HIGH-TO-MEDIUM-ALTITUDE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS
This chapter describes the high-to-medium-altitude air defense (HIMAD) systems in Air Defense Artillery. The systems described are Theater High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) system and the Patriot system. HIMAD missile systems are deployed to defend theater and corps commanders' assets.
Theater High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) system
The THAAD weapon systems consists of missiles, launchers, sensors, battle management command, control, communication, and intelligence (BMC3I) centers and ground support equipment. The mission of the THAAD battery is to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from TBM attack. THAAD batteries provide the upper tier of a two-tier defense against Tactical Ballistic Missiles by engaging them at long ranges and high altitudes (the Patriot system is the lower tier of defense). THAAD can conduct both endoatmosphere and exoatmosphere intercepts using hit-to-kill technology.
The THAAD system is composed of four segments: missile, launcher, radar and BMC3I. The missile is composed of a single stage, solid-propellant booster, interstage assembly, and kill vehicle. The radar has a solid-state phased array antenna, supported by an electronics equipment unit, a Cooling Equipment Unit and a prime power unit. The launcher is a modified PLS truck which contains electronics, missile round pallet, generator and a battery pack. The BMC3I contains a Tactical Operations Center, a Sensor System Interface, and Communication Relay that are transported on a HMMWV. The Operator Control Unit (OCU) will be incorporated into the electronics equipment unit in the objective battalions.
The THAAD radar is a high resolution, multimode, X-band, phased-array radar. Dependent on the BMC3I configuration, the radar may be operated as part of a network or as an autonomous sensor. The radar accomplishes its surveillance mission according to the sensor management plan established by BMC3I. This plan takes into account expected threats, defended areas, assets, and radar and launcher positions. The plan provides the most effective and efficient surveillance coverage through an integrated combination of horizon search fences and volume search sectors. Figure 4-1 shows a typical layout for the entire radar.
The radar detects a potential object of interest, verifies that the detection is of legitimate interest, and initiates the track. The radar classifies the object as an air breathing threat, a TBM, or other. The radar types the TBMs as specific missiles such as ND-1 or SS-21. The radar identifies a threat TBM based on the predicted ground impact point. The radar provides track data concerning targets, THAAD missiles, kill vehicles (KV) and other objects. Just prior to hand over, the radar generates target object map (TOM) data consisting of location data for the target, KV and associated objects.
Figure 4-1. THAAD Radar Components
The radar observes the intercept as a kill if the intercept results in a significant radar cross section (RCS) bloom and the resulting debris contains no objects greater than an established threshold size. The radar classifies the intercept as a miss if there is no RCS bloom, no track disruption and no debris generated. The radar classifies the intercept as a hit with uncertain kill, if debris is generated or track disruption is observed, but kill criteria are not satisfied. The radar provides the communications link to the missile and KV. The radar provides a guidance update if required, in flight target updates and the TOM. The missile and KV provide health, status, and homing data to the BMC3I via the radar. The THAAD radar consists of several components rather than the traditional single piece of hardware. The radar components are all C141 aircraft transportable and are roll-on/roll-off capable.
Antenna equipment (AE) consists of an X-band, phased array antenna and an electronics package. The AE has both front and rear leveling jacks. The M983 tractor is the prime mover for the AE. The AE performs fence, volume, and cued search. It serves as the communications link to in-flight missiles. The AE can rotate the array from zero to eighty degrees in elevation (figure 4-2).
The AE aperture is fully populated with active radiating elements. The AE has 72 subarrays. Subarray driver assemblies contain solid state amplifiers for second stage level shifting and time delay for wideband operation. Each subarray contains 11 transmit and receive element assemblies which themselves contain 32 transmit and receive modules for control of beam forming and beam steering functions.
Figure 4-2. Antenna Equipment
The electronics equipment unit (EEU) consists primarily of the receiver, recorders, and signal processor and data processing equipment of the radar. All equipment is enclosed in a trailer that is pulled by the M983 tractor. The trailer includes an environmental control unit and an NBC vestibule and filter. The trailer has an air-ride suspension on both the main dolly set and the kingpin mechanism (figure 4-3).
The receiver design combines low noise, wide dynamic range performance with precision data sampling. The exciter generates precise and stable wideband linear frequency modulated waveforms. The exciter also generates a radio frequency test target with all the attributes of a single point target, including monopulse response, Doppler, target size and range delay.
The signal processing computers are parallel processing systems. The computers are built on the single instruction multiple data concept. That is, all processors execute the same instructions on different data points in parallel. The signal processor receives raw analog and digital data from the receiver through two high performance parallel interfaces. There are three main receiver channels and seven auxiliary channels to support multiple beam search. Each channel has its own dedicated analog to digital converter. At the conclusion of processing, the signal processor sends return data to the data processor through multiple fiber optics distributed data interfaces.
The data processing equipment consists of two minicomputers: a primary and a hot standby. Disk drives and tape drives are located in the EEU.
Figure 4-3. Electronics Equipment Unit (EEU)
The data processing equipment runs six sets of software:
- Mission Application Program
- Preprocessing and Post-processing Support Software
- Radar Test Control Program
- Radar Simulation Software
- Display and Control Program
- External Communications Program
Mission Application Program
The Mission Application Program (MAP) provides real-time mission processing to satisfy all mission needs. MAP computes search rosters, plans radar activities for targets and interceptors and generates all radar transmit and receive timeline plans. MAP implements the radar timeline plan and generates the required radar action commands. MAP sorts radar returns, corrects detection, and performs radar status checks. MAP performs target track initiation, return-to-track correlation and track update. MAP maintains the radar-to-interceptor interface. MAP does launch and impact point determination for targets in track, performs target classification, jammer processing and kill assessment.
Pre-and Post-Processing Support Software
A collection of non-real-time tools that produce mission profiles, compute and store radar data calibration constants, and support post mission performance analysis.
Radar Test Control Program
This software is an integrated set of diagnostic tests which provide the ability to assess overall system status, control embedded hardware configuration item testing, support failure isolation and repair to the line replaceable unit level and aid in the isolation of subtle, system level irregularities. It presents an operator interface supporting system level objectives of rapid diagnostics and repair. The software operates in two modes: off-line under operator control to support maintenance operations and on-line in coordination with MAP software to perform fault detection during mission operation.
Radar Simulation Software
This software is a integration, development, and readiness verification tool which allows the MAP software to be tested in real-time using scenarios expected in actual operation. It operates in three modes: digital, analog and signal processor. In the digital mode, the software simulates the threat environment, external messages and all radar hardware. In the analog mode, the software receives radar action commands from MAP, generates test targets according to a target scenario and generates external messages allowing real-time testing without radiating. In the signal processor mode, MAP and the software act with the signal processor to test the signal processor and its interface to the data processing equipment.
Display and Control Program
This software supports the soldier-machine interface to the radar.
External Communications Program
This software supports all data communications from the THAAD radar.
Cooling Equipment Unit
The Cooling Equipment Unit (CEU) provides liquid cooling required for the AE. In addition, it houses the main power distribution unit for the EEU and AE. The trailer has an air-ride suspension on both the main dolly set and the kingpin mechanism. The coolant lines have quick disconnect fittings for rapid march order and emplacement. A status panel with alarm center provides status and warning of coolant overheating and fan failure. The CEU also has low coolant pressure and coolant reservoir level indicators. A low temperature, oil-fired boiler provides for fast equipment start-up. The cooling system contains a 50-gallon reservoir capacity and features an air separator for rapid voiding of air prior to supplying coolant to the AE (figure 4-4).
Figure 4-4. Cooling Equipment Unit
The prime power unit (PPU) is a diesel engine generator set with a capacity of 1.1 megawatts of continuous 4160-volt, 3-phase power for the radar. The PPU is configured on a semi-trailer pulled by the M983 tractor. The PPU operates on approximately 90 gallons per hour of JP8 fuel. The PPU has storage capacity for one hour of operation, and interfaces with tankers for extended operations. Power is output to the power distribution unit on the CEU that distributes power to the AE and EEU. Power may also be provided to the Operator Control Unit (OCU), but normally the PU801 powers the OCU. Commercial power may be provided to the main power distribution power in lieu of PPU power (figure 4-5).
Operator Control Unit
The Operator Control Unit (OCU) contains three workstations for control and monitoring of the radar. The OCU interfaces with BMC3I, and is housed in a lightweight shelter that is mounted on a HMWWV. The shelter has a gas particulate filter unit (GPFU) and an NBC enclosure. The system has an uninterruptible power supply (UPS), to safely power down the system in the event of loss of prime power. The towed PU801 15-kw generator set powers the OCU. It may also be powered by the PPU via the CEU power distribution unit. A fiber optics cable connects the OCU to the EEU. The OCU with PU801 is C141 roll-on/roll-off capable. The OCU functions will be incorporated into the electronics equipment unit in the objective battalions.
Figure 4-5. Prime Power Unit
Battle Management/Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (BMC3I)
The BM/C3I is the battle management component of the THAAD system. Battle Management/Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (BMC3I) consist of two major components: the Tactical Operations Station (TOS), and the Launch Control Station (LCS). The TOS and LCS are HMMWV-mounted shelters that are powered by trailer-mounted 15-kw generators (PU-801). Both have identical environmental control units and Gas Particulate Filter Units (GPFU) providing NBC protection.
A Tactical Shelter Group (TSG) is composed of a Tactical Operations Station (TOS), a Launch Control Station (LCS), an antenna/Cable Vehicle (ACV), and three generators.
Tactical Operations Station
The TOS equipment consists of a central processor computer, two operator workstations, data storage devices, a printer, and facsimile equipment. The TOS exchanges data and voice with the LCS via a high capacity dual fiber distributed data interface LAN. The fiber-optic lines carry data and voice communications to the LCS. The TOS also has a DNVT telephone that provides full duplex voice or data, non-cryptographic communications connection to the MSE equipment. A laser printer provides quality hard copy print out in black and white or color. An ECU provides environment control function selection and station temperature control.
The GPFU shelter provides ON/OFF power control, audible alarm, and fault indications related to air pressure monitoring during life-endangering environments involving NBC threats. The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) provides a backup power source used when the primary power to the shelter is interrupted. It allows the operator 10 to 14 minutes to perform an orderly shutdown of equipment to prevent damage. Additionally, the circuit breaker provides ON/OFF power control and overcurrent protection for TOS equipment.
A communication interface unit (CIU) provides automatic analog/digital voice switching controlled by the central computer. The CIU also interfaces the VCCM, loop nest, DNVT, and FAX. The central computer provides the interface to the CIU and the fiber optic subsystem. The voice communications control monitor provides operator access for voice intercommunications and radio/wire communications to external agencies.
Figure 4-6. Tactical Operations Station (Inside configuration of equipment may change as development progresses)
Launch Control Station
The LCS provides the automated digital data transfer and voice communications interfaces. All components of the radio subsystem are located in or on the LCS except for the ground-mounted antennas. The extensive communications suite consists of a JTIDS terminal, Army common user system interface equipment/mobile subscriber equipment (ACUS/MSE) interface equipment, single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS), a commander's tactical terminal-hybrid receiver (CTT/H-R), a precision lightweight global positioning system receiver (PLGR) and crypto-secure equipment. The voice communications subsystem (VCS) equipment is a switching system that provides an interface to communications equipment both internal and external to the TSG.
The LCS has a roof-mounted dual batwing antenna for the CTT/H-R terminal. There are four ground-mounted antennas for the SINCGARS VHF radio sets and for the PLGR. Externally, the communications demarcation panel provides the cable connections between the LCS and external DNVT. In addition, it provides electromagnetic interference /electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) filtering.
Figure 4-7. Launch Control Station
Antenna /Cable Vehicle (ACV)
Each LCS has an ACV, M1078 light-medium tactical support vehicle. The ACV transports equipment such as communications antennas, antenna masts, fiber optic cables/reel, and auxiliary equipment for the TOS and LCS. The ACV is equipped with a material handling crane to load and unload the equipment and a reel holder to assist in laying the fiber optic cable. The ACV also tows a back up trailer mounted 15 kW PU-802 generator.
Tactical Shelter Group (TSG)
Depending on the task, the TOS and LCS can be configured into various functional groups. The basic group is the TSG that consists of a TOS and LCS linked together with fiber optic cables. The TSG can operate independently or combined with another TSG to form the engagement operations and force operations elements of a battery CP. It can also be attached to remote radar, where it is called a SSI. A remote TSG is used as a communications relay. Operators configure software during TSG initialization and operation to allow the TSG to function as an EO/FO, SSI, or CR (figure 4-8).
Figure 4-8. Tactical Shelter Group (TSG)
BM/C3I Battery Operations
The BM/C3I normally includes two Tactical Support Groups (TSG). Although, all necessary EO and FO functionality can be accomplished using one TSG, engagement operations are normally conducted in one TSG with force operations conducted in the second TSG and providing a hot back up for engagement operations. The hot back up ensures high reliability for the BM/C3I in the event of a power loss or equipment failure. The TSG may be operated as follows:
- Alternative #1. TSG performs engagement operations while the other TSG performs force operations and provides hot back up for engagement operations (normal mode of operations).
- Alternative #2. One TSG performs engagement and force operations while the other TSG is a hot back up for both engagement and force operations.
- Alternative #3. One TSG performs engagement and force operations without a back up.
- The BM/C3I capabilities include the coordination of battery operations, TBM defense design, execution of the battery missile battle, coordination with task force, adjacent upper- tier and lower-tier elements, and other external systems. This capability includes managing collocated radar and remote radar in support of several functions. These functions are surveillance, emission control, saturation alleviation/avoidance, and engagement control functions.
Sensor System Interface
- The SSI is a single TSG collocated with remote radar. The SSI provides the interface between the remote radar and the EO/FO TSG. It provides direct sensor tasking and management functions for its associated radar in response to direction from its EO/FO TSG. The SSI performs sensor and track management and minimizes communications loading through filtering and processing radar data prior to transmission. The SSI performs sensor management in support of surveillance, EMCON, saturation avoidance/ alleviation, TOM determination, and engagement monitoring and control.
- The CR consists of a TSG. It provides both data and voice relay whenever point to point communications capabilities are exceeded because of distance or terrain masking. A CR may be used to provide communications relay between:
- TSG and Launcher while exercising control of any remote THAAD element via a CR, communications between the EO/FO TSG and the CR are usually via JTIDS. Communications between the CR and launchers is by fiber optic cable.
- EO/FO TSG and SSI while exercising control of remote radar via a CR, communications links between the EO/FO TSG, CR, and SSI are usually JTIDS
- EO/FO TSG, although the communications link between the EO/FO TSG and CR is usually JTIDS
- EO/FO TSG and external agencies or nets as needed
Figure 4-9. THAAD Launcher
- The THAAD launcher is based on a modified M1075 Palletized Load System truck. The launcher consists of three significant elements: the modified PLS truck, the missile round pallet, and the electronics module (figure 4-9).
- The launcher can carry eight missile rounds to a designated site and be available for launch within 30 minutes of arrival. Reload can be accomplished within 30 minutes. All rounds may be fired in rapid sequence or individually. Emplacement can be on inclines of up to ten degrees. The launcher can be transported on any Navy cargo ship, flatbed railroad car, or Air Force C141 and larger cargo aircraft. Once emplaced, the battery CP controls the launcher through a fiber optics link to a LCS.
Figure 4-10. THAAD Launcher
Modified PLS Truck
- The truck was modified by removing or relocating some standard equipment and by adding rear stabilizers and work platforms for operations and maintenance, additional hydraulic lines, and controls and connectors. A class VI safe provides classified material storage. THAAD equipment installations include an electronics module, 10 kW generator, wiring harness, hydraulic circuit, electrical motor driven hydraulic back up pump, and a ground rod driver.
Missile Round Pallet
- The missile round pallet is equipped with dual hydraulic cylinders for elevation purposes. The missile round pallet has tie down provisions for up to twelve missile rounds. The launcher module interface unit and the dynamic reference unit are mounted on the deck between the missile rounds. The missile round pallet has forklift pockets for ground handling.
- The electronics elements are incorporated into the launcher electronics module on the curbside between the cab and the missile round pallet. The elements include the launch control unit, a precision lightweight global positioning system receiver, power distribution unit, and a rechargeable battery. The 10 kW generator recharges the battery and is mounted on the roadside between the missile round pallet and the engine on sliding rails to provide maintenance access. Two SINCGARS radios are installed in the cab for voice communications.
- The THAAD missile round is a certified round consisting of a canister with a missile assembly stored inside. Eight missile rounds are mounted on the missile round pallet. The missile rounds remain on the pallet through shipment, storage, handling and loading on the launcher until the missile is fired. Indicators and electrical connections are located at the aft end of the canister. The indicators allow the operators to monitor status of the missile round. The electrical connectors are used to connect the missile to the launcher via the launch module interface unit.
Figure 4-11. THAAD Missile Canister
- The missile canister weighs 816 pounds, is 261 inches long and 18.1 inches wide. It provides the means to store, transport, and launch the missile. It also provides the environment for missile transportation and will maintain the missile ready condition for up to ten years. The canister is designed to allow access to the missile electronically through an umbilical cable connection on the breach plate. Inspection indicators, a flight test connector, and records holder are also located on the breech plate. The canister is made of a filament wound graphite composite shell.
- Guide pins located at the ends of the canister enable stacking and assembly on to the missile round pallet. The radial and axial groups support the missile inside the canister during storage, transport, and launch. The muzzle and breech closures provide a seal that protects the interior of the canister from dust, sand, and moisture. The seals will rupture upon launch and are designed not to cause interference with the launch or adjacent missile launches in the same MRP (figure 4-10).
Figure 4-12. THAAD Missile Assembly
- The Missile Assembly (figure 4-12) consists of three main components. The components are as follows:
- Booster section. (Composed of the propulsion section, thrust vector control (TVC), and the flare assembly). The booster section contains the propulsion system that provides the initial thrust to get the kill vehicle to the proper altitude and attitude for interception.
- Interstage assembly. Subcomponents are the electronics assembly, separation motor, and the flight termination system. The interstage assembly is the transition region between the propulsion section and the kill vehicle.
- Kill vehicle. The primary components of the kill vehicle are the lethal steel nosetip, a two piece shroud, IR seeker, integrated avionics package (IAP) and the Divert Attitude Control System (DACS).
Deployment and operational Concept
- FM 44-91, Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) Battalion and Battery Operations, contains a detailed discussion of deployment and operational concepts.
- The mission of Patriot battalions and batteries is to provide ADA protection against all types of airborne threats from very low to high altitudes for critical assets and maneuver forces belonging to the corps and to echelons above corps (EAC). The objectives of Patriot operations at all levels are to disrupt and destroy the enemy's ability to mount effective air operations, and in doing so, to retain command and control (C2) capabilities, the freedom to maneuver, and the ability to support operations for our own forces.
- Patriot is normally employed as a battalion consisting of up to five batteries or as part of a task force. The minimum deployable unit is dictated by the following factors:
- Overlapping fires with at least one other FU is required.
- Sector coverage of a Patriot defense consisting of fewer than four FU may place severe coverage constraints on the defense.
- The battalion ICC is necessary to insure effective fire distribution and defense integrity.
- Characteristics of the Patriot system require new approaches when designing defenses. Patriot battalions will be employed in defense of critical assets such as air bases, logistical complexes, ports, and in support of deployed forces. Patriot will be deployed to accomplish primarily an ABT or TBM mission, but can be used in both roles simultaneously.
System Description - Battalion
- The major end items of the Patriot battalion are the Information and Coordination Central (ICC) (AN/MSQ-ll6), Electrical Power Unit (EPU II) (PU 789), Communications Relay Group (CRG) (AN/MRC-l37) and Antenna Mast Group (AMG) (OE-349/MRC). The AMG is also part of the battery equipment.
Information and Coordination Central
- The ICC consists of a lightweight, weather tight shelter mounted on a 5-ton cargo truck (figure 4-13). The ICC is the C3 center of the Patriot battalion during AD operations. The shelter provides shielding from radio frequency interference (RFI) and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation. It is equipped with two externally mounted air conditioners that cool, heat, and ventilate the interior. An externally mounted gas particulate filter unit (GPFU) is used in NBC situations to provide clean air for crewmembers.
Figure 4-13. Information and Coordination Central (ICC)
- External components of the ICC include:
- JTIDS communications antenna (roadside)
- RF communications antennas (voice/VHF/UHF)
- Air entry and exhaust ducts
- A crew doorway
- Two front-end mounted air conditioners
- A front-end mounted gas particulate filter unit (GPFU) for NBC environment.
- A forward interior wall of the ICC contains two display and control consoles that are manned by the tactical director (TD) and tactical director assistant (TDA). Between the two consoles is an ICC status panel that displays the status of all battalion FU. Additional status and control panels mounted on the forward interior wall are:
- Built-in test equipment (BITE) status panel
- Power distribution unit panel
- AMG status panel
- Generator control panel
- Environmental control panel
- Electromagnetic shielding of walls and inlets
- The left side inner wall includes three radio relay terminal (RRT) stacks, a voice radiotelephone, and a communications station. The right side includes the expanded weapons control computer (EWCC), JTIDS class 2M terminal, signal multiplier unit (SMU), common air defense communications interface (CADCI), optical disk drives (ODD), embedded data recorder (EDR) and two SINCGARS (RT1523B) radios. The modem equipment in the ICC permits the battalion to communicate with higher headquarters and adjacent units. The EWCC computer contains dual central processing units (CPU) which meet Patriot interoperability requirements. The prime power source for the ICC is the EPU II (PU 789).
- The EPU II is the prime power source for the ICC and CRG. The EPU II consists of one 3O kW, 400 Hz, diesel engine generator set mounted on a trailer and towed by the ICC or CRG. Two generators will be used for the ICC and two generators for the CRG.
Communications Relay Group
- The CRG provides a multirouted secure, two-way data relay capability between the ICC, its assigned Fire Units, and between adjacent units. Automatic logic routing functions for the data and manual patching of voice channels between the multiple equipment and relaying functions are provided. The CRG also provides the capability for both data and voice exit and entry communication points with elements that are external to Patriot.
- Two SINCGARS (RT1523B) radios are provided for command, administration and logistics communications within the battalion. The communications equipment used with the CRG is identical to the equipment used within the ECS and ICC.
- The forward end of the CRG has been rearranged to provide workspace and a storage area for spare UHF equipment. An EPUII, towed during road march, provides power for the CRG. See Figure 4-14 for a cutaway view of the CRG.
Figure 4-14. CRG
System Description - Firing Battery
- The heart of the Patriot battery is the fire control section and associated launchers. The major end items are the Engagement Control Station (ECS) (AN/MSQ-104), Electrical Power Plant (EPP) III (M977EPP), Radar Station (RS) (AN/MPQ-53), eight Launching Station (LS) (M901) and Antenna Mast Group (AMG) (OE-349/MRC). A general description of end items, including the purpose and characteristics follows.
Engagement Control Station Truck Mounted AN/MSQ-114
- The ECS is the operational control center of the Patriot FU. It contains the EWCC, man/machine interface and various data and communications terminals (figure 4-15). The ECS is air-conditioned and includes protection devices for use in NBC and EMP environments. External characteristics of the ECS include:
- RF communications antennas (voice/VHF/UHF)
- Air entry and exhaust ducts
- A crew doorway
- Front-end air conditioners
- Radar control and prime-power cable entry ports
- Gas particulate filter unit
- Electromagnetic shielding of walls and inlets
- External data link terminal (DLT) mast (roadside)
Figure 4-15. Engagement Control Station (ECS)
- The curbside of the ECS contains a VHF digital data link antenna carried horizontally during road march. During emplacement, the antenna is assembled and raised into a vertical position. This provides radio communications with the Launch Stations.
- Access to the shelter is provided by a rear door via a ladder attached to the tailgate on the vehicle. Optionally, a forced-air entry lock for NBC conditions can be attached around the personnel entrance. Four air inlets and two exhaust fan assemblies on the forward end, and two air inlets and two exhaust fan assemblies aft (near the doorway of the shelter), provide cool air for the equipment.
- Terminal boxes on the forward exterior wall of the shelter provide interconnection points for power and control cables to the Electrical Power Plant (EPP) III, and a single data cable connection to the radar. Cables to the AMG exit via connectors on the aft roadside.
Figure 4-16. ECS Cutaway View
- The air conditioning system cools, heats, and ventilates the interior of the ECS (figure 4-16). It includes two air conditioners, which circulate inside shelter air mixed with external air. The air conditioners maintain a positive pressure differential in the crew area for NBC protection.
- The ECS shelter provides shielding from RFI and is a weather-tight enclosure with appropriate air inlet and exhaust ports for the environmental control systems. At the forward end there are two operator stations, BITE status panel, environmental control panel (air conditioner controls, ambient air controls, and lighting controls), generator control panel, hard copy unit, and power distribution unit. The left side as seen from the doorway includes three UHF RRT and a voice communications station. The right side includes the very high frequency (VHF) data DLT, radar weapon control interface unit (RWCIU), EWCC, two SINCGARS (RT1523B) radios, optical disc drives (ODD) and embedded data recorder.
- The primary physical difference between the ICC and ECS is that the ECS contains the RWCIU and the VHF DLT, including the externally mounted VHF DLT antenna mast. The ECS does not contain data modems, as does the ICC.
Radar Set, Semi-trailer Mounted, AN/MPQ-53
- The RS consists of a multifunction phased array radar-mounted on an M-860 semi-trailer towed by an M983, heavy expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) (figure 4-17). It is monitored and controlled by the ECS via the radar and weapon control interface unit.
Figure 4-17. Patriot Radar Set
- The RS performs the following functions:
- Very low-to very high-altitude surveillance
- Target detection
- Target identification: selective identification feature (SIF) and identification friend or foe (IFF)
- Target track
- Missile track
- Missile guidance
- The Radar is under control of the ECS. It contains Built in Test Equipment (BITE), which reports the complete radar status to the EWCC every 15 seconds. The operators at the ECS can optionally implement special radar diagnostic checks. They can also remotely activate and deactivate the transmitter and set search and track volumes for the antenna. The interfacing data link to the ECS is via shielded cable to protect against electromagnetic interference (EMI) and EMP.
- The radar antenna is positioned at the forward end of the shelter and is erected to a fixed 67.5° angle, relative to the horizontal plane, during emplacement. Integral leveling equipment on the M-860 semi-trailer permits emplacement on slopes of up to 10°.
Figure 4-18. Electric Power Plant (EPP III)
Electric Power Plant
- The Electric Power Plant (EPP) (figure 4-18) is the prime power source for the ECS and RS. Each EPP consists of two 15O kW, 400 Hz, diesel engines that are interconnected through the power distribution unit (PDU) and are mounted on a 10-ton M977 HEMTT. Each EPP contains two interconnected 75-gallon fuel tanks and a fuel distribution assembly with grounding equipment. Each diesel engine can operate more than eight hours with a full fuel tank. The power and control cables used between the power distribution unit (PDU), RS, and ECS are stowed on cable reels located on the curbside outer section of the generators. One power cable and one control cable are connected to the ECS, while the remaining three power cables are extended to the RS.
- The control cable connection to the ECS allows fire control operators to control the PDU circuit breakers that provide power to both the RS and the ECS. The control cable also provides the ECS with a low-fuel warning and Electric Power Plant emergency shutdown capability. Each power cable is interlocked so that power cannot be transmitted through it until terminated on both ends.
- A sound-powered telephone jack is provided at the EPP for communications with the ECS or RS during emplacement and March order procedures.
Figure 4-19. Antenna Mast Group (AMG)
Antenna Mast Group, Truck Mounted, OE-349/MRC
- The AMG (figure 4-19) is a mobile antenna mast system used to carry the amplifiers and antennas associated with the UHF communications equipment located in the ECS, ICC, and CRG.
- Four antennas are mounted in two pairs, are remotely controlled in azimuth, and can be elevated to heights up to 100 feet, 11 inches above ground level. Mounted at the base of each set of antennas are two amplifiers for the antennas and the radios in the collocated shelter. The radios use the antenna and amplifier system which provides the following amplifier options:
- Bypass the amplifier
- Low power amplification
- Full amplification
- Connecting cables to the collocated shelter are carried on the AMG. They include RF cables, control cables, and a prime power cable.
- Emplacement consists of stabilizing the AMG, setting the antenna feed and the erection of the antennas by the use of self-contained hydraulic and pneumatic systems and then adjusting the antenna elevation.
Launching Station, Guided Missile Semi-trailer Mounted, M-9O1
- The LS can be remotely operated, is a fully self-contained unit, and has integral onboard power and up to four guided missiles. Operation is remotely controlled in the ECS via the fiber optics or VHF data link. The LS is mounted on an M-860 semi-trailer towed by an M983 HEMTT. Leveling equipment permits LS emplacement on slopes of up to 10°. The LS is trainable in azimuth ±110° and elevates to a fixed, elevated, launch position. The LS has to be precisely emplaced and aligned prior to launch. Proper emplacement and alignment is critical for engagement of TBMs.
- The LS includes Built-In-Test-Equipment (BITE) that automatically monitors all critical electronics and guided missile functions. Status reports are returned periodically to the ECS.
- The ECS sends missile prelaunch-guidance messages and launch command instructions via the FO data link. Upon receipt of this command, the ECS initiates an automatically sequenced missile countdown, which includes loading the prelaunch-guidance messages into memory.
- The Launching Station contains four major equipment subsystems. The four subsystems are:
- Launcher generator set: the onboard source of LS electrical power.
- Launcher Electronics Assembly: two trailer mounted equipment consoles that function perform the following:
- Receive, decode, and execute commands of the ECS
- Communicate the LS and missile status and the result of recently commanded actions back to the ECS
- Launcher Mechanics Assembly: elevates the guided missiles and contains a data link antenna mast for communications with the ECS.
- Launcher Interconnection Group: interconnects onboard LS equipment and controls the routing of electrical function lines to and from the guided missiles.
- The Generator for the LS is located on the yoke assembly of the trailer and includes a built-in 56.8-liter (15-gallon) fuel tank. It has side-mounted work platforms. The unit is a diesel engine-driven generator, 15-Kw, four-wire, 400-hertz, 120/208-volt power. It is recommended that the LS be refueled every eight hours to ensure continuous operation.
Figure 4-20. Patriot Launching Station
Guided Missile Intercept Aerial, MIM-1O4
- The missile, from front to rear, consists of a radome, guidance section, warhead section, propulsion section, and control actuator section. The Patriot missile is mounted within a canister that functions as a shipping and storage container and as a launch tube. Guided missile canisters are stacked into groups of four per LS. For loading purposes, a guided missile is lifted by hoist fittings and lowered so that four alignment holes mesh with four structural pins in the support frame. Tie bolts secure two guided missiles side-by-side on the frame. These in turn, act as support and alignment structures for two additional guided missiles. The upper side of the canisters loaded to the support frame contains pins that mate with the underside holes of the last two guided missiles to be loaded.
Figure 4-21. Patriot Guided Missile Canister
- On the aft end of the canister (figure 4-21), a desiccant indicator monitors the humidity. A single umbilical cable connection interfaces the canister with the LS and provides the means for status monitoring, preheating, and launching.
- The missile has four clipped-delta, all-movable tail control surfaces, and is propelled by a single-stage, all-boost solid-propellant rocket motor. BITE checks missile readiness and provides GO or NO-GO logic for successive events in the countdown. A malfunction in any lead-in event in the missile activation and arming sequence will prevent rocket motor ignition. Any defect is automatically reported to the EWCC in the ECS.
- The standard Patriot missile (MIM-104) was the first type fielded with Patriot and contained an analog fuze. This fuze was replaced by a digital version with the fielding of the MIM-104A. Both of these missiles provide excellent performance against ABT and adequate performance against TBM.
- To counter the long-range ECM threat, the MIM-104B or standoff jammer countermeasures (SOJC) missile was fielded in the late 1980’s. The guidance and navigation hardware was modified to allow the SOJC missile to fly a lofted trajectory to the jamming source and seek out the strongest emitter during the terminal phase of missile flight. The SOJC missile can fly three times longer than the standard missile without the uplink/downlink between the RS and missile. The SOJC missile retains the same performance against ABT and TBM as the standard missile.
Figure 4-22. Major Missile Sections
- The Patriot Anti-tactical Missile Capability 2 (PAC-2) missile, MIM-104C, was fielded during Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm to counter the advanced TBM threat. A new warhead and dual-mode fuze was added to the missile. The new warhead contains a more powerful explosive and larger fragments designed to place sufficient kinetic energy on the warhead section of threat TBMs to achieve a Warhead Kill. The dual-mode fuze allows the PAC-2 missile to retain ABT performance and also optimize performance against TBM. The system software based on the mission selected for the missile sets the fuze mode.
- The Guidance Enhancement Missile (GEM) is an improved PAC-2 missile. A Low Noise Front End (LNFE) and improved fuze have increased lethality and expanded TBM engagement volume (figure 4-22 and 4-23).
Figure 4-23. Patriot guided missile, intercept aerial
- The Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) missile is to be incorporated into the Patriot air defense system. It will provide defense against tactical ballistic missiles, advanced cruise missiles, and other air-breathing threats in the presence of electronic countermeasures and rough terrain.
- Rather than relying on proximity detonation that can simply redirect or break up an incoming threat, the PAC-3 missile hits the target warhead to assure complete destruction. The PAC-3 missile achieves its hit-to-kill capability through the combination of an extremely accurate seeker coupled with exceptionally rapid airframe response. The missile also utilizes a lethality enhancer that is designed to increase the performance against air-breathing threats.
system operational overview
- The Patriot system has four major operational functions:
- Command and control
- Radar surveillance
- Missile guidance
- These four functions combine to provide a coordinated, secure, integrated, battalion-level, mobile AD system capable of defending assets in support of Army field forces against TBMs and ABTs in an ECM environment.
- Figure 4-24 shows the operational interfaces within the Patriot battalion and the external interfaces with brigade and other AD elements.
Figure 4-24. Patriot Battalion Operational Interfaces
Information and Coordination Central
- The ICC provides the Patriot system with automated data processing (ADP) and communications capabilities required to integrate with other AD systems. The ICC communicates with the brigade air defense tactical operation center (ADTOC) using the Army tactical data link-1 (ATDL-1) and tactical data information link-B (TADIL-B). The ICC can interface with other weapons surveillance systems without using the BTOC. For example, the ICC can communicate with the USAF Tactical Air Control System/Tactical Air Defense System (TACS/TADS) using TADIL-B, plus the USAF Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) with JTIDS (TADIL-J) radio. The brigade ADTOC also provides a link with SHORAD battalion TOCs and Marine Corps AD units.
Fire Unit Target Engagement Sequence
- A simplified Patriot missile engagement follows with a brief description of how the major end items of an FU function.
Surveillance and detection
- The RS searches the surveillance area and detects, identifies, tracks, and illuminates targets. The ECS receives target track data from the RS and processes this information within the WCC. Targets are assessed and identified as unknown, friendly, or hostile. When a target has been identified as hostile, it may be engaged once the EWCC sends a launch command to the selected LS. The LS receives its launch command from the EWCC by way of fiber optic communications or by way of a VHF link, and a selected missile is launched. The RS acquires the launched missile and a two-way data link is established with the ECS EWCC through the RS.
Figure 4-25. Patriot Fire Unit Operations
Track via missile
- The Patriot missile is commanded to the vicinity of the target by the WCC and then the on-board missile seeker antenna acquires the target. The target is then TVM, while the two-way data link is maintained at an increased rate. The missile moves to the intercept point while the RS illuminates the target.
- At the proper time, the missile proximity fuse is armed thus activating the warhead for target intercept and destruction (figure 4-25).
- Patriot uses many types of communications equipment, each with its specific use. The following paragraphs describe communications equipment found at battalion level.
Battalion Communications Equipment
- At the battalion and battery levels, FM radios are in command, logistics, administrative, intelligence, and operations vehicles. Primary FM radios are the SINCGARS with secure COMSEC devices.
- This is used primarily as backup communications for C2 when at a static position. The AN/GRC-106 radio with the dipole antenna is used at battery, battalion, and brigade CPs.
Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE)
- The mobile subscriber equipment (MSE) consists of an interface box at the ICC and is hardwired to a small extension node (SEN) van which will transmit the signal to other SENs. The purpose is to allow the battalion to communicate with higher echelons, other ADA units, and anyone in the net.
- This is the main method that Patriot Fire Units use to communicate using voice and data channels. The AN/GRC-103, 12-channel, Band III radio sets are in every ICC, ECS, and CRG. Two corner reflector antennas are used for short-range communications, and the AMG is used for long-range communications. Encryption is provided by the KG-194A. The UHF system transmits data through the following methods:
- PADIL--internal for Patriot units
- ATDL-1--external to brigade and HEU
- TADIL-A--external to land-based, airborne, and shipboard tactical data systems.
- TADIL-B--used to communicate with satellites.
- TADIL-J--time-shared net used by airborne, shipboard, and land-based tactical combat operations.
- WD-1 and 26-pair cables are used to connect elements within the battalion and battery for C2, administrative, logistics, and CSS. To enhance the capabilities, the wire lines are connected with the UHF to communicate with higher and supporting units.
Battalion Communications Requirements
- The communications system for Patriot battalions must provide reliable, real-time or near real-time information to dispersed Patriot batteries, higher headquarters, adjacent battalions, and supported units. The communications system must be redundant to provide continuous communications even when the primary system fails. To effectively defeat the air threat, the Patriot battalion must maintain communications to support:
- Control of the air battle
- Command, administrative, and logistical lines with higher headquarters, subordinate units, and lateral units.
- Liaison with supported units or the units in whose area the Patriot battalion is operating
- Each Patriot battalion commander is responsible for establishing an effective communications system. He exercises C2 of organic signal assets through his signal officer. The doctrinal responsibilities for establishing communications are found in FM 24-1 and FM 101-5. Communications are established from higher to lower, left to right, and supporting to supported. The battalion uses multichannel radio and wire nets to maintain external and internal communications. A communications platoon organic to the Patriot battalion provides external and internal communications for the battalion TOC (extended multichannel radio systems) and limited support to the FU.
- External communications are established with the ADA brigade and adjacent Patriot battalions. The battalion is also capable of communicating with a CRC, SHORAD battalion, THAAD battery, or a Hawk battalion.
- Communications with the ADA brigade supports air battle C2. It also facilitates administrative, logistical, operational, and intelligence functions. The brigade Signal Company establishes the voice and data links via multichannel radio and MSE between brigade and battalion.
- The EAC ADA brigade uses organic MSE resources to install, operate, and maintain a multichannel system between the brigade and subordinate HIMAD, Patriot, and SHORAD battalions. The corps ADA brigade is supported by the corps signal brigade, normally with an MSE SEN at brigade headquarters and required resources at the Patriot battalion location. The Army tactical data link (ATDL), intelligence and radar reporting (IRR), and air defense control (ADC) are circuits routed over the multichannel system.
- Generally, three channels are used for control of the air battle. One channel is used for the automatic data link that uses ATDL-1. The brigade and battalion tactical directors use another channel for the identification function. This is called the IRR line and is usually established on party line two. The brigade and battalion tactical director assistants (TDA) use the third channel for the engagement function. This is called the ADC line and is usually established on party line one. All voice circuits are terminated at the ICC patch panel. The automatic data link is also terminated there, either at the RLRIU or at a modem.
- IHFR-AM is used as a voice system for ADC and IRR. Battalions establish the AM net with brigade to pass messages and facilitate command, control, and coordination with higher echelons. Because of effective internal communications using UHF links, only a backup AM capability between battalion and brigade is required.
Adjacent Patriot Battalions
- A Patriot battalion establishes a UHF multichannel communications system with an adjacent Patriot battalion. Generally, each battalion for this external communications link uses one terminal of a CRG. The EAC ADA brigade can also establish the link. Because the Patriot UHF equipment provides a more effective link, use of a CRG is recommended for interbattalion communications. Battalions can exchange selected information using the Patriot air defense information language (PADIL) at a data exchange rate of 1,200 bits per second. The information is exchanged to improve fire and track coordination.
- Patriot battalions should establish communications with the supported unit or the unit in whose area the battalion is operating. The battalion normally coordinates with the ADCOORD officer on ADA functions. The Patriot battalion will provide early warning to the supported unit using the Patriot command net.
- Supporting units establish communications with the supported unit. Normally, the direct support (DS) Patriot Maintenance Company collocates with or sends a liaison element to the Patriot battalion headquarters. If this is not feasible, the DS Patriot Maintenance Company enters the Patriot battalion VHF-FM administrative and logistics net. All other units that provide support to the Patriot battalion on an area basis normally do not establish communications with the Patriot battalion. The ADA brigade establishes communications with the COSCOM and TAACOM to provide support for Patriot units.
Combat Radio Net Operations
- Command communications use the UHF system as the primary means of communications. SINCGARS is allocated to the Patriot battalion staff to operate in the AD brigade FM command and FM admin/log nets. Distance may be a constraint, in which case UHF multichannel and or MSE via MSRT/VRC-97 is used.
Figure 4-26. Battalion Command Net (FM)
- Internal communications are established with each Patriot FU to support the battalion command function. Internal communications also facilitate control of the air battle, administrative, intelligence, operations, and logistics functions, using UHF multichannel and VHF-FM nets.
Multichannel Radio Systems
- Patriot battalions use organic resources to establish a multichannel radio system to each subordinate battery. When collocated, an FU can connect via specialty cable directly to battalion. The C2 structure is heavily dependent upon communications for efficient operations. To pass real-time air battle and air traffic information, automatic data links must be established.
- To effectively fight the air battle, each FU needs three UHF circuits. One channel on each radio is used for the multirouting of data on the automatic data link circuit. Normally, for standardization, channel four is used. An engagement voice circuit, called ADC, is established using channel one and party line one. An intelligence and radar reporting (IRR) circuit is established using channel two and party line two. An additional circuit is established using channel three and party line three. This is a maintenance circuit and is not used for control of the air battle. Patriot battery TCA and battalion TDA use the ADC net. Patriot battery TCO and battalion TD use the IRR net.
Battalion Command FM Net
- The purpose of this net is to provide communications for the command function within the battalion headquarters. Each station operating in the net is shown in figure 4-26. This is used as the primary C2 net during movements and as a secondary net when in a static location.
Administration, Intelligence, Operations, and Logistics
- Normally, the UHF system that provides communications for control of the air battle also supports other functions. Since the UHF system is operational most of the time, it is also the primary means for the staff to provide C2 of the FU. The total number of circuits is limited by the 12 external wire connections at the ICC. These 12 circuits must provide connections to brigade and each battery. Generally, each battery has a minimum of one circuit and will frequently have more than one circuit. These UHF circuits are connected to switchboards at the battalion and battery.
- Patriot battery and battalion communications operators use the maintenance net. This circuit is used to coordinate communications circuits and is not secure. This circuit is similar to other circuits between the battalion and the ADA brigades.
- The ICC is linked to the BTOC and the Battalion Maintenance Center by wire. This net allows for rapid communications between key elements of the TOC and the ICC. It can be used to cross-tell time-sensitive air battle data such as a change in the airspace control order (ACO). Maintenance support can also be requested without leaving the ICC.
- A UHF radio link provides administrative and logistics C2 (figure 4-27). The net control station is located at the S1 and S4 van. Every station in the net is secure. The net is routed through the ICC with UHF links to higher and supported units.
Figure 4-27. Battalion Admin/Log Net (UHF)
Battery Communications Requirements
- The communications system for a Patriot battery is composed of three elements. These elements are the C2 net, data net, and the wire net.
Figure 4-28. Battery Command Net (FM)
Fire Unit Command FM Net
- The purpose of this net is to provide communications for the battery command function (figure 4-28). The net control station is the battery CP. This net is primarily used during unit moves. When the battery is emplaced, the VHF-FM net is used as a secondary means of communications.
Fire Unit Operations Net
- The FU operations net is used for C2 of the fire unit when emplaced (figure 4-29). The net control station for the battery operations net is the CP. Wire lines connect all elements in the net. A switchboard at the CP provides a means of control for the battery commander.
Figure 4-29. Battery Operations Net
Patriot Battery Data Net
- Fiber-optic cables link the ECS to the launching stations. This is to launch missiles and to establish availability and status of missiles. Data radio transmissions are used as backup. The net is controlled at the ECS by special purpose radio equipment that provides reliable transmission of low-data rate messages over a short path. All command messages originate at the ECS, requiring a slaved response from the LS in the form of a status message. The LS cannot originate data communications. This is the first net established during battery emplacement.
Battery Communications Layout
- Wire is the primary means of communications between elements of the battery. FM radios are used only during movement and until the wire net can be established. A minimum of one circuit to the battalion is available at the switchboard. Normally, the wire lines to the LS connect to ground defense positions.
Patriot Logistics Support
- Organizational level maintenance personnel perform maintenance on Patriot-peculiar equipment in the battalion. This includes preventive maintenance, corrective maintenance and replacement of defective units (called the battery replaceable units (BRU)).
Figure 4-30. Supply and Maintenance Major End Items
- Organizational maintenance capability is supplemented by Direct support (DS) and General Support (GS) contact teams (formerly intermediate maintenance) to repair problems beyond organizational capability. Standard Army equipment such as generators, vehicles, and communications equipment in the Patriot system is supported by the conventional Army DS and GS system.
- The Patriot missile is a "certified round" with no field test or repair permitted. If missile maintenance is required, the "certified round" is returned to a Patriot missile facility.
Patriot AD Battalion
- Battalion support for Patriot-peculiar equipment at the HHB consists of a battalion maintenance center, and a separately towed power generator.
- Standard Army equipment support includes a DS activity for power generation, air conditioning, and communication equipment. For vehicles, theater DS and GS are available.
Patriot AD Firing Unit
- The Patriot peculiar equipment of the FU is supported with a battery maintenance group (BMG), consisting of maintenance center, small repair parts transporter, large repair parts transporter, and a towed power generator (PU-732/M). Standard Army equipment is supported with portable tools and test equipment stored in the maintenance center.
Patriot Support Equipment
- The Patriot BMG and battalion maintenance equipment (BME) consist of standard Army vehicles that have been modified and equipped for uses with the Patriot system (figure 4-30). Their function is to provide the maintenance and supply capabilities required for Patriot tactical equipment at the battery and battalion headquarters levels. An environmentally sheltered workspace is provided as a duty station for the maintenance warrant officer. Storage for repair parts tools, handling and test equipment, publications, maintenance, and supply records are all provided with the vehicles to provide a complete organizational maintenance capability.
- The Maintenance Center (MC) is used in both the BMG and battalion maintenance equipment. It is a semitrailer mounted shop van that contains the tools, handling and test equipment necessary to maintain the Patriot system.
- The HHB MC has been configured to function as a small repair parts transporter (SRPT). The tools and handling equipment are government furnished equipment, common equipment, and several special tools and handling equipment.
- The power unit PU-732M is a 15 kw, 4OO Hz, diesel generator set, trailer mounted. It is towed by a separate vehicle and provides power for the maintenance center and SRPT.
Small Repair Parts Transporter
- The SRPT is used in the FU and uses the same vehicle as the maintenance center. No environmental control is required.
Guided Missile Transporter
- The Guided Missile Transporter (GMT) is a modified HEMTT M985. The GMT is used for delivery, recovery, and loading of Patriot missiles. A heavy duty materiel handling crane is attached at the rear of the vehicle.
Large Repair Parts Transporter
- The Large Repair Parts Transporter (LRPT) provides a means to transport and store large, heavy repair parts. It consists of a HEMTT M977 cargo truck with a heavy-duty materiel-handling crane.