can react immediately to revise instructions. These instructions must be based on concrete and timely intelligence. This intelligence is used in decision making and planning for the redeployment and reconstitution and demobilization stages. Battle management recycles back to preparation and surveillance.
e. Integrated Combat Airspace Command and Control
Airspace control provides increased operational effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace. Within a joint force AO, the JFC assigns overall responsibility and authority for airspace control to the ACA. The mission of the airspace control authority is to coordinate and integrate the use of airspace within the joint AO. Because of the close relationship between airspace control and air defense, the airspace control authority (ACA) is normally the AADC. Subject to the authority of the joint force commander, the ACA establishes the broad policies and procedures for airspace control operations and coordination among units operating in the airspace control area.
(1) Airspace Control
Airspace control measures afford the ACA the means to procedurally or positively control airspace. Airspace control measures are rules to reserve airspace for specific users, restrict actions of airspace users, control actions of specific airspace users, or require airspace users to accomplish specific actions. The ACA implements the airspace control measures through the theater airspace control plan and specific directives. The ADCOORD and A2C2 element at each echelon provide Army requirements to the battlefield coordination detachment (BCD) at the USAF air operations center or the equivalent coordination element at the Navy or Marine Corps tactical control facility for incorporation into the airspace control plan.
An important function of airspace control in air defense operations is identification. Positive hostile and friendly identification ensures timely engagement of targets and reduces the potential for fratricide. The tactical situation, electronic interference, or equipment malfunction may preclude positive friendly identification, but airspace control measures provide a procedural backup. From an ADA perspective, many airspace control measures provide a means of probable friendly identification and default hostile identification. These measures allow friendly forces optimum use of airspace while minimizing the risk of engagement by friendly air defense. Procedural examples are minimum risk routes, standard use Army aircraft flight routes, and air corridors. Other airspace control procedures afford commanders the means to control airspace use, protect ground operations or facilities, and control other users of the airspace. High density airspace control zones and restricted operations zones are examples of airspace procedural control measures. See FMs 100-103 and 100-103-1 for further details.
f. Positive Control
Positive control relies upon real-time data from sensors, IFF, computers, digital data links, and communications equipment to provide airspace and air defense control. Positive control is desirable but not always possible due to battlefield conditions and inherent system vulnerabilities. Facilities for positive control are subject to direct attack, sabotage, or jamming. Line-of-sight requirements and limited communications can also restrict the availability of data from operational facilities.
Positive control is a method of airspace control that uses electronic means. It relies on positive identification, tracking, and direction of aircraft within an airspace. Positive control is provided by:
· Radar control, the continuous control of aircraft using radar and identification, friend or foe (IFF)/selective identification feature (SIF) authentication procedure returns.
· Monitoring service, the general surveillance of known air traffic movements by reference to radar scope presentations or other means.
g. Procedural Control
Procedural control overcomes positive control and identification shortcomings. Procedural control relies upon techniques such as segmenting airspace by volume and time and using weapon control status. Procedural techniques are usually more restrictive than positive techniques but are less vulnerable to degradation from electronic or physical attack. Procedural control enhances the continuity of operations under the adverse conditions expected on the battlefield. It provides an immediate backup system should degradation of positive control occur. Additionally, procedural techniques provide a management means for air defense systems that do not have real-time data transmission capabilities.
h. Mix of Positive and Procedural Control
The optimum method of controlling air defense operations is a mix of positive and procedural techniques. Commanders charged with air battle management consider the factors of METT-T in their analysis. They specifically focus on mission, AO, and the threat.
The nature of the theater may also dictate what type of control is used. Mature theaters have elaborate and tested electronic management facilities in place. Immature theaters may not have such systems in place and will rely heavily on procedural control. As the lodgment area expands and additional ADA assets arrive in the theater, a transition to positive control may take place.
Forward of the corps area, friendly aircraft generally move based primarily on mission requirements. These aircraft are used to provide a rapid and flexible response to the needs of both air and ground commanders. The high volume of aircraft and friendly missiles, combined with flexible and varying missions, makes positive control extremely difficult and necessitates more reliance on procedural control.
For positive management, commanders also consider the numbers and type(s) of electronic means available. This will vary according to the depth of the battlefield. As operations move farther forward, available means for positive control may decrease necessitating additional procedural management.
Air traffic behind the division generally moves in types of movements that are well-suited for positive control. Air defense is usually in a critical or static asset defense role in this area. In this area of the battlefield, positive control is easier to effect and is the preferred method. Procedural control provides backup.
The precise definitions of the methods of airspace control are meaningful only when taken in the context that airspace control in the combat zone varies between the two extremes of positive and procedural. The two methods of control are fully compatible. Their relative significance at any time depends on the airspace control facilities available and the degree of threat interference. The tactical situation demands a mixture of the two methods. The Army's primary methodology is for the use of procedural control with positive control employed in those situations where such control is required and possible.
i. Army Airspace Command and Control System Principles
The land component commander exercises command of all assigned land forces and is responsible for planning and executing ground combat operations. Subject to the operational C2 of the joint force commander, the joint forces land component commander (JFLCC) is responsible for merging C2 and A2C2 for assigned forces. The JFLCC's responsibilities for accomplishing the functional activity of A2C2 include:
· Tactically employing ground forces.
· Using SHORAD weapons systems according to the policies and procedures established by the area air defense commander.
· Coordinating the employment of his forces, aircraft, and weapons with other service components as required by the tactical situation.
· Providing airspace control in designated special use airspace under policies and procedures established by the ACA.
· Forwarding requests for establishment of airspace control measures to the ACA for approval.
· Developing airspace control plans and procedures for assigned forces under the policies and procedures of the ACA.
· Establishing and maintaining interface with the ACA and the integrated airspace control system.
The land component commander of a theater of operations is assigned the responsibility to design and direct major ground operations for the theater of operations. A theater Army as the Army service component command has support responsibilities and is responsible for the COMMZ.
The LCC exercises control over assigned forces through a tactical operations center. The assigned land assets of the LCC are controlled and directed through the land component or Army group, corps, and division headquarters.
The A2C2 system (Figure 3-3) is an arrangement of A2C2 staff elements of each command echelon from maneuver battalion through theater Army. It includes ADA command and control elements, fire support coordination elements, Army air traffic services facilities, and airspace control liaison personnel with key facilities of the ACA. These staff elements, command and control facilities, and liaison elements are linked by communications and standing operating procedures and by a common understanding of the situation, the mission, and the commander's intent and concept of operations.
Figure 3-3 Army Airspace Command and Control
j. Standard Operational Procedures
Commanders, staffs, and airspace users utilize an array of standardized control measures to assign responsibility, ensure conformity with the tactical plan, describe and illustrate the concept, maintain separation of forces, concentrate effort, coordinate fires with maneuver, and assist in the command and control of forces. When airspace procedural control measures are incorporated with these standard operational measures Army forces have the means to graphically depict the integration, coordination, regulation, and identification of Army airspace users in a given area of operations. FM 101-5-1, "Operational Terms and Symbols", combined arms manuals such as FM 71-100, Division Operations" and FM 100-15, "Corps Operations", and functional manuals such as FM 44-100, "US Army Air Defense Operations", and FM 6-20, "Fire Support in the Airland Battle", provide further guidance pertaining to applying these operational procedures in various tactical operations.
The Army relies upon positive and procedural control for synchronizing airspace users in the main battle area. The Army's methodology for airspace control in this area is based on the use of coordinating altitude, standard operational procedures and graphics, fire support coordination measures, and air defense rules of engagement (see Figure 3-4).
Control Measure Advantages
Doctrinal Approach to Control Measures
· Supports Airland battle C2.
· Selected airspace control measures.*
-- Coordinating Altitude
· Minimizes requirements for ACA approval
-- Standard use Army flight routes
-- Others as required
· Assures conformity with the tactical plan
· Standard operational procedures and tactics
· Prevents interference among units.
-- Control and coordination measures
· Describes and illustrates the concept
· Fire support coordination measures
· Adds flexibility
· Allows for maximum freedom of action of supporting forces
· Air defense rules of engagement and control measures
-- Hostile Criteria
-- Weapons control status
· Is responsive to the commander.
-- Weapons engagement areas
· C2 system provides adjunct
*Use of theater airspace control measures is based on consideration of time required to put into effect, restrictions on other users, and airspace controlling authority responsibilities.
Figure 3-4 Airspace control methodology.
k. Airspace Command and Control Tasks
The basic staff tasks to be accomplished are the same for A2C2 as for any other function. Chapter 3 of FM 100-103, "Army Airspace Command and Control in the Combat Zone", amplifies the A2C2 tasks allocated to organizational levels. These tasks are:
· Facilitate and monitor the accomplishment of command decisions;
· Provide timely and accurate information to the commander and subordinate units;
· Anticipate requirements and provide estimates of the situation;
· Determine various courses of action and recommend one course of action that will best accomplish the mission;
· Prepare plans and orders; and
· Integrate and implement ACA-directed airspace control measures.
l. Airspace Control Channels
Airspace control measures established by the airspace control plan may be preplanned to support various OPLANs of the joint and combined force. For example, preplanned corridors, high-density airspace control zones, base defense zones, way-points, and other control points are established to support operational requirements and anticipated changes to the tactical situation. They are assigned code names or numbers keyed to key terrain features or named areas of interest. These preplanned control measures, available on call, allow rapid adjustments to changes in the tactical situation.
When established, airspace control measures accomplish one or more of the following functions:
· Reserve airspace for specific airspace users.
· Restrict actions of airspace users.
· Control actions of specific airspace users.
· Require airspace users to accomplish specific actions.
Establishing airspace control measures requires the approval of the ACA. Commanders inform the ACA of their requirements for temporary airspace control measures through the appropriate airspace control system. The use of airspace request formats facilitates and standardizes the process of requesting the establishment of airspace control measures. Airspace request formats include a statement of requirements to include the location, lateral and vertical limits of the affected airspace, and time period during which the airspace restrictions apply. Appropriate remarks may be included to amplify or clarify unique operational requirements or conditions governing the use of the requested airspace. The airspace control plan describes specific procedures for requesting and activating special use airspace. The Army forwards requests through the operational chain as depicted at Figure 3-5.
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Figure 3-5 Airspace Control Channels.2
3-10 COMMAND andCONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS and INTELLIGENCE (C4I)
TMD C4I is an integrated system of doctrine, procedures, organizational structures, facilities, communications, computers and supporting intelligence. It includes missile warning and cueing of defense systems by missile warning sensors and ground stations. C4I provides command authorities at all levels with timely and accurate data and systems to plan, monitor, direct, and control, and report TMD operations.
The Army Air Missile Defense Command's (AAMDC) worldwide mission requires direct and continuous involvement in national strategic, strategic, operational and tactical planning. Therefore, the AAMDC must have access to applicable command, control, communications and intelligence structures and networks. The key role that C4I plays in the command and control process and the intelligence process can only occur with adequate communications. This chapter addresses the key ADA communication requirements, responsibilities, means, and security needs. The communications requirements include the AAMDC and the EAC ADA brigade.
a. Command And Control System
Battlefield command and control is a vital factor in executing Army operations, surviving, and winning quickly and decisively on future battlefields or in SASO. This chapter addresses the aspects of command, the responsibilities of the commander, control as it relates to battle management, and command systems capabilities necessary to aid the AAMDC commander in integrating, coordinating and executing successful AD operations.
The Army's battlefield automated system (BAS) architecture is managed by the Army Battle Command System (ABCS). This architecture supports the current Army command and control system (ACCS). The Army ABCS architecture is seen in the following illustration (Figure 3-6).
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Figure 3-6 Army Battle Command System
(1) Command Chain
The AD chain of command provides for command, coordination, and logistics support prioritization of requirements and is necessary to identify the most critical requirements and support them. The AD chain of command is shown in the following illustration (Figure 3-7).
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Figure 3-7 Army Air Defense Command Chain
(2) Control Chain
The AD operational control chain provides control of ADA fire units by the AADC. The AADC is appointed by the theater commander to be responsible for all theater air defense. He is normally the Air Force component commander (AFCC) and is also designated the area airspace control authority. The AD operational control chain is shown in the following illustration (Figure 3-8).
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Figure 3-8. Army Air Defense Control Chain.
ADA communications are an integrated system of systems (voice and data) relying on organic ADA communication, Army common user systems (ACUS) and the digital switched network (DSN) for communications. Regardless of system ownership, theater communication must facilitate AD force and engagement operations. Command and control requirements are defined and articulated in air defense and theater missile defense doctrine. Detailed information concerning integrated combat airspace command and control (ICAC2) can be found in FM 100-103-1.
3-11 Army Air and Missile Defense Command Concept of Operations
The AAMDC an Army air defense organization that is tasked to support a theater of operation with a Theater Area Air Defense Element. The AAMDC is capable of supporting two (2) major regional conflicts (MRCs).
(1) Theater Area Air Defensd Element Concept of Operation.
The TAADE will be deployed to a given theater of operations. The AAMDC has an organic communications capability based on user-owned-operated voice and data terminal devices. Communication requirements necessary for the AAMDC/TAADE to conduct theater missile defense and defensive counterair operations must be clearly defined in operation plans, tactical SOPs, and similar documentation.
(2) Theater Army Area Defense Element Communications Support.
The responsibility to provide support communications rests with Army signal representatives that size the supporting system capacity based on TAADE volumes of usage prior to entering a theater of operations. Army signal brigades are organic to the theater and corps commander's organization. Coordination for TAADE communications support may be required in both echelons. The TAADE may initially deploy to a theater of operations attached to or collocated with the Corps ADA brigade, and as the theater develops relocate to the theater EAC area to control the EAC ADA brigade after its arrival in theater and ultimately joining the joint or Army command structure.
(3) Organizational Elements Requiring Communications Support
The following elements are part of an TAADE organization requiring communications in order to perform assigned missions:
· Command Section. Ensures those actions necessary to support theater missile defense operations.
· Administration/Logistics Section. Provides support and sustains ADA units during force projection operations. It coordinates, plans and implements the logistical functions of manning, fixing, fueling arming, transporting and sustaining soldiers and their systems.
· Operations/Intelligence Section. Provides ongoing intelligence analysis and planning for all wartime force projection operations in which the TAADE conducts ADA operations. It has primary staff responsibility for production of intelligence, counterintelligence and training. It prepares the order of battle and synchronizes with the ground order of battle.
· Communications-Electronics Section. Coordinates with theater communications providers to ensure appropriate C2 communications for the TAADE commander with the CONUS-based AAMDC and theater ADA activities. Communications requirements are met by the theater ACUS.
· Liaison Teams. The TAADE is staffed to provide liaison teams to various theater elements. The following is a typical list of teams:
--Joint Force Commander (JFC) Team (Main) provides ADA expertise to the JFC by coordinating war plans tailored to major regional conflicts (MRC) and lesser regional conflicts (LRC).
--Joint Force Commander Tactical (TAC) Team provides ADA operational expertise by advising the JFC on system capabilities and ADA system deployment to maximize force projection operations.
--Land Component Commander (LCC) Team provides coordination and liaison to ensure planning and operations are accomplished and linkages between ADA forces and other Army forces are established.
--Air Operations Center (AOC) and Battlefield Coordination Detachment (BCD) Team provides Army AD input to the air campaign planning process and is a conduit for ADA concerns.
--Army Service Component Commander (ASCC) Team ensures that ADA is integrated and considered in the ASCC plans and operations.
--Allied Team provides coordination and liaison to allied nations for air defense ground forces operation in a multinational environment by integrating US ADA units with those of allied AD and other forces in the theater.
--Host Nation Team provides coordination and liaison to the host nation for AD ground forces operating in a multinational environment by integrating US ADA units with those of host nations where US ADA units conduct force projection operations.
(4) Communications Considerations
Communications requirements may vary depending on METT-T and this possible variance demands that C2 structures adjust as required. This is an important consideration to capture when ADA participates in a force projection operation.
a. Joint Task Force C2
The command and control operational relationship for the TAADE in a joint task force (JTF) environment is shown in Figure 3-9. This figure must not be construed as representing voice and data C2 connectivity requirements for the TAADE, but rather as a relational illustration that portrays potential connectivity.
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Figure 3-9 Notional Joint task force.
b. Notional Developed Theater
The command and control operational relationship for the TAADE in a developed theater is shown in Figure 3-10. This figure must not be construed as representing voice and data C2 connectivity requirements for the TAADE, but rather as a relational illustration showing potential connectivity.
c. Operational Communications Requirements
Joint, multinational and Army operational doctrine requires an AAMDC to command and control theater missile and air defense operations. The AAMDC is dependent on theater communication resources for external and internal operations. ADA brigades use ACUS for external, but AD-MSE for internal communications to transmit and receive the following information:
d. External Communications
The TAADE has no organic area communications resources, this requirement is supported by the area network provider(s). Examples include local and long distance in-theater telephone service, Facsilile using the voice-telephone network, out-of-theater dial up voice and data service, AUTODIN service through the single subscriber terminal (SST). Point-to-point circuits, voice and or data, require extensive coordination and must be documented as far in advance as possible. This is particularly important if requirements are established for an out-of-theater circuit to the CONUS-based AAMDC to support administration/logistics and operations/intelligence activities.
e. Internal Communications
The TAADE uses SINCGARS-CNR for local, mobile C2 communications. The TAADE operates an AM-IHFR radio net with organic liaison teams, subordinate EAC ADA brigade(s) and coordinating Corps ADA brigades as operatives. All local voice and data communications support are provided through and by the supporting ACUS.
(5) Joint Communications
The Army ADA routinely operates in both the joint and multinational C2 environments, and has doctrinal requirements to operate or interoperate with the following agencies.
(a) Joint Tactical Terminal
The joint tactical terminal (JTT) is used in conjunction with the joint tactical Army ground station (JTAGS) to broadcast out-of-theater TBM information, and to receive in-theater tactical information broadcast system (TIBS)/tactical receive and related applications (TRAP) information derived from the defense support program (DSP) satellites.
(b) Air Force Airborne Elements of the Theater Air Control System
The airborne elements of the theater air control system (AETACS) consist of the EC-130 airborne battlefield command and control center (ABCCC), the E3A airborne warning and control system (AWACS), and the OA-10 airborne forward air control (AFAC).
(c) Navy Elements Performing Airspace Command and Control
The Antiair Warfare Commander (AAWC) usually located on a cruiser is equipped with the Navy Tactical Data System (NTDS). He uses this system to coordinate fighter aircraft, AEW aircraft, and air defense missiles (AEGIS, etc.) to protect the naval force from air and or missile attack, typically in littoral areas.
The ASCC is represented in the AOC by (BCD). The ASCC will establish a similar liaison if the JFACC is from the USN or USMC. The ASCC organizes the BCD based on the type theater and the AOC organization present. Corps and AAMDC, EAC brigade, and corps brigade commanders will have representatives in the BCD. See the Battlefield Coordination Detachment illustration (Figure 3-11). In operations involving only one corps, the corps commander will structure the BCD. The BCD provides ASCC input into the air campaign planning process. Army air defense input is planned and coordinated through theater, AAMDC, corps, and division commanders. CRCs direct air defense for an assigned region or sector. The AADC delegates execution of defensive counterair (DCA) operations to the supporting CRC. (Refer to FM 100-103 and FM 100-13, "Battlefield Coordination Detachment", for a more detailed discussion of the BCD and the CRC.)
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Figure 3-11. The Battlefield Coordination Detachment.5
(d) Communications Guidelines
Each ADA unit commander must communicate consistence with the command's mission. He exercises command and control of the organic signal capabilities. The assigned signal officer is responsible for coordinating with the EAC and corps signal support elements, as prescribed in FM 100-103-1, "Multiservice Procedures for Integrated Combat Airspace Command and Control".
(e) Communications Media
The mission of theater missile and air defense is dependent on real-time data. Communications media available to the AAMDC include satellite, ACUS, radio, wire and cable, facsimile, visual and sound, and messenger. Real-time AD data is generated by radar; identification, friend or foe (IFF) equipment; computers; automatic data links (ADL); voice link, and supporting communications equipment. Communications security is provided through the use of communications security equipment.
(f) Communications Planning
METT-T considerations guide communications planning for peace and war. Communications planning must address all external and internal requirements prior to the onset of war or SASO. The communications planning must address all stages of force projection, protection, and sustainment; joint and multinational operations. In this manner the responsibilities for communications nets (voice or data) and nodes can be established, implemented, and included in joint exercises. Combat communications doctrine is provided in joint and Army publications. They must be exercised in peace to be effective in war or SASO.
Automation exists throughout TMD C4I to enhance performance and promote standardization, commonality, and modularity. TMD C4I maximizes use of existing and planned automation in the form of common reconfigurable workstations and software modules to tailor the information processing software (automated decision aids) for a particular function, application, or situation. Information will be replicated, distributed, and integrated throughout the TMD C4I network. Computers supported the rapid fusion of data to meet the short TMD execution timelines.
The activities and intent of the enemy must be assessed and evaluated. This is accomplished through the collection and analysis of threat information to provide useable intelligence. Intelligence information is time sensitive. It must be gathered, processed, and provided to decision makers in a timely manner. Missile and air defense operations require continuous surveillance and data collection. This is required at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.
(1) Strategic Intelligence
This intelligence is data collected from all services and allied forces. Surveillance by space-based and ground based sensors provide accurate real-time data. This data allows our decision makers to get inside of the threat's intelligence loop to employ attack operations.
(2) Operational Intelligence
The gathering and use of operational intelligence provide for actions to be taken to conduct the operational level of war. The operational decision makers can plan, execute and modify campaigns and battles to gain land dominance because of timely intelligence. The reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) activities when conducted properly are a combat multiplier.
(3) Tactical Intelligence
The gathering and use of tactical intelligence place the tactical events at the right place at the right time. The RISTA activities play a prominent role at the tactical level of war.