Training prepares soldiers, crews, leaders, and units to fight and win in combat. This requires that all leaders understand and enforce high standards of combat readiness through realistic, multi-echelon combined arms training that challenges and develops individuals, leaders, crews and units. The air defense training strategy, designed around FM 25-100, is based on leveraging technology to support the Armys training mission.
The purpose of this annex is to define where Air and Missile Defense training is going and to identify the tools needed to enable soldiers to train exactly as they will fight on the Force XXI battlefield.
As we move forward into the 21st century, training methodologies will change as civilian and military training technology advancements are leveraged. The Worldwide Web, information super-highway, interactive simulation, and virtual reality will allow training using multiple learning methods and media.
Army Training XXI (ATXXI) defines three pillars of training to support Force XXI: WARRIOR XXI (institutional/self-development training), WARFIGHTER XXI (unit and collective training) and WARNET XXI (force modernization training). To support ATXXI the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery School (USAADASCH) has developed the Air and Missile Defense Distance Learning Operations Plan (OPLAN). The OPLAN details the transition from todays resident learning structure to a distance learning environment that will bring the classroom to the soldier. This transition will be gradual, using incremental funding, and will support the Total Army School System (TASS).
The Total Army School System (TASS) is a regional concept that places Reserve Component Training Institutes (RCTI) in seven regions across the United States (Figure A-1). ADA has training battalions in five of the regions and plans to add battalions to the remaining two regions. A key component of TASS is Total Army Training System (TATS). The TATS concept blends active and reserve component training products into "one training packet for all," and ensures that ADA programs of instruction train both active and reserve component ADA soldiers to perform like tasks to the same standard. Once the TATS conversion is completed, ADA courses will transition to distance learning and multimedia courseware.
The AMD Training XXI will leverage automation and digitization to maximize training effectiveness and efficiency of soldiers, units, and leaders. The training vision is:
The strategy to attain the training vision is presented in Figure A-2.
The Combined Arms Training Strategies (CATS) are the foundation of AMD training development. The AMD CATS drive the mutually supporting pillars of ATXXI -- WARRIOR, WARFIGHTER, and WARNET. Central to air and missile defense training are on-line, on-demand diagnostics. They will provide the means to gauge individual competency levels and to initiate self-development activities to hone skills that may require additional training. Soldiers, Department of the Army civilians, trainers, and leaders will be able to select individual and unit training from electronic data-based libraries of exercises, lessons, references, and scheduled educational programs. This capability will allow instruction tailoring to meet specific needs. Institutional trainers will be able to measure an individual soldiers knowledge, using diagnostics to evaluate what instruction is needed. Tailoring the curriculum to the individual student will save student and instruction time and training resources.
The AMD training goal is still to execute tough, realistic field exercises as the primary means of validating training. However, decreasing resources, increased weapons systems ranges, an expanded threat target set (e.g., TBMs and CMs), and environmental constraints severely limit this ability to train. These factors, coupled with broad mission requirements, indicate a need to create synthetic battlefields in the future.
The AMD training budget will continue to decrease in the future, even as the need for units to remain trained and ready for deployment on short notice and OPTEMPO costs continue to rise. TADSS can be developed for some AMD systems that could replace tactical equipment at the institution, with significant dollar savings. At the unit, TADSS use will result in less OPTEMPO dollars spent for sustainment training, while still maintaining unit-training readiness.
At the foundation of institutional training is the need to grow leaders and to ensure that critical tasks at all levels are trained to standard (Figure A-3). Essential to the progressive evolutions of institutional training are distance learning and Classroom XXI.
Distance Learning is the delivery of standardized individual, collective, and self-development training to soldiers and units at the right place and right time through the application of multiple means and technologies. It will alter the way USAADASCH delivers training as we enter the 21st century. Once the program is fully matured, task training will be available to air defenders anywhere. These training products will be accessible through digital learning libraries. They will provide a menu of instruction from which units or individuals can customize their training to meet specific requirements. Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) training as we know it today will be heavily augmented task training. Technology will make training available when and where it is needed. Only those tasks that required a high degree of personal interaction, benefit from group dynamics, or are equipment- or range-dependent will be taught in residency.
Classroom XXI is the foundation that makes the distance learning concept a reality (Figure A-4). The Classroom XXI environment leverages information-age technology to gain training efficiencies and maximize training effectiveness. In order for Classroom XXI to work, the training base must be modernized. Classroom XXI will use current and future technology to transform current, conventional classrooms from an instructor-centered environment to a student-centered multimedia, interactive courseware learning laboratory. USAADASCH is in the process of upgrading its facilities to capitalize on distance learning applications. It has also established a partnership with the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) to share information on and leverage new and emerging, military and civilian training technologies.
USAADASCH has provided TRADOC with a short-range (FY98-01) classroom modernization plan for 37 high-tech classrooms. The current plan calls for the development of Level I, II, and III classrooms of the five classroom levels identified in Figure A-5. The first TRADOC funded classroom (Level III) is currently under construction; it is scheduled to be completed by October 1997. The Level III classroom will allow worldwide access to information and expertise via technologies such as video teletraining (VTT), video teleconferencing (VTC), and the internet to both import and export training. During FY00-04, USAADASCH will establish a Level IV classroom and explore the use of a Level V classroom.
As Classroom XXI is the key to success for the distance learning concept, the Digital Training Access Center (DTAC) is the key to success for Classroom XXI. The DTAC is a library without walls that connects local and remote areas with the USAADASCH schoolhouse (Figure A-6). It will serve as a repository of information (FigureA-7). DTAC contains an automated library, training publications, computerized training (lessons), and connectivity for battle simulations. The DTAC provides informational support to the field, through local area networks and the Worldwide Web, and for institutional training through the Campus Area Network. This information will be available to the total force. Commanders and leaders will be able to electronically access all AMD doctrine and training publications, while soldiers will be able to access the Soldier-on-Line Program. This program will replace the existing Army Correspondence Course Program (ACCP) and offer the courses electronically to the field. The DTAC will house the interactive courseware that is developed to support the Distance Learning Program. AMD personnel will have the capability via the internet to electronically access and download courseware such as the Visual Aircraft Recognition Kit. As students in process into USAADASCH, they will be given an e-mail address with the DTAC that they can maintain throughout their careers. USAADASCH will thus be able to electronically survey and receive feed-back from students, on the effectiveness and usefulness of training provided, and from commanders and leaders on the product that USAADASCH is producing -- the trained soldier.
DTAC furnishes the connectivity that will enable USAADASCH to provide interactive simulations in the classroom. The Combat Synthetic Test Training Assessment Range program, through JANUS, will create a synthetic battlefield that can be distributed and is interactive. In conjunction with the National Range Development Directorate, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), USAADASCH is developing a proto-type interactive simulation that will be distributed from WSMR through the Fort Bliss Warfighting Center to the classroom. Once the simulations have been validated, lessons learned from the NTC rotations will be incorporated. This capability will eventually allow students to participate in exercises and rotations as a simulated unit on the synthetic battlefield.
USAADASCH has also developed a partnership with the New Mexico National Guard (NMNG). This two-way partnership provides USAADASCH with the capability to validate distance learning courseware, as well as leverage the NMNG resources to help develop the courseware, and the NMNG with electronically imported les-sons and training materials. New Mexico is in the process of installing a fiber optic backbone that will connect all the armories in the state (Figure A-8). USAADASCH will connect to this network through WSMR and electronically export materials to the Reserve Component Training Institute (RCTI) in Santa Fe and to every state armory. By connecting to the New Mexico network, USAADASCH will then be connected to GUARDNET, the gateway to all 50 States and to U.S. territories (Figure A-9).
USAADASCH prepares unit training strategies in the form of CATS, explaining how AMD units train and identifying those resources required to execute the training. The strategies depict a fully supported annual training plan enabling units to sustain individual and collective skills. The strategies, consisting of a soldier matrix, a maneuver or collective matrix, and a gunnery matrix, are descriptive in nature and provide the foundation for the trainer to develop a training program.
The AMD units provide leaders with critical experiences they will need for the future. Units will be equipped with TADSS and distance learning classrooms and technology that will allow leaders to experience combat, without ever going into combat, at every level of development from platoon leader to battalion commander and beyond.
Advanced technologies will permit the inter-netting of students across branches and with the CTCs and school subject-matter experts worldwide. Unit training will be conducted with highly mobile training devices supported by distributed information technologies linking units, CTCs, and schools. These devices will be lightweight and deployable anywhere in the world.
The highly mobile training devices maintain or enhance skill proficiency by allowing soldiers to train without using their operational systems. These devices may be added onto and modified with operational system upgrades. They will not adversely impact the operational requirements or capabilities of the system. Furthermore, they can be internetted or networked as needed. The devices can also provide interactive access, feedback, storage, and lessons learned as they occur. These training devices provide the means for individuals or operators to attain and sustain technical and tactical proficiency, crews and teams to sharpen their teamwork and collective skills, and commanders and staffs to exercise or enhance their operational skills.
Units will also have distance learning classrooms available. These classrooms will mirror the Level III Classroom XXI; they are capable of importing training through the use of VTT, VTC, Worldwide Web, and connectivity to DTAC. These classrooms will significantly impact USAADASCH support of WARNET XXI new equipment training (NET). USAADASCH will develop multimedia training packages and then export NET via distance learning to units and RCTIs. The National Guard Bureau has developed the Distributive Training Technology Project which establishes distance learning classrooms at the RCTIs. USAADASCH instructors will provide classroom training to the soldier at his or her home station or RCTI using distance learning technology.
The first use of the USAADASCH Level III classroom will be to support MOS 52D NET in PATRIOT units. Soldiers will receive two weeks of training on the new generators, one week of VTT in the classroom, and one week of hands-on training at the unit. Training is scheduled to start in November 1997; 100 soldiers will be trained over a ten-week period.
TADSS are the means to realize the potential of future training. They must provide mission rehearsal capability, adhere to the embedded training policy previously cited, be DIS compliant, and replace or augment tactical systems in the AMD inventory. Unfortunately, due to funding and security constraints, many AMD TADSS either are not being fielded or have limited capability to replicate tactical equipment and tactical situations.
Assessments of fielded systems TADSS are in Figure A-10. Assessments (RED, AMBER, GREEN) reflect capabilities to meet training requirements encompassed in the Army Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) mission sustainment training, train soldiers to standard at the institution, and conduct combined arms tactical training. In this context, RED is an inadequate capability, AMBER a limited capability, and GREEN an adequate capability. TADSS funding status is not considered in the assessments.
While the BSFV and FAAD C3I have adequate capabilities, the other fielded systems as shown in Figure A-10 have limited to inadequate capabilities to sustain individual or unit training, to achieve training standards in the institution, and to meet combined arms training objectives. Despite the recent approval and fielding of the Avenger Table Top Trainer, Avenger is rated RED for sustainment training as it does not have an Embedded Troop Proficiency Trainer (ETPT) for individual, crew, or collective training at home station. Stinger MANPADS sustainment training capabilities degrade over time. The Stinger Troop Proficiency Trainer (STPT) is being upgraded to replicate the Stinger Block I/II missiles as they are fielded. In addition, Stinger lacks a Force-on-Force Trainer (FOFT) at the Joint Readiness Training Center/Combat Maneuver Training Center (JRTC/CMTC) to enhance combined arms training. PATRIOT will have a limited training capability at the institution if the training devices do not keep up with the fielding of PATRIOT upgrades.
The TADSS requirements for the future systems -- Bradley Linebacker, THAAD, and MEADS -- are still being defined. Training shortfalls will occur with the fielding of these systems unless TADSS are fielded at the same time as the tactical systems.
Due to current device obsolescence and technical limitations, "weapon-specific" train-ing devices are neither feasible nor cost effective to field. USAADASCH is proposing the development of a SHORAD Virtual Reality Training Device that emulates the conduct of air defense operations across the Stinger spectrum (Avenger, Bradley Linebacker, Stinger MANPADS). The trainer will be capable of supporting frequent, convenient, low-cost, safe, and environmentally acceptable training to correct training deficiencies.
USAADASCH will lead the way in the digitization of training and implementation of the ATXXI training pillars -- WARRIOR XXI, WARFIGHTER XXI and WARNET XXI. The creation of the virtual institution, multimedia courseware, distance learning capabilities, and Classroom XXI will allow air defenders to access training materials and receive training anywhere in the world. The development of the synthetic battlefield will permit the building of real-world, threat-based training scenarios that can be exported to units prior to deployment so that they can truly train as they will fight. The synthetic battlefield will also provide realistic training in the institution allowing leaders to participate in actual NTC rotations and exercises, such as Roving Sands, as a simulated unit on the battlefield.
The accomplishment of this goal, however, will require a substantial investment of resources -- not only dollars, but training and equipment as well. Training developers must be provided with state-of-the-art multimedia computers and with the training to use authoring software. Instructors must be trained to use multimedia courseware, develop presentations, operate VTC equipment, and access the internet/Worldwide Web. Unit personnel must be trained on how to use distance learning classrooms, multimedia courseware, and how to access the internet/Worldwide Net. AMD units will also require that future systems, system upgrades, and TADSS be funded and fielded at the same time to ensure sustained readiness. To do otherwise will result in higher costs and training shortfalls.
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