Chapter 1

Executive Summary


The FY98 Air and Missile Defense Master Plan (AMDMP) is the ADA branch modernization plan to execute the air and missile defense mission on the battlefields of the next century. The AMDMP charts the course to the future for Air and Missile Defense (AMD) of Army XXI, Force 2010, and the Army After Next (AAN). The organizations responsible for AMD modernization jointly developed the AMDMP, which serves as the single, comprehensive source document for modernization.

The FY98 AMDMP’s organization is similar to its predecessor and has the same modernization goal - an affordable, capabilities-based Air and Missile Defense Force to execute the mission in support of the National Security Strategy and the National Military Strategy utilizing joint/Army operational concepts. Key focal points for the FY98 AMDMP are as follows:

This chapter summarizes AMD modernization and the AMDMP. It presents overviews of the AMD force, the AMD systems, and the contents of the ensuing AMDMP chapters.

The AMD mission in the 21st century will be to protect the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack and surveillance. The goal will be to prevent hostile forces from targeting or shooting friendly forces from the air. The AMD force must plan to execute the mission and goal using the concepts of Force XXI, Army Vision 2010/Joint Vision 2010, and the AAN. Force XXI has been identified as "the process to advance into the 21st century." Army 2010 is the intermediate step – the bridge – to the long-term vision -- AAN. The focus is the orderly transformation of today’s AMD force into a force capable of performing tomorrow’s tasks to defeat tomorrow’s threat. The Army’s process for change appears in Figure 1-1.


To prepare for changes in the 21st century, AMD has a vision, a modernization strategy to realize the vision, and modernization investment recommendations to maximize use of available resources. The following is the vision of MG John Costello, Chief of Air Defense Artillery: "I want a force that is tactically and technically capable, flexible, and strategically deployable -- a force that can fight and win. I want a force that meets the National Security Strategy and National Military Strategy, a force that is economical for the nation and accepts risk, a total force that has building blocks for the future -- a future that is uncertain."

The modernization strategy to achieve the above vision identifies the key AMD capabilities for current and future Army operational concepts (Force XXI, Army Vision 2010, AAN) and is consistent with Joint Vision 2010 and the Concept for Future Joint Operations. The strategy supports achieving Full Spectrum Dominance, emphasizes information dominance and overmatch capabilities, and provides the focus for science and technology initiatives required for future operational capabilities.

Investment recommendations fall into three categories: achieve information dominance, maintain overmatch capabilities, and focus science and technology. Information dominance consists of offensive and defensive efforts to achieve dominant battlespace awareness. Overmatch capabilities are superior combat systems using advanced technologies, such as PATRIOT Advanced Capability (PAC)-3, that provide an advantage over potential opponents. Science and Technology will play a key role in attaining essential leap-ahead capabilities for AAN.

AMD Systems Overview

The AMD systems, discussed in the Master Plan, are presented in Figure 1-2. The AMD systems provide near-leakproof, in-depth defense of maneuver forces and critical assets in the divisional and forward areas, corps, and theater. They also provide national missile defense.

Theater Missile Defense (TMD) is an integrated system approach to provide near-leak-proof protection of the force and critical assets. TMD is accomplished by integrating a mix of mutually supportive operational elements: active defense, passive defense, attack operations, and command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I). Consisting currently of PATRIOT, TMD (active defense) systems will expand in the 21st century to include the Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) and Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) capabilities. PATRIOT is the cornerstone of current active defense TMD forces in the corps and theater. It provides the lower-tier capability of a multi-tiered tactical ballistic missile (TBM) defense. The PAC-3 enhancements result in increased battlespace and defended ground area and provide a hit-to-kill missile technology to neutralize Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) warheads. The THAAD system, currently in development, will provide wide area protection against medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBM) and short-range ballistic missiles (SRBM). It will assure near-leakproof TBM defense in conjunction with lower-tier systems. The MEADS system will provide an overarching layer of protection for the forward maneuver forces against TBMs, cruise missiles (CM), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), helicopters, and fixed-wing aircraft. MEADS will be the future linchpin system for the AMD force, and will also provide a lower-tier TBM capability in conjunction with the upper-tier THAAD.

Short-range air defense (SHORAD) provides in-depth protection to division, corps and theater forces in all phases of operation with integrated fighting capabilities against CMs, UAVs, helicopters, and fixed-wing aircraft. SHORAD currently consists of the Bradley Stinger Fighting Vehicle (BSFV), Avenger, Forward Area Air Defense Command and Control (FAAD C2), the Sentinel (formerly known as Ground Based Sensor [GBS]), and the Stinger Man Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS). The BSFV provides air defense for the heavy division maneuver force. The BSFV will evolve into the Bradley Linebacker. Bradley Linebacker, an M2A2(ODS) Bradley, has an integrated externally mounted launcher that can fire four Stinger missiles while keeping the crew protected under armor. Avenger provides air defense from the battalion to the corps rear. Avenger is a lightweight system on a heavy High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) with eight ready-to-fire Stinger missiles and a .50 caliber machine gun. Avenger’s performance will soon improve with the addition of a digital slew-to-cue (STC) capability. Further enhancements to Stinger to counter the evolving, small-signature threat will maintain the effectiveness of the SHORAD force. The advanced weapon system(s) (e.g., Counterair Directed Energy Weapons System [CADEWS]) is a next-generation system to counter future threats where rapid reaction, highly effective engagements will be critical. It may be a missile, kinetic energy weapon, directed energy weapon, or multiple combinations of these. FAAD C2 provides SHORAD systems with digital, automated target information from the Sentinel sensor and battle command information. Sentinel provides 360-degree air surveillance and air picture information to SHORAD systems through FAAD C2.

The Air and Missile Defense Planning and Control System (AMDPCS) provides automated, seamless force-level battle command and control for all AMD weapons systems and horizontal interoperability with joint and multinational air defense and air control elements. The AMDPCS consists of three major components: AMD Brigade and Army Air and Missile Defense Command (AAMDC) tactical operations centers, AMD Brigade Fire Control and Monitoring capability, and the Air and Missile Defense Workstation (AMDWS).

The Joint Tactical Ground Station (JTAGS) is a theater-level system, currently being fielded, that provides the force with warning, alerting, and cueing information on TBM launches.

Aerostat will meet the Army’s requirement for an elevated sensor to detect, track, and support engagement of low-flying threats, with a focus on cruise missiles. Aerostat will provide air surveillance information and fire control quality tracking data to enable air-directed surface-to-air missile (ADSAM) engagements of targets masked by terrain. It may also support other missions, such as communications relay and counterbattery fires.

National Missile Defense (NMD) will provide protection of the United States against accidental, unauthorized, or intentionally limited Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) attacks. Program intent is to develop (within three years) an initial system to the point that a limited capability fielding is possible within three years of a deployment decision.

AMDP Overview

The AMDMP organization reflects the logical process in developing a modernization plan: the future threat (Chapter 2) and Army/joint warfighting concepts drive the supporting AMD required operational capabilities (Chapter 3); technological opportunities to achieve Future Operational Capabilities (FOC) are examined and selected initiatives are further assessed in demonstrations and experiments (Chapter 4) and influence the AMD research, development and acquisition (RDA) system modernization strategy (Chapter 5); capabilities assessments (Chapter 6) measure capabilities versus needs and identify shortfalls; and investment recommendations provide the required capabilities (Chapter 7) to compete in the planning and programming process. In addition, because future capabilities are achieved through changes across the Doctrine, Training, Leader Development, Organization, Materiel and Soldiers (DTLOMS) spectrum, information with respect to training, organization and distribution, and soldiers is in the annexes.

Threat (Chapter 2)

Modernization planning must start with the evaluation of global threat trends that could affect U.S. military forces. The evolving threat will take on new stressing characteristics in the 21st century. Future foes may use an asymmetric military strategy to counter, rather than match, U.S. capabilities (Figure 1-3). Adversaries will try to exploit weaknesses in U.S. capabilities with simple counters, such as unmanned systems (TBMs, CMs, UAVs, rockets).

Regional competition will reinforce the perceived need to acquire low-cost, unmanned, high-payoff systems that provide the greatest operational effectiveness for nominal cost. The threats with increased proliferation trends in the 21st century are TBMs, CMs, UAVs, and rockets. Sophisticated or rudimentary versions of these systems pose a danger to deploying forces. TBMs and CMs can deliver WMD warheads on deployed forces or geopolitical assets. Hostile UAVs can detect U.S. military operations, leading to disruption of decisive operations. Rocket systems, with high-explosive (HE) and chemical warheads, pose a lethal challenge to U.S. forces. In addition, traditional air threats will still exist in the world of tomorrow. Helicopters will continue to pose a lethal hazard to ground forces. Fixed-wing aircraft will continue to evolve as an expensive, but highly capable, weapon delivery system.

Warfighting Concept and Required Capabilities (Chapter 3)

AMD will respond to the challenge of achieving the requisite warfighting effectiveness to support current and future Army concepts of operation. The focus is on Army Vision 2010, a bridge between Force XXI and the AAN.

As AMD is inherently a joint operation, the AMD force will operate across the theater as a key component of a cohesive, joint operational AMD Force to execute Army Vision 2010/Joint Vision 2010. AMD operations will be conducted throughout the Army Vision 2010 patterns of operation. These patterns of operation evolve from Force XXI and align with Joint Vision 2010 operational concepts, as portrayed in Figure 1-4. The AMD Force 2010 required operational capabilities are identified for execution of each of the patterns of operation. AMD Force 2010 will be the departure point for the evolution to AMD Force 2025.

Army Air and Missile Defense Initiatives (Chapter 4)

Technology initiatives will result in dynamic change to achieve the imperatives of jointness and Full Spectrum Dominance for future operations. The FOCs, statements of AMD’s 21st- century needs, provide the warfighting focus for the science and technology community. Representative technologies have been identified and grouped under appropriate FOCs. In addition, ongoing and planned experiments and demonstrations will gain insights into the operational values of technologies and emerging capabilities. The total technology plan supports the objectives of AMD modernization.

Research, Development and Acquisition (RDA) Modernization Strategy (Chapter 5)

The AMD modernization strategy meets the National Security Strategy and National Military Strategy, implements Army operational concepts, is economical for the Nation, and accepts risk. Execution of this modernization strategy results in the evolution of AMD systems, as depicted in Figure 1-5. In the period beyond 2005, the AMD force, from division level through the strategic realm, will be continuously improved to ensure the overmatch of threat capabilities and to contribute to the sustainment of information dominance. Emerging systems include THAAD, MEADS, and CADEWS. The objective THAAD system fielded at echelons above corps (EAC) will provide, with PAC-3, near-leakproof TBM protection of vital theater and geopolitical assets. The fielding of MEADS, replacing PATRIOT in the corps, effectively counters TBMs, CMs, UAVs and fixed-wing aircraft that threaten corps assets. A new-generation (2015) system, CADEWS, is envisioned as a potential advanced weapon system(s) to counter future threats. The AMD modernization strategy provides a total force that will effectively operate in a 21st-century environment, requiring information supremacy and increased joint and dispersed operations.

Capabilities Assessment (Chapter 6)

The assessments measure the AMD Force’s ability to achieve the required operational capabilities for the Army Vision 2010 patterns of operation. Assessment snapshots (RED, AMBER, GREEN) were taken for FY99, FY05, FY10, and FY14. The resulting required capability shortfalls provide the baseline for modernization planning for the AMD Force.

Conclusions (Chapter 7)

Figure 1-6 presents the unprioritized investment recommendations. They are derived from considerations of the threat, warfighting concepts, technological opportunities, modernization strategies, and capabilities assessment processes. The recommendations provide the right system capabilities, in the most cost-effective manner, to well-trained soldiers – at the right time – to meet the evolving threat. The result will be an effective AMD Force in the 21st century.


AMD forces must prepare to defeat a wide range of threats that are potentially far more lethal than those of the past. The AMDMP creates the single template to guide the transformation of AMD from today through AMD Force XXI, AMD Force 2010, and AMD Force 2025. It serves as the basis for focusing modernization efforts to exploit the full array of air and missile defense systems’ capabilities to protect the Nation, the force and selected geopolitical assets from aerial attack, missile attack, and surveillance.

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