This chapter describes the ADA planning as a top-down, interactive planning process between ADA elements and the units they defend. The objective of ADA planning is to synchronize air defense at the critical time and place on the battlefield. Patriot units are organic to both EAC and corps organizations and have two distinct, but complementary, roles on the battlefield.
In force-projection operations, EAC Patriot may initially be employed to provide protection against the TBM and CM threat to lodgment areas, provide firepower against the air-breathing threat (ABT), enhance long-range surveillance, and provide C2 links to evolving joint structures. As the operation progresses, corps and divisional units arrive and move from the lodgment into tactical assembly areas. The focus of corps Patriot units will likely change from protection of the lodgment to defense of the maneuver force and expansion facilities.
Corps Patriot units will be employed against tactical air and missile attacks tied to enemy ground maneuvers in the corps and division areas. Depending upon mission, equipment, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T), EAC Patriot assets may be pushed forward into the corps rear area to augment corps high- to medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) coverage. Corps Patriot assets may also be pushed forward to augment the divisional ADA units.
Extensive, detailed planning is key to the success of Patriot in force-projection operations. Since the Patriot battalion generally operates under the C2 of an ADA brigade, the planning process begins with the brigade. The battalion's coverage and firepower must be fully integrated with the brigade's battle plan to ensure effective and timely support of the ground commander's operation. This chapter covers the scope of the AD planning process of the ADA brigade, battalion, and battery. ADA planning is the process of--
Figure 3-1 depicts on the left, the Army's decision-making process. Key to this process is the IPB process shown on the right. A thorough evaluation of the threat forms the basis for the staff estimate process and the wargaming of possible friendly courses of action. An initial DST is developed and presented along with friendly COAs for approval. The final goal of the planning process is to produce the decision support matrix (DSM) and operation order (OPORD). See Appendix C for a complete discussion of the IPB process.
The seven battlefield operating systems (BOSs) are used to systematically ensure that all elements of the organization's combat power are directed toward accomplishing the overall mission and supporting the commander's intent.
Patriot tactical planners should consider all BOSs to determine Patriot responsibilities to each BOS, and to fully support the ground commander's intent. BOSs are the major functions performed by the force on the battlefield to successfully synchronize operations.
This is a continuous, integrated, and comprehensive evaluation of how the terrain, weather, and threat affect the areas of operation and interest.
Maneuver is the movement of forces to secure or retain positional advantage in relation to the enemy. It is the dynamic element of combat and the means of concentrating forces at the critical point to achieve the surprise, shock, momentum, and dominance that allows one force to defeat another. Maneuver requires mobility, support, and protection.
This is the firepower that provides the destructive force essential to defeating the enemy's ability and will to fight. It eases maneuver by suppressing the enemy's fires and disrupting the movement, C2, and sustainment of threat forces.
Mobility is the freedom to maneuver. This can be strategic sea or airlift, operational deployment, tactical road march, or the ability to move all unit equipment by available organic or nonorganic means.
Survivability protects friendly forces from enemy weapon systems and natural occurrences. Hardening of facilities, fortification of battle positions, moving at night, and destroying enemy air platforms are active survivability measures. Passive survivability measures include camouflage, dispersion, passive radar emplacement, EMCON, and OPSEC. NBC defense measures are also key survivability operations.
Air defense provides the force with protection from enemy air attack. This BOS degrades the effectiveness of threat air operations through active means, such as ADA, and through passive means such as concealment, emissions control, and airspace management.
The force's center of gravity can usually be found in its support structure. The key logistics functions are manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining the soldiers and their systems. While ensuring adequate support for the force, commanders must also conserve for future operations.
This is the art of battle decision making, leading, and motivating soldiers and their organizations into action to accomplish missions. It includes visualizing the current state and future state, then formulating operational concepts to get from one to the other at the least cost. It also includes assigning missions, prioritizing and allocating resources, selecting the critical time and place to act, and knowing how and when to make adjustments during the fight.
The EAC brigade initiates the ADA planning cycle to support the theater campaign plan. The corps ADA brigade planning supports the corps scheme of maneuver. EAC brigades operating in or adjacent to corps areas must coordinate planning with the corps ADA brigade to synchronize the effort to counter aviation and missiles directly supporting enemy ground maneuver. The Theater Army Air Defense Command (TAADCOM) commander monitors the corps planning process, the corps commander's intent (or corps commanders' intents, where the theater contains more than one corps), the friendly scheme of maneuver, and the enemy air and ground situation. This coordination allows EAC air defenders to visualize the battle, thus enabling them to be at the critical time and place to destroy the maximum number of enemy aircraft and missiles. Consistent with their theater responsibilities, EAC brigades should attempt to defend as many assets in the corps rear as possible, freeing corps HIMAD to mass fires forward.
The Patriot battery is the lowest echelon at which Patriot fights. Normally, Patriot units fight as a battalion. Defense design is a prime consideration of the planning process. This is accomplished through the application of AD employment principles, employment guidelines, and weapon system design capabilities to the terrain and the tactical situation. This incorporates the positioning of individual batteries and how they will work together to increase their collective combat power. A well-developed defense design which supports the maneuver scheme increases the effectiveness of air defenses and unit survivability. AD operations planning must be the focus of the enemy air threat commander.
The objective of planning at the ADA brigade level is a successful, well-coordinated AD operation that supports the commander's intent. The products of the brigade's planning process are the brigade DSM and the OPORD. The DSM is a planning technique used to coordinate the brigade's fight against a number of potential enemy COAs. Paragraph 3 of the OPORD contains the commander's intent statement. The commander's intent is his view of the flow of the battle. It gives his subordinates a concise overview of his priorities for the major operations, and most importantly, provides a framework for the continued execution of operations in the absence of directives or orders. The brigade OPORD sets the battlefield geometry for the upcoming battle and gives guidance to subordinate battalions. The EAC brigade ensures integration of theater operations with the corps scheme of maneuver; the corps brigade integrates AD coverage with the maneuver unit's mission.
To properly prioritize assets, the mission analysis must consider the criticality, vulnerability, recuperability, and threat (CVRT) to each asset. The brigade commander and his staff identify ADA priorities in time and space. Based on the DST (see Figure 3-2) and their understanding of the supported commander's intent, they consider the CVRT of each defended asset, in the context of the threat. The battalion commander recommends these defense priorities to the supported commander. Once approved, these priorities provide initial input into the defense design process for positioning and system initialization of Patriot batteries.
Criticality is the degree to which a maneuver force or asset is essential to the mission accomplishment. It is determined by assessing the operational impact that would result from damage to the maneuver force or asset.
Vulnerability is the degree to which a maneuver force or asset is susceptible to attack or damage. Thought should be given to the hardness; specific mission, ability to disperse or displace, organic ADA assets, and passive AD capability.
Recuperability is the degree to which a maneuver force or asset could recover from damage in terms of time, equipment, and manpower to accomplish its mission.
Threat considers the probability that an asset will be targeted for attack. This assessment considers why a friendly asset is a lucrative target for the enemy, what types of weapons may be used for the attack, and when such an attack might take place.
While the commanders and operations officers are analyzing the mission, the intelligence officer develops the IPB. The brigade commander gives his concept of the operation to the staff after he has received the IPB briefing, the joint force air component commander's (JFACC) or area air defense commander's (AADC) guidance, the corps commander's AD priorities, and future corps operations or missions, if applicable. Using operational concepts such as preplanned defense designs and considering the IPB, the commander issues initial guidance and suggests COAs for staff consideration. Staff estimates are conducted, COAs are developed, evaluated, and war-gamed, and then an initial plan is approved by the commander. When the order is published, an initial DSM is constructed (Table 3-l). Backbriefs from the subordinate commanders ensure that the commander's intent and ADA scheme of maneuver are understood. The DSM is refined and rehearsals are conducted.
The emphasis of the battalion commander's planning is on mission execution. The final product of planning is the execution matrix. Operational guidance from the brigade serves as the foundation for battalion staff planning. The battalion S2 modifies the brigade IPB to fit the battalion mission and area of operations (AO). The battalion commander provides his intent and guidance. His staff develops COAs that are war-gamed to ensure they support the goals of shoot, move, communicate, survive, and sustain. The objective of battalion planning is to be prepared to defeat enemy air and missile attacks in the battalion's area of responsibility and to ensure synchronization of battalion efforts with both ground forces and other AD forces. The battalion staff produces an OPORD and execution matrix for the batteries. The OPORD and execution matrix time phases the batteries' actions and movements, gives primary target lines (PTLs), dictates emission control (EMCON), and gives the location of key C2 and logistics facilities.
"The commander's intent is designed not to restrain, but to unleash a subordinate by giving him greater freedom of action to accomplish the mission."
General John W. Foss
Upon receiving a warning of a new mission, the battalion staff conducts an ADA estimate, armed with the brigade DSM. The brigade DSM provides the battalions with a concept of operations for integration into the corps or EAC fight, execution guidelines, intelligence information (both ground and air), logistics support concept, and C2 information.
IPB is key to the planning process. It is a systematic and continuous approach to analyzing the enemy, terrain, and weather in a specific geographic area. It integrates enemy doctrine with weather and terrain as they relate to the mission and the specific battlefield environment. The IPB is conducted to determine and evaluate enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable COAs. The ADA brigade S2 coordinates with the G2 to determine the location of the enemy's expected main attack and the ground threat in the corps and theater rear. In coordination with the G2, the S2 determines the enemy air order of battle, probable air avenues of approach (AAOAs), anticipated location and composition of the enemy's RW and FW threat, sortie rates, aircraft types, and airfield locations. Also assessed are potential uses of TBMs, CMs, UAVs, and ground, FW, and RW jammer capabilities (Air IPB is covered in greater detail in Appendix C.).
The battalion S2 selects named areas of interest (NAIs) from the brigade IPB which allow him to follow major enemy air and ground actions. The S2 then lays out the aerial terrain analysis upon the condensed ground IPB, identifies key areas of possible enemy penetration into the battalion area of responsibility, and determines potential use of his air and missile capabilities. He identifies priority intelligence requirements (PIRs), which should provide a picture of enemy air capabilities and intentions, and requests an update on PIRs previously submitted to higher echelon intelligence sources. Potential targets for missile, RW, and FW attacks are identified, as are probable locations of enemy jamming assets. The S2 displays his analysis using a DST, a drawing of the condensed ground IPB with the terrain, air analyses, and the selected ground and air NAIs through the entire depth of the battlefield.
Based on a review of the new mission, current status, and anticipated action, the battalion staff war-games possible COAs. The battalion executive officer is normally responsible for supervising and coordinating the war-gaming phase of the planning process. His principal functions are to integrate the planning functions of all staff areas, ensure they have correctly visualized the battlefield, and integrate the battalion's actions for the coming fight.
The brigade DSM establishes the parameters under which the battle will be fought. It should specify battalion sectors, orientation, logistics, and the defense design wanted by the brigade commander. The battalion commanders then backbrief to the brigade commander their understanding of the plan and their mission to ensure there are no misunderstandings. The battalion commander and the S3 then develop the execution matrix. This specifies battalion actions in terms of time or events. Table 3-2 is an example of a battalion execution matrix. It correlates the battalion elements (condensed for this example) with the time-guided events.
Rehearsals at all levels are an integral part of the planning process. Rehearsals ensure understanding of the operational concept, verification of specific responsibilities, action timing, and backup procedures to help synchronize unit operations. At all levels, the commander or unit leader should conduct the rehearsal.
Rehearsals should be as complete as time allows. In time-constrained situations, the rehearsal can be abbreviated to focus on only the most critical portions of the operation, as prioritized by the commander. METT-T will determine the type or extent of a rehearsal. A good time schedule in the warning order will identify and assist in the prioritization of tasks to be rehearsed. Allow enough time for subordinates to conduct their own rehearsals. Remember, battle crews, platoons, and batteries are Patriot's main killers in the air battle. Whenever possible, these are the elements that need to conduct full force rehearsals.
Inherent in making the proper decision regarding rehearsals is an assumption that all elements of the Patriot battalion are familiar with the various techniques of rehearsals, and that they have practiced these techniques prior to deployment. If the battalion has not developed detailed SOPs and is not proficient in rehearsals during home-station tactical training prior to deployment, rehearsals (as well as operations) have a poor chance of success. There is not enough time on the battlefield to develop rehearsal SOPs and proficiency. Some items that should be included in a rehearsal annex to the battalion tactical standing operating procedure (TSOP) are as follows:
Regardless of the procedure used to designate rehearsal types, participants, and so on, that procedure should be the result of home-station trial and error refinement. Every time the task force conducts combat maneuver training at any level, the elements participating in that training should also be training in rehearsal techniques.
A standard for measuring the effectiveness must be established by the chain of command, and rehearsals should be evaluated and critiqued. Unless an ongoing system of evaluation and feedback exists, training will occur that is not the standard, including rehearsal training.
Rehearsals are key to synchronization. They reveal flaws in the plan and ensure that everyone knows what to do at the correct time. Shortfalls noted in rehearsals must be fed back into the planning process. Rehearsals fall into three types or categories: backbrief, reduced force, and full force.
This method identifies problems and disconnects in execution. It should be used as frequently as possible and, when possible, with other types of rehearsal. One of the best benefits of backbriefs is to clarify the commander's intent. The backbrief may take two different forms. One method occurs when subordinates repeat to the commander what he wanted them to do and why. The second, and perhaps more crucial, is the opportunity for the subordinate commanders to tell the commander how they are going to accomplish their parts of the mission. When used this way, subordinate leaders must identify all specified and implied missions, critical tasks, and give their restated mission. Subordinates should continue until they accomplish this. All should understand the mission, commander's intent, concept, and their role and timing to complete their tasks.
When time is limited or the tactical situation does not permit everyone to attend, then rehearsal is conducted with a reduced force. For example, it may be done with only commanders, key staff, tactical directors, and tactical control officers using maps, battlefield mockups, or as noted below, the Patriot simulation capability. Even when time is not limited and everyone can attend, commanders should consider a reduced force rehearsal before any full force rehearsal. An after action review (AAR) is essential to making the most of this type of rehearsal.
When time is available, rehearsing with the entire battalion or battery is the ideal. Depending on the overall training status of the unit involved, it should be started under ideal conditions and proceed gradually toward realistic conditions.
Because of the nature of Patriot battalions and the widely dispersed areas over which they operate, the most common types of rehearsals used are backbrief or reduced force. Also, the Patriot system has extensive simulation capability, and when time permits, this may be used to rehearse both battalion and battery system operators in engagement operations specific to the operation at hand.
At the brigade level, the commander normally conducts a backbrief or a reduced force rehearsal with the battalion and support commanders, the brigade staff, and liaison officers. The brigade commander walks through the plan discussing contingencies and potential problem areas, giving the specifics of their plans, and modifying the brigade DSM and the battalion execution matrix as necessary.
At the battalion level, the commander conducts a backbrief rehearsal with battery commanders. When time permits, a reduced force rehearsal should be conducted with battery commanders and first sergeants, the support unit commander, battalion staff, battalion fire direction center (FDC) officer in charge (OIC), liaison officers, and anyone else who may be key to the plan. The rehearsal should include a walk-through of the battalion execution matrix. The focus should be to identify shortcomings in planning and coordination, and ensure that all personnel thoroughly understand not only their part in the operation, but the roles and functions of everyone else involved in the operation. The execution matrix should be modified as required.
This is the level at which most full-force rehearsals will be held. Full-force rehearsals might be conducted for special missions such as standoff jammer capability (SOJC), long-range engagements, or for missions in the far forward area when the battery is stripped down to the required launchers and support for mobility purposes. Strategic battery movements by air might require rehearsal to ensure that the battery can reach operational status within a very short time after landing. As noted above, this rehearsal type should be preceded by a backbrief and reduced force rehearsals to properly prepare the unit leadership for the full-force rehearsal, and concluded by a complete AAR.
Using the on-line training mode (OTM) function of the Patriot system, mission-specific rehearsals for Patriot crews can be fashioned. Such simulations are flexible, immediately alterable, and reusable. They can be tailored to the specific mission, allow for alternative solutions, identify shortcomings in defense design, and be netted with the battalion ICC when the mission dictates.