Chapter 4

Army Air and Missile Defense Initiatives


The ability of AMD to continue modernization is critical to future success in all battlefield scenarios. Initiatives are underway to develop the concepts and technologies required to evolve the AMD Force capabilities to those capabilities needed for the AAN. This chapter addresses those AMD initiatives, which could support Full Spectrum Dominance in the AAN. Discussions focus on technologies, demonstrations, and experiments.

Combat and materiel developers drive the AMD initiatives. The USAADASCH Air Defense Battle Lab Support Element (ADBLSE) experiments with concepts, technologies, and innovative thoughts in an effort to improve the future AMD warfighting capacity. The Program Executive Office Air and Missile Defense (PEO AMD) leads the theater missile defense efforts to develop and integrate the technologies that will provide AMD forces with operationally effective, suitable, and survivable weapon systems. The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) Space and Missile Defense Battle Lab develops concepts, examines technologies, and participates in warfighting experiments related to space and to missile defense integration. In addition, such technology centers and organizations as the Army Research Center, the Army Research Office, and the Research, Development and Engineering Centers (RDEC) at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM), the U.S. Army Communications/Electronics Command, and the U.S. Army Tank/Automotive Command are significant contributors to researching and developing technology programs both for the near term (those that directly support the PEOs’ ongoing developmental programs) and the far term (those that support the AAN).

Future capabilities are attained through a process of defining requirements and determining solutions across the DTLOMS spectrum. Demonstrations, experiments, exercises, and modeling and simulations are key to gaining insights, refining requirements, assessing technological applications, and verifying solutions (Figure 4-1).

Future Operational Capabilities

The FOCs, as presented in the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) Pamphlet 525-66, are TRADOC-generated statements of operational capabilities required by the Army to develop the warfighting concepts approved by the TRADOC Commander. FOCs provide the operational reference to guide the materiel developers’ and industry’s research and development efforts. While multispectral -- FOCs address warfighting capabilities in all DTLOMS domains -- this chapter emphasizes materiel development.

The FOCs are inextricably linked to the patterns of operation and the required operational capabilities presented in Chapter 3. The patterns provide the operational foundation. The FOCs and required operational capabilities present the necessary and desired needs to execute the operations. Ideally, FOCs and required operational capabilities are identical. However, the required operational capabilities have, to date, evolved as more discrete requirements statements. In addition, the FOCs are being used to steer and challenge the technology community, government and industry, as it anticipates tomorrow’s Army.

Fourteen AMD FOCs provide the basic framework for the ensuing discussions.

Technology Initiatives

Technology initiatives are proposed solutions to achieve future capabilities. The technology initiatives are organized by FOCs. The following subparagraphs present the fourteen AMD FOCs and brief descriptions of some related technology initiatives that are under review as potential candidates for future application to the AMD mission. This summary offers merely a glimpse of the ongoing research within the USASMDC, the Army Research Lab (ARL), the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), and the RDECs to meet FOCs and to improve AMD warfighting capabilities. Greater details of technology initiatives are in the "Army Science and Technology Master Plan" and the "SMDC Missile Defense Technology Plan."


Capability for AMD systems and their support elements to rapidly deploy and employ while keeping pace with future technological advances in air, land, and sea transport. Premium consideration should be made for efforts, which produce small, common Army platforms exploiting breakthroughs in remoted, distributed, non-dedicated architectures and robotics.

Materials Optimization for Lightweight Structures. This ARL program is investigating polymer matrix composite based materials, systems, and manufacturing methods that will reduce vehicle system weight and cost and increase armor protection.


Capability for AMD systems and their support elements to increase their tactical mobility. Future capabilities must include systems with tactical mobility comparable to the supported force.

Ground Propulsion and Mobility. The ARL Ground Vehicle and Dynamics Research program explores development of new and innovative mobility technologies critical to future system propulsion and suspension. Tactical mobility for wheeled and light tracked platforms is enhanced by a doubling of the effective cross-country speed, halving of "no-go" terrain, and improving agility to significantly reduce mission times.


Capability for systems to provide over-matching lethality against current and future systems of potential adversaries at all levels from the maneuver force to CONUS. Firepower capabilities for future munitions should include technologies that enhance missile propulsions to provide increased range and kinetic kills, allow for improved line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight kills, evolve from SMART to BRILLIANT munitions with fully autonomous capabilities, and allow for high firepower with low-cost-per-kill interceptors. Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) technology should be explored as munitions. DEWs should be capable of destroying or disabling air, space, or surface threats to the force.

SHORAD with Optimized Radar Distribution (SWORD). This SMDC program examines the potential to provide a mobile, all-weather, close-in defense against short-range rockets, air-to-ground missiles, CMs, and UAVs. This program will leverage the interferometric radar and gigahertz signal/data fusion technologies, high-speed processors, and improved kill devices for increased lethality against smart and multiple submunitions targets.

Future Missile Technology Integration. This AMCOM effort provides for the demonstration of a number of advanced tactical missile technologies. Attention is focused on the development of IR seeker technology capable of long-range acquisition of targets hidden in cluttered background; variable thrust smart propulsion allowing interceptor range extension; the innovative use of RF data links for identification, friend or foe; and systems permitting the attack of masked targets. Missile control and guidance system technology will explore capabilities such as lock-on before/lock-on after launch, fire and forget, man-in-the-loop guidance, imaging infrared signal and image processing, and wide-band secure data links.

Fused and Correlated Situational Awareness – Real-Time, 3D, Friendly and Enemy, Terrain, Weather

Capability for real-time fusion and correlation of digitized information from all types of sources (air, ground, sea, and space) that provides the commander the knowledge required to execute coordinated AMD. The integrated common picture must be sent to multiple locations, both vertically and horizontally, to allow for real-time target acquisition and should be available while on the move. C2 systems will be interoperable with joint, interagency, and multinational members of the projection force.

LLYNX-EYE. This SMDC effort examines the potential of using lasers to reduce the target location error of Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites and other defense satellites. It uses the principle of calibration via laser resection from known reference points to quantify and account for DSP pointing errors.

Information Analysis. This ARL effort focuses on the development of software technology to enhance situational awareness and the synchronization of events on the battlefield. State-of-the-art machine learning and reasoning methods are the basis for the representation and management of tactical planning and information.

Decision Support Software and Tactical Planning Aids

Capability for expert systems, decision aids and artificial intelligence, and faster processor technologies to reduce engagement times and enhance the planning process. The process must provide automated planning aids that allow for enhanced IPB that reduces staff and commander’s workloads. This capability must operate en route and on the move. Embedded training and simulation tools must be incorporated into the decision support software for commander/staff training, mission rehearsal, course of action analyses, and combat service support functions.

Multi-Source Correlated Intel Fusion Demonstration. This AMCOM program will incrementally integrate and test data fusion technology developments to evaluate and refine performance in an operational environment. At the conclusion of this program, a series of operational test modules will be available for integration into field systems. The modules, computer-based algorithms, will automate the manually intensive tasks of asset planning, correlation of diverse intelligence information, terrain analysis, and situational awareness.

Classification, Discrimination, Identification, and Correlation of Information

Capability to classify, discriminate, identify, and correlate information of threat platforms must reside within C2 nodes, sensors, and weapons platforms. This will facilitate using the entire kinematic range of AMD weapons. Higher considerations will be made toward technologies that are passive and non-cooperative. In addition, once a hostile identification has been made, the sharing of this situational awareness should allow for slave-to-cue engagements of the hostile threat targets while ensuring fratricide avoidance.

Real-Time Discrimination Program. This SMDC effort develops and integrates sophisticated real-time discrimination algorithms and architectures that can be used in the fire control logic of future ballistic missile defense systems. The goal is to enhance classification, discrimination, and identification (CDI) capabilities despite the distractions of clutter, debris, and PENAIDS, thereby maximizing efficient use of interceptors and improving the AMD capability.


Capability of future sensors to "know more and to know it sooner." This will require the exploitation of future technology emphasizing affordable, enhanced sensing through signal processing, increased use of multidimensional phenomenology, continued improvement in sensor systems and component technologies, increased connectivity and functional integration, rapid data exploitation, and automatic target recognition. Emphasis will be on developing systems that will facilitate the non-line of sight engagement through elevating the sensor. Sensors should not only provide air situational awareness but also land and surface situational awareness.

Missile System Sensors and Seekers. This AMCOM program includes the development, test, and evaluation of both active and passive electromagnetic sensors for ground-based and airborne fire control systems and missile seekers operating in the optical, infrared, millimeter, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Principal research objectives are the improvement of target acquisition and tracking in background clutter, target aim point selection, multispectral sensing, high-density packaging with reduced power, and hardening of sensors to countermeasures.

Advanced Sensors Research. This ARL program focuses on autonomously extracting combat information from raw sensor data for transmission over tactical networks. This will be accomplished by the integration of new sensors, signal and image processors, and automatic target recognition capabilities in low-cost, low-power, miniaturized packages.

Multidomain Sensors Technology. This SMDC program includes the development of multidomain smart sensors required to locate and target a stealthy enemy. Passive infrared sensor elements provide information on the direction of received radiation and the emission intensity. A laser radar (LADAR) sensor element can provide information on reflection intensity, range, range extent, velocity, and angle. Microwave and millimeter wave radars provide high-resolution target images in all weather operations. A multidomain sensor, incorporating elements such as these, can be configured so that the active and passive components share the same aperture, thus allowing the creation of multidimensional imagery. Sensor technologies that contribute to multidomain smart sensors include multispectral IR focal plane arrays and uncooled IR detectors.

Air and Missile Defense Systems Survivability

Capability to protect AMD systems to include space-based assets would enhance overall force survivability. Weapons and information systems should be protected from electronic warfare, high-power microwave, lasers, ARMs, information integrity violations, and anti-directed energy seeking kinetic munitions. Survivability of AMD information systems should be accomplished through the use of data encryption and encoding schemes, anti-viruses (vaccines), or antidotes (if infected).

Small Low-Cost Interceptor Devices (SLID). DARPA is currently sponsoring an independent industry study to engineer and develop small-scale kinetic energy (hit-to-kill) weaponry for the defense of armored vehicles from high-energy anti-tank missiles. Studies show that SLID, used at short ranges, could effectively protect critical AMD assets, such as radars and operations centers, from ARMs, TASMs, rockets, and indirect artillery fire. Operating in split-second time regimes, SLID would provide the "final protective fires" to defend against threats as no other system currently can.

RF and Electromagnetic (EM) Mitigation Technologies. This ARL program will focus on the protection of AMD systems against the entire electromagnetic spectrum and against directed energy weapons, with emphasis on high-power RF/high-power microwave weapons.


Capability for AMD systems to be operated through remote control methods resulting in unmanned platforms. Systems should be more mobile, compact, and able to survive more intense environments than manned platforms. In addition, these systems should be able to provide greater firepower than existing systems while being seamlessly integrated into the AMD force.

Joint Robotics Program. The Joint Robotics Program Working Group, established by congressional direction in 1990 and under the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), is missioned to conduct research and experimentation, to establish definitive robotics operational requirements, and to examine the critical technologies necessary to satisfy these requirements for all the services. In addition to the other services, Army participants include the ADA, Armor, Infantry, and Military Police Schools. Technical support is provided by DARPA and ARL. Focus for AMD robotics applications include launcher reload, remote site security, and automated vehicular movement for force multiplication. The Mobile Detection, Assessment, and Response - External system, sponsored by the Military Police School, is being examined as a potential candidate for security of remote launcher sites.

Air and Missile Defense Sustainability

Capability for AMD systems to have built-in test equipment integrated into real-time remote diagnostics systems. These remote diagnostics systems should have the capability to perform self- repair and/or remote maintenance. Consideration should be given to future systems to have common parts and maintenance equipment. The AMD munitions should have standard handling equipment and be reduced in size for ease of delivery.

Remote Asset Prognostic/Diagnostic System. This AMCOM program will design and demonstrate technologies to remotely monitor critical electronic and mechanical components of weapons systems, including complex missile sys-tems. The source data will be analyzed to allow preventive maintenance and services and "just in time" repairs. It should also enhance logistics by ensuring the right parts are sent at the right time. This information will be provided to commanders and staffs in near-real-time, augmented with sophisticated decision support tools.

Early Warning

Capability to provide day/night/all weather early warning and targeting data to weapon systems against all air and missile threats (i.e., UAVs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, TBMs, CMs, rockets, artillery rounds, and bombs), to include systems employing stealth technologies.

Multimission Sensor Suite (MMSS). This SMDC proposal is a small, lightweight sensor system for surveillance and tracking of TBMs during boost phase and early mid-course flight and for cruise missiles throughout the entire flight trajectory. The MMSS will employ two passive IR sensors (one for surveillance and one for tracking), an X-Band radar, and a laser ranger in a suite onboard a UAV operating at an altitude around 65,000 feet for periods greater than 24 hours. The MMSS/UAV gives the theater commander in chief (CINC) an unmanned, deployable, over-the-horizon, TBM/CM surveillance and tracking capability that would otherwise be lost when satellite assets are neutralized.

Acoustic Tracking and Identification for the Battlefield. This AMCOM program explores advanced acoustic sensor technology to provide accurate detection, tracking, and identification on the battlefield. It will develop advanced acoustic algorithms for the detection of ground and air targets in the sonic range and explore or develop new algorithms for the detection of infrasonic signals generated by CMs, missile launchers, artillery fire, and similar items.

Counter Aerial and Space-Based RISTA Platforms

Capability to rapidly deploy low-cost, multi-function, day/night/all weather systems capable of countering aerial and space-based reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, and communications platforms. Countering these enemy systems will destroy, disable, or disrupt the aerial and space-based platforms ability to perform their missions. Weapons systems are expected to employ high-power microwave, lasers, low-cost kinetic munitions, and computer data warfare to conduct information warfare.

Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite (KE ASAT) Program. This SMDC program will provide the United States with the capability to interdict hostile satellites, preventing enemy space-based surveillance and targeting of U.S. assets. KE ASAT consists of missile and weapon control subsystems. To date, two KE ASAT prototype kill vehicles have been integrated, one has been test fired, and two prototype weapon control systems have been built and successfully tested. All demonstration and validation (DEM/VAL) phase exit criteria have been met.

Live Virtual Battlefield

Capability to exploit the integration of the live and virtual battlefield. Future weapon systems will operate in a virtual environment. With improvements in sensor technology and in the development and dissemination of situational awareness, the possibility for a soldier to operate in a synthetic environment can be realized. Technological advancements must provide the soldier a standardized device capable of aiming his individual or crew-served weapon at symbology displayed in a virtual display helmet. The wearable display for the future soldier, operating on a live virtual battlefield, will be equal to his need to carry a chemical protective mask.

Networked Battlefield Distributed Simulation Technology. Interactive networked simulators are key to training combined arms forces and providing an alternative to current evaluation methods for present and future weapon systems, tactics, and doctrine. These programs will demonstrate accredited, warfighter-in-the-loop, networked and distributed battlefield simulation for use in all phases of development. They will also develop a consistent battlefield imagery in which each simulator’s data bases/computer-generated objects are accurately represented and correlated in the visual, IR, and RF spectrums.

Missile Defense of the United States

Capability to defend the United States against limited, accidental, or unauthorized missile attack. The requirement is to detect, acquire, track, and engage ICBMs/SLBMs through boost and post-boost phases.

Innovative Radar Components Research. SMDC is investigating components that will replace the basic radar transmit/receive (TR) module and provide significant improvements in radar system sensitivity, efficiency, and size. "Active radiator" phased array antenna technology will improve radar performance, while simplifying basic phased array antenna design, by making all TR modules integral components of the radiating element.

Advanced Discriminating LADAR Technology (ADLT). SMDC is developing an advanced long-range (greater than 200 kilometers), lightweight (less than 5 kilograms), coherent, solid-state LADAR that produces range-resolved Doppler imagery. The ADLT LADAR will be one of the first compact, high performance subsystems to produce four-dimensional measurements (angle/angle/range/velocity) of long-range targets. The ADLT LADAR is a self-contained subsystem that can be integrated into an interceptor seeker, such as the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV), to support a robust, on-board, discrimination capability.

CO2 LADAR Development Programs. SMDC is developing two CO2 laser sensor systems, the Field LADAR and the Multiple-Folded Laser, targeted at reducing mass and volume, demonstrating functionality for multiple applications, and developing high-speed signal processors for their different waveforms. The compactness of the Multi-Folded Laser makes it a viable candidate as a precision surveillance sensor on a lightweight UAV. The high-energy measurement capability of the Field LADAR makes it a candidate for hosting on a satellite or manned aircraft.

Contractor Independent Research and Development (IR&D) Efforts

Private contractors have also been actively involved in pursuing technologies that will contribute to the vision of the AAN. Through the application of IR&D funding, Department of Defense (DoD) contractors are able to build upon their ongoing technology programs and devise future initiatives to address many of the threats identified in Chapter 2. The technology initiative efforts of each of the contractors are unique, based on their individual expertise and in-house capabilities. Although these types of technology programs are not specifically intended to address AMD FOCs, many are parallel to the DoD efforts and, in fact, share the same common technology base. Representative areas include detection and recognition of chemical and biological targets, distributed or cooperative engagements, free electron laser development, high-speed computers and processors, data fusion, and space-based communications.


The primary focus of technology demonstrations is to showcase the feasibility of a technology for solving military deficiencies. Demonstrations are frequently used to validate the maturity of a technology within an operational environment (Advanced Technology Demonstrations [ATD]), or integrate maturing advanced technologies into real-time operational scenarios (Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations [ACTD]). ATDs are risk-reducing, integrated, "proof of principle" demonstrations to assist near-term system developments in satisfying specific operational capabilities. ACTDs are integrated efforts accomplished by the warfighter to evaluate the military utility of proposed solutions and to develop appropriate concepts of operations that would optimize the effectiveness of the capability. The ACTDs provide insights for the generation or refinement of requirements and provide residual operational capabilities to the sponsoring user. TRADOC and the materiel developer jointly develop ATD/ACTD demonstration plans. The technology innovations that result from these demonstrations will directly support Army Vision 2010/ Joint Vision 2010 operations and the AAN. The following paragraphs describe demonstration programs that support AMD initiatives.

Joint Aerostat Demonstration Program

The Aerostat program, established in 1996, will develop a system that can provide both surveillance and fire control for current and future AMD systems. Aerostat is an unmanned, airborne, search and fire control sensor that is supported by a tethered helium balloon. The Aerostat provides the capability to detect targets that would normally be masked from a ground-based sensor. From its elevated position above the battlefield, an Aerostat-based sensor will detect and track incoming CMs and allow their engagement by surface-based AMD systems, typically beyond the horizon, even before organic system radars can see the targets. Aerostats have several characteristics that may make them especially suited to CM defense. They are less expensive to buy and operate than fixed-wing aircraft and have comparable sensor capabilities. They can stay aloft for up to 30 days at a time, providing 24-hour per day coverage over extended areas. Other missions for the Aerostat include fire support, battlefield CDI, boost phase intercept, communications relays, and battlefield situational awareness.

An Aerostat testbed (Figure 4-2) has been established at Fort Bliss, Texas, using off-the-shelf equipment. The testbed is integrated with a 71-meter blimp and will elevate candidate payloads for risk mitigation and experimentation.

Tactical High Energy Laser ACTD

The cooperative Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Demonstrator ACTD (Figure 4-3) was initiated by a memorandum of agreement between the United States and the Government of Israel on 18 July 1996. The THEL is a high- energy laser weapon system that uses proven laser beam generation technologies, proven beam- pointing technologies, and existing sensors and communication networks to provide a bold new active defense capability in counterair missions. The THEL can provide an innovative solution not offered by other systems or technologies for the acquisition and close-in engagement problems associated with short- to medium-range threats, thereby significantly enhancing coverage of combat forces and theater-level assets. The THEL low-cost per kill (a few thousand dollars per kill or less) will also provide a cost-effective defense against low-cost air threats.

A joint U.S.-Israeli program has been initiated to develop a THEL demonstrator using deuterium fluoride chemical laser technologies. The U.S. and Israeli THEL team members have completed a Concept Design Review in Israel for the demonstrator. Approximately 21 months will be required to design and build the system, followed by 12 to 18 months of field testing at the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility in Israel. This program will deliver a THEL Demonstrator by March 1998 with a limited operational capability to defend against short-range rockets. The THEL weapon system concept definition studies using advanced technologies were awarded to four contractors on 30 September 1996.

Hit-to-Kill Miniature Submunition Technology ATD

The Hit-to-Kill (HTK) Miniature Interceptor Technology is an ATD primarily involving the development and testing of a multiple kill vehicle intended to counter the advanced submunition (either conventional, chemical, or biological) threat. The technology integrates component technologies into extremely small kill vehicles, thereby allowing many to be carried aboard a single interceptor. It will be designed to be compatible with the baseline TMD concept of operations using the same radar, booster, launcher, and battle management/C4I (BM/C4I). A small fraction of the conventional interceptors in each fire unit will be replaced with interceptors filled with HTK miniature projectiles. As in the conventional TMD scenarios, the TMD radar will detect and track the threat. The TMD radar will determine the composition of the threat payload, and a conventional interceptor with a cluster of HTK miniature projectiles will engage the submunitions in an exoatmospheric environment.

Battlespace Command & Control ATD

The Battlespace Command & Control (BC2) ATD will develop and demonstrate information and knowledge based on technology capabilities for battlefield visualization and supporting systems architectures (e.g., a common, integrated situation display with selectable detail and resolution). The BC2 ATD includes intelligent agents for information retrieval, filtering, and deconfliction; intelligent products to support decision making; and development of a system architecture. C2 and situational awareness data from tri-service sources will be partitioned and distributed automatically across an integrated network of communications and computers to provide real-time targeting, target hand-off, mission planning, route planning, friendly and enemy pictures, and other critical C2 functions.

2.75" Anti-Air Technology Demonstration

This program will examine the incorporation of an advanced imaging IR seeker on the Stinger missile system, enabling Stinger to engage helicopters in clutter at extended ranges (two to three times the present range). It will demonstrate the ability to package the signal processing electronics in the 2.75-inch diameter Stinger missile. In addition, signal processing algorithms for target detection, tracking, and IR countermeasures will be developed and demonstrated via hardware-in-the-loop simulations, ground tests, and captive carry tests.


Experiments are discrete, single events or progressive, iterative simulations (constructive, virtual, or live) to assess the military utility or potential for a new or revised DTLOMS concept or new technology to satisfy user needs. The focus is on a specific capability or technological opportunity. Data are gathered through a designed event(s) or through a data collection effort subordinate to a field or training exercise involving field units and soldiers. Concept Experimentation Programs (CEP) provide sponsors (TRADOC schools) the ability to evaluate and capitalize on emerging technologies, materiel initiatives, and warfighting ideas. They facilitate experiments to determine the potential utility of a DTLOMS solution to FOCs. The CEPs are primarily conducted by the TRADOC Battle Labs. The following paragraphs identify some experiments and CEPs that support AMD initiatives.

Force XXI

Force XXI is a series of TRADOC-led experiments to redesign and evolve the operational Army into the 21st century. The incremental process, beginning with the redesign of a maneuver brigade, continues through division and corps. The ADBLSE leads the USAADASCH experimentation efforts.

Task Force XXI. The Task Force XXI advance warfighting experiment (AWE), conducted at the National Training Center in March 1997, successfully demonstrated the capabilities of a fully digitized brigade in an operational environment. The ADA Community examined four initiatives: Sentinel, Avenger Slew-to-Cue (STC), Bradley Linebacker, and FAAD C2. These integrated capabilities, coupled with digital systems, successfully enhanced force protection, early warning, and situational awareness. General Hartzog, TRADOC Commander, commented: "The systems in the ADA architecture are clear winners for Task Force XXI."

Division XXI. The Division XXI AWE, to be conducted at Fort Hood, Texas in November 1997, will provide the requisite analysis and experimentation support to validate the Force XXI division design, operations concept, and battle command and information operations requirements. Division XXI will be a constructive simulation exercise. The ADA Community will focus on the impacts of the Army Battle Command System (ABCS) on the AMD force’s lethality, survivability, and tempo. Among the expected AMD payoffs are validations of the need for the division’s organic AMD battalion and for the design structure of that battalion.

Prairie Warrior. Prairie Warrior is a collection of warfighting experiments and analyses, linked by the annual Command and General Staff College capstone exercise, to evaluate Force XXI concepts and organizations and selected joint EAC issues. The Prairie Warrior analysis uses student cells to replicate the current U.S. corps and a conceptual Mobile Strike Force (using a new organizational model and employing advanced technologies and weapon systems). Joint EAC organizations are also key analysis participants.

Live Experiment II

The ADBLSE will conduct two live experiments a year -- one in the first quarter (October-December) and one in the third quarter (April-June) -- to examine government and industry "good ideas" (concepts and technologies) in a field setting. Live Experiment II currently contains four interrelated, though distinct, experiments/demonstrations. These are the Beyond Visual Range Identification (BVRID) experiment, the Advanced Concept Technology (ACT) II program for Enhanced Combat Identification, the Aerostat connectivity demonstration, and an experiment with an air defense launcher for the division area (Figure 4-4). Other experiments and demonstrations (e.g., common launcher, SLID) may also be included.

The BVRID experiment seeks to define and refine how SHORAD fire units can use current and near future technical capabilities to engage aircraft, in accordance with current doctrine, beyond visual identification range. The underlining hypothesis for the experiment is: If the information required by current doctrine that defines the rules of engagement is available at a SHORAD fire unit, and if this information can be correlated at the fire unit, then SHORAD fire units can apply these rules and engage targets beyond visual identification range and thereby extend their force protection capability. The first step is researching current joint/Army doctrine to determine the defined rules of engagement and using these rules to prescribe tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) that will enhance SHORAD beyond visual range engagements. This research and TTP development effort will leverage and exchange data with a related study currently being conducted by NATO. The "right" data (range, azimuth, elevation, and identification of the target), forwarded by the sensor to the fire unit, provides for the application of the rules of engagement and the TTP. For the experiment, the data will flow from the Sentinel via FAAD C2/Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) to an Avenger and a Bradley Linebacker. New technologies and/or modifications to Avenger and Bradley Linebacker hardware and software must be concurrently developed and applied to allow these weapons systems to correlate and recommend identifications to the gunners and squad leaders for beyond visual range engagements.

The ACT II Enhanced Combat Identification demonstration will focus on the utility of advanced passive and active electro-optic technology enhancements to SHORAD. These enhancements are based on upgrades to the Mast Mounted Sight System on the Army’s OH-58D Kiowa Warrior helicopter and use the sensors and processing capabilities provided by the Navy’s Radiant Mist program. The resulting multifunctional optical system will detect, track, and classify the targets (types to be determined) at ranges to 30 kilometers and will cue the Avenger and Bradley Linebacker systems.

The Aerostat connectivity demonstration will focus on the validation of the communications link between Aerostat and the FAAD C2 network. This demonstration will serve as a test for Aerostat’s planned participation in Roving Sands ‘98.

The air defense launcher for the division area experiment leverages efforts being conducted under a Marine DARPA project. The project/system, as developed by AMCOM RDEC, mounts an Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) variant on a HMMWV; it is referred to as the Divisional Air Defense Launcher. The experiment will explore the ability of the Divisional Air Defense Launcher, cued by a Sentinel, to engage a line-of-sight target at 15 to 20 kilometers from the launcher. Follow-on experiments will explore an air-directed, non-line-of-sight engagement.

The scheduled dates for Live Experiment II are 3-12 December 1997. In addition to the ADBLSE, participants include AMCOM RDEC, AMCOM Weapons System Management Center (Stinger and Avenger), and the Aerostat, Sentinel and Air Defense Command and Control Systems program/project offices.

Roving Sands

Roving Sands, a part of the U.S. Central Command-sponsored Joint Project Optic Cobra, provides a tactically realistic scenario for AMD forces. Roving Sands ‘97 marked a number of firsts for the AMD Task Force. Both upper- and lower-tier systems using JTIDS radios (TADIL-J) exchanged track files over a Joint Data Net, while SHORAD systems integrated into the overall defense plan. The provisional AAMDC was also deployed, providing the primary TMD coordination link for the Land Component Commander to the theater CINC. Future exercises will continue to demonstrate evolving AMD capabilities, using both active and reserve forces to refine doctrine and tactics.

Common Launcher CEP

The Common Launcher CEP is an ADBLSE initiative to study possible launchers and missiles that could be used in the common family of Army munitions to support AMD and Field Artillery missions. With the development and fielding of digital missiles and rockets, a launcher that can fire both AMD and Field Artillery kill vehicles is feasible. Potential launchers and missiles include the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS), and High Mobility Advanced Rocket System (HIMARS) launchers, and a ground-launched AMRAAM missile variant. The CEP will investigate, via Extended Air Defense Simulation (EADSIM) and hardware demonstrations, the operational value added of the potential candidate systems, determine potential sensor cueing options to support the launcher or missile, and demonstrate the common launcher or missile prototype system in a live-fire exercise.

Robotics CEP

The Robotics CEP is a proposed FY98 ADBLSE initiative that will investigate concepts of operation, research the technical maturity of ongoing efforts, and perform initial assessments of the operational value of robotics to the Army. This CEP will focus on the potential application of robotics for force protection of all Army battlefield operating systems in extreme battlefield conditions. A recommended Army robotics strategy will be developed based on the information ob-tained during the research and analysis efforts.


The SLID CEP is a proposed FY98 ADBLSE experiment to investigate potential concepts of operation and to conduct live system tests against such targets as mortar rounds and anti-tank missiles. The CEP will demonstrate the capabilities to perform fixed-site and vehicle self-defense missions. The scenarios for the tests will be as operationally realistic as safety permits.

All Radiation Anti-Missile System (ARAMS) CEP

This FY98 ADBLSE-proposed CEP will complete the partially funded FY97 ARAMS demonstration. ARAMS has the potential to identify (type of explosive in the warhead), detect and track, and kill (send a disassociation signal to detonate the explosive) low-observable, low-flying CMs and such dumb munitions as rockets. The CEP will use a model-test-model methodology to explore potential ARAMS concepts for AMD, counter land mine, bomb detection, and peace- keeping operations. The simulation evaluation is being conducted in a cooperative research and development agreement with the Chemical Research Center of the United States Air Force Academy. Concept evaluation will be completed under the purview of a Fort Bliss Integrated Concept Team.


This ADBLSE-proposed FY98 CEP will be based on multipath measurements from an experimental configuration of the SWORD interferometric fire control radar, to be set up at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, Virginia. An experimental multipath range will be employed in assessing the potential of interferometric techniques to resolve direct path radar signals from multipath signals. The results of the assessments will provide information on the sensor’s ability to precisely track and predict system hit probability of low-altitude targets.

Rapid Optical Beam Steering (ROBS) CEP

The ADBLSE-proposed FY98 CEP will analyze and investigate the potential concept of operations for ROBS, a small, portable tracking and imaging system that will provide three-dimensional track information to active defense interceptors, such as directed energy weapons, to allow high firepower, low-cost intercepts.

Realization of Laser Engagements CEP

This proposed ADBLSE FY98 CEP will use the THEL virtual simulator to analyze and develop potential concepts of operation for laser weapons.

System Integration Tests

System Integration Tests (SIT) are a series of biennial experiments, conducted under the auspices of the PEO AMD, to measure the integrated performance of and interoperability between TMD system architectures in the presence of tactically representative threat targets (Figure 4-5). Data collected during SITs are used to validate and refine the Theater Missile Defense System Exerciser (TMDSE), EADSIM, and Extended Air Defense Test Bed (EADTB) data bases. PATRIOT, JTAGS, THAAD radar and BM/C4I assets successfully participated in live intercepts during SIT ‘97 conducted at the Kwajalein Missile Range. THAAD will become a full SIT participant subsequent to delivery of the THAAD User Operational Evaluation System (UOES) system in FY00. In addition, Marine Hawk may also participate in future SITs.


In the current Army modernization process, experimentation is key to gaining insights, identifying and refining requirements across the DTLOMS spectrum, and determining how to leverage technology to realize needed operational capabilities. Numerous experiments and analysis-based initiatives are underway within the ADA community to understand and evaluate potential solutions required for AMD to leverage its Force XXI/Army Vision 2010 capabilities. A summation of the initiatives (technologies, demonstrations, experiments) cross-walked to the approved FOCs appears in Figure 4-6. While many of the initiatives are interrelated, each is a stepping stone toward the AAN, providing unique conclusions, reinforcing/refining observations of preceding events, evolving hypotheses/objectives for follow-on activities, and applying the "art of the possible." Collectively, the initiatives provide an azimuth to guide the materiel development and science and technology communities in meeting AMD needs for the AAN.

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