The United States first started work on ASATs over a generation ago. But the threat that these systems were intended to counter, orbiting nuclear weapons, failed to materialize. And these early nuclear-armed ASATs had major operational limitations. The detonation of the ASAT's nuclear warheads would damage American satellites as well as the intended target satellite.
Because of the limitations of early guidance systems, these anti-satellite weapons could only count on placing a warhead within a few miles of their target, which meant that they had to use a nuclear warhead. High altitude nuclear tests in the early 1960s demonstrated that the electromagnetic pulse from an explosion would carry for quite a distance. One test in 1962 set off burglar alarms and darkened street lights across Hawaii, hundreds of miles away, and disabled several American satellites that happened to be in its vicinity.
The sensitive electronics on satellites proved to be particularly vulnerable to nuclear explosions in space. The military utility of such an indiscriminate weapon is not great. As an anti-satellite weapon it threatened to do as much or more damage to friendly satellites as it did to its intended target. when the threat of orbiting nuclear weapons did not materialize, both the American ASATs were dismantled.
During the late 1950's and early 1960's several air-launched ASAT systems were tested by the United States. These grew out of ongoing efforts to develop strategic air-launched ballistic missiles, and did not result in operational systems. But they are indicative of an early and abiding interest in ASAT weapons. Bold Orion, which was tested by the Air Force starting in October 1959, launched rockets from a B-47 bomber. In the two Hi-Ho tests in 1962, the Navy launched rockets from an F-4 fighter. , Interestingly, both the Bold Orion and Hi-Ho ASAT test programs of the early 1960s used the Altair as a second stage, the same upper stage as the later Miniature Homing Vehicle ASAT.
The US Army's Nike-Zeus was originally developed as part of an Anti-Ballistic Missile system. After years of research it became clear that it would be largely ineffective as an ABM. According to Paul Stares, "[t]he US Army's proposal to convert the Nike Zeus missile to the ASAT role in November 1957 and later in January 1960 marked the beginning of an almost symbiotic relationship between ABM and ASAT research and development. This was inevitable given the similar requirements and methods to detect, track and intercept both missiles and satellites. Moreover, the possession of exoatmospheric ABM missiles by definition provided a limited ASAT capability or certainly a system that could be transformed into one with relative ease."(1) The first successful US space anti-satellite intercept took place on May 23, 1963, from Kwajalein Island in the Pacific Ocean. Throughout the duration of Project Mudflap or 505, as it was variously known, at least eight of the Nike Zeus ground-launched missiles were fired from that date until January 13, 1966.(2)
The US Air Force, not to be outdone, also tested and deployed several Thor rockets which were modified for the anti-satellite mission. This capability grew out of the Operation Dominic series of high altitude nuclear tests, conducted in 1962. These nuclear-tipped ASATs became operational on Johnston Island in the Pacific in 1964 and could intercept a target at much greater range than the Nike-Zeus. The system consisted of "a thrust-augmented Thor-Delta with three strap-on solid rockets, a combination giving the high acceleration needed to intercept satellites in near earth orbit."(3) The Program 437 Thor system was tested at least 16 times from 1964 to 1970, prior to its retirement in 1976. This system could be restored to operational status on 6 months notice, since the booster components are stored as part of the American capability to resume nuclear testing in the event of the demise of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.
It has been claimed that "Program 437....laid the technological groundwork for the Sentinel, Spartan, Sprint and Safeguard."(4) Both the Nike Zeus and Thor antisatellite systems would have utilized nuclear warheads to destroy their targets. This, coupled with the complexity of their launch procedures, amounted to a limited capability with severe operational constraints. "The respective advantages of the two systems were that the Nike Zeus could react more quickly due to its solid propellant, while the Thor missile could be fired against targets at higher altitudes."(5) Following the retirement of the Thor program, the US emphasis shifted to non-nuclear kinetic kill mechanisms.
The Air-Launched Miniature Vehicle (ALMV) was the primary American ASAT effort in the early 1980s. This weapon, launched from an F-15 fighter by a small two stage rocket, carries a heat-seeking Miniature Homing Vehicle (MHV) which would destroy its target by direct impact at high speed. The F-15 can bring ALMV under the ground track of its target, as opposed to a ground-based system, which must wait for a target satellite to overfly its launch site.
An operational force was planned to ultimately number over 100 interceptors. However, by 1986, the program, initially expected to cost $500 million, was estimated at $5.3 to complete. In an attempt to limit costs, the Air Force scaled the MHV program back by 2/3 in 1987.(6) The Administration canceled the program in 1988 after encountering technical problems with its homing guidance system, as well as testing delays and significant cost growth.
The Army's Kinetic Energy ASAT is the Pentagon's main weapon currently under research to attack hostile satellites. As with the Air Force's air-launched project, this ground-based interceptor would destroy satellites by homing in and colliding with them. The three-stage missile would extend a sheet of Mylar plastic, known as a "kill enhancement device," which would strike the target and render it inoperative without shattering the satellite. This interceptor would only be able to reach satellites in low earth orbit, up to ranges of several thousand kilometers. The technology is similar to the anti-ballistic missile hit-to-kill interceptor which was first tested successfully in the 1984 Homing Overlay Experiment, and more recently in the Exoatmospheric Reentry Vehicle Interception System tests, conducted under the Strategic Defense Initiative anti-missile program. The Army plans to start flight testing its missile in late 1996 -- the seven flight tests will include two actual interceptions of inactive US satellites in orbit, the other five being close passes to orbiting satellites. Deployment is scheduled to begin in June 1998.(7) According to Defense Department estimates, the KE ASAT could be built and operated for 20 years for $2-2.5 billion.
The nearest term ASAT for the U.S. is the existing Mid Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) located at the White Sands testing range in New Mexico. Originally an SDI project, the Pentagon is now in the process of adapting the laser for use against satellites. In addition to MIRACL, the Pentagon is working on two other ground-based ASATs based on excimer and free-electron lasers. Both technologies could be operational in the late-1990s. The directed energy systems would have the ability to destroy large numbers of satellites in a very short period of time, compared to the kinetic energy ASAT.
To outgoing Quayle Final Report to the President on the U.S. Space Program asserted that " ... the nation now more than ever needs a comprehensive space control capability, including ... satellites that are impervious to interference from hostile forces, and a comprehensive antisatellite capability to deny the military use of space to future enemies."
Rejecting this counsel, the Clinton Administration eliminated funding for the Army's ASAT program. However, funding for unacknowledged ASAT programs continues. And there is not indication that any new efforts are being made to make American satellites less vulnerable to potential ASAT threats from other countries.
A - Army
63392A Anti-Satellite Weapon(8)
The objective of the Kinetic Energy (KE) Anti-Satellite (ASAT) Program is to develop a system to deter, deny, and negate threat satellites in accordance with the National Security Strategy, (Aug 9l), the National Space Policy, and US Commander-in-Chief, Space (USCINCSPACE) requirement. The Joint Chiefs of Staff have validated U.S. Space Command's Multi-Command Required Operational Capability (MROC) for space control. KE ASAT will provide a capability to kill/reduce the operational capability of space based threat assets and improve survivability and warfighting ability of U.S. forces. Funding allows completion of the RDTE DEM/VAL program and positions the program for a Major Decision Review in 3rd Qtr, FY 94; focuses on development, fabrication, and testing of the prototype 1~ill vehicle and weapon control subsystem; completes modified Preliminary Design Review (PDR), 2Q94 and augments ongoing booster development.
Accomplishments in 1991 included conduct of System Requirement Review (SRR), Strategic System Committee (SSC) Review, risk reduction program and KE ASAT booster studies, and component tests to support engineering issue resolution. Parts procurement for prototype kill device and development of weapon control subsystem testbed were initiated. Activities in 1992 included conduct KE ASAT System Design Review (SDR), and conduct of Hover Test to verify simulation, as well as performance of Missile Subsystems Simulations, Hardware-ln-The-Loop Testing and Hardware/Software Integration testing and conduct System Software Review (SSR). The 1993 planned program included conduct of risk reduction program, KE ASAT booster development, Kill Enhancement Device testing and system design, Kill Vehicle simulations and hardware-in-the loop testing, ground test on critical components, and Early User Test and Evaluation, leading to near term development and demonstration of prototype kill vehicle and weapons control subsystem.
Work is performed by U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command; KE ASAT DEMVAL prime contractor, Rockwell International Corporation, Los Angeles, CA; Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, AL; Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD; Nichols Research Company, Huntsville, AL; Coleman Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL; Booz-Allen Hamilton, Huntsville, AL; Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO; Applied Research, Incorporated, Huntsville, AL; Advanced Sciences, Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM; and Colsa, Inc., Huntsville, AL.
65605A DoD High Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF)(9)
Operates and maintains a broad-based high energy laser test capability at White Sands Missile Range. As the only multi-megawatt high energy laser test system in the U.S., this facility provides unique DoD capabilities for assessing damage, susceptibility/vulnerability and lethality of various systems and materials to lasers. Primary emphasis of the facility supports Army tactical damage and vulnerability assessments and Army test and evaluation of anti-missile technologies and systems. This funding provides for facility operations and maintenance as well as acquisition and characterization of facility equipment, including optics and diagnostic instrumentation common to all ongoing programs supported by the facility. This funding also supports adaptation of single purpose, user installed equipment to support the broad range of test requirements, ensuring efficient expenditure of DoD investments. Current upgrades include adaptation of additional laser systems to support Army damage and vulnerability testing, smoke and obscurant research, and tactical laser weapons research. Program element restructured from PE 0605601 - Army Test Ranges/Facilities based on transfer of facility from the U.S. Army Materiel Command to the U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command. With the completion of the full Aperture Upgrade in FY91, HELSTF has the only potential U.S. Anti-Satellite capability in the near term.
In-house work is performed at the High Energy Laser Test Facility, White Sands Missile Range, NM. Contractors are: Lockheed; Rockwell Power Systems; TRW; Hughes; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Lincoln Laboratory.
B - Navy
62113N Electronic Warfare Technology
Project F34-374 Satellite Countermeasures and Defense(10)
This element was created beginning in FY1986, as a result of a restructuring of the Navy 6.2 Exploratory Development Program. It represents a combination of a number of program elements, including 62734N Countermeasures Technology. Work previously conducted under Project F34-374 Satellite Countermeasures was continued as part of the new program's efforts.
62734N Countermeasures Technology
Project F34-374 Satellite Countermeasures and Defense(11)
This project evaluated advanced technology to reduce the susceptibility of US satellite systems to jamming and physical destruction. It also pursued technologies to deny information about US Fleet units to adversary space systems. Project activities were formulated and coordinated within tri-service and the National Security Agency. The project acquired and installed two radars to begin measurements of US surface combatants. It also refined concepts for masking and modifying characteristics of US shipboard radars. It integrated and tested hardware and software for the Tactical Intelligence Production Enhancement Program.
These activities transitioned to 62113N Electronic Warfare Technology in FY1986.
62735N High Energy Laser Technology(12)
This program develops high energy laser technology and is structured to resolve critical technical issues related to teh potential use of a continuous wave laser in an anti-ship missile defense application. The SEA LITE beam director was planned to demonstrate the effectiveness of the experimental MIRACL chemical laser. Testing occured at the White Sands Missile Range High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility. These tests also provided the capability to generate test data for other potential high energy laser applications.
C - Air Force
12421F Program 437(13)
Includes personnel authorizations , peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to the following: Provide THOR missile launch support to Air Force Systems Command for the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) from Vandenberg AFB, California, and to the Defense Nuclear Agency for High Altitude Program (HAP) portion of the National Nuclear Test Readiness Program (NNTRP) , and the Army's SAFEGUARD Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) and Site Defense Test Programs (SDTP) from Johnston Island. Resources include those associated with the launch emplacements, guidance and tracking radars, and data processing equipment , including computer programming and maintenance. Excludes communications resources contained in PE 12441F and pre-go launch modifications costs associated with DMSP , NNTRP , and BMDP/SDTP.
12441F Program 437 Communications(14)
Includes Defense Communications System (DCS) and non-DCS communications supporting PE 12421F, Program 437. Program 437 Non-DCS Communications: Internal communications including tactical circuits as well as administrative or logistic circuits dedicated exclusively to this element. Program 437 DCS Communications: ADC dedicated long haul circuits. Excludes resources for long-haul, common-user circuits included in PEs 33112F and 33126F.
12443F Space Defense Interface Network(15)
Includes resources (personnel authorizations, research and development, investments, operations and maintenance) that provide DCS and non-DCS strategic connectivity between SPACETRACK sensors, NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex (NCMC) space defense systems and satellite owners/operators. Provides personnel to operate and maintain communications equipment at SPACETRACK sensors. Leases, develops, procures and maintains dedicated commercial and military communications systems (circuits, line termination equipment) that support space defense data, teletype and voice connectivity requirements. Excludes any resources associated with the AF COMSEC Program (PE 33401F), common user communications networks such as AUTOVON and AUTODIN (PE 33126F), base level communications (PE 33112F) and major military communications systems such as DSCS (PE 33110F). Also excludes resources associated directly with SPACETRACK sensors (PE 12424F) and NCMC space defense systems (PE 12311F).
12450F Space Defense System(16)
Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities nd the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to the acquisition of an operational anti-satellite system that will be operated by ADCOM Exclude RDT&E resources, reflected in PE 64406F, Space Defense Systems.
62203F Aerospace Propulsion
Project 3145 Aerospace Power Technology(17)
This project includes the development of solar power, fuel cells, batteries, hydraulics and power conversion, conditioning and transmission for both space and non-space applications. General goals are increased power output, decreased weight and volume and decreased vulnerability.
62204F Aerospace Avionics
Project 2002 Microwave Technology(18)
This project develops the technology required to produce, control and apply microwave and millimeter wave power. The scope of efforts includes theory, techniques, devices and concepts at frequencies below 300 GHz. Developments include devices for satellite communications at 40, 60 and 94 GHz.
62601F Advanced Weapons(19)
Project 06WL, Laboratory Operations
Project 2218, Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) Technology Assessment
Project 5797, High Power Technologies
Project 8809, Space Systems Survivability and Hardness
This efort advances the state-of-the-art in directed energy weapon (DEW) technologies such as high energy lasers (HELs), high power microwave (HPM) devices, accelerated plasmas, and the associated phenomenologies and effects. This program element (PE) pursues advanced optical technologies including active and passive techniques for high resolution space object imaging and nonlinear optic (NLO) devices. Radiation hardening technologies applicable to Air Force space and missile systems are also developed in this PE. Management and support of the main Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, is also included.
Project 06WL, Laboratory Operations: This project provides for the management, support, and operation of the Philips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, NM, which includes the Lasers and Imaging, Advanced Weapons and Survivability, Space and Missiles, and Space Experiments Technical Directorates. It maintains laboratory infrastructure and facilities used in key in-house efforts; and provides for equipment transportation; rents, communications, and utilities costs; reproduction services; supplies and equipment procurement; contractor support services for maintenance and modification of facilities; and the pay and associated costs of civilian scientists, engineers, and support personnel. This project supports the other projects in this PE and the other PL, Kirtland AFB, MM, 6.3 PEs.
Project 2218, Directed Energy Weapon (DEW) Technology Assessment: This project provides vulnerability assessments of representative U.S. strategic and tactical systems to DEWs, DEW technology assessment for specific Air Force missions, and DEW lethality assessments against foreign targets. Models to resolve technical issues related to DEW hardware, propagation phenomena, and target response are developed and validated. This project also conducts laser vulnerability experiments on critical components and subsystems. The results of the DEW vulnerability experiments will be used to update the data base that supports related system vulnerability assessments.
The Phillips Laboratory's Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, performs in-house research and manages this program. The top five contractors are: RDA-Logicon, Marina Del Rey, CA; Science & Engineering Associates, Albuquerque, MM; Kaman Sciences Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; Bell Systems Engineering Division, Albuquerque, NM; and Orion International Technology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM.
Project 5797, High Power Technologies: This project explores unconventional weapon concepts using innovative technologies. Primary technology areas include high power microwaves (HPM), high energy plasmas such as compact toroids, and high energy pulse power.
The Phillips Laboratory's Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, conducts major in-house research and manages this program. The top five contractors are: Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, CA; RDA Logicon, Marina Del Rey, CA; Rockwell Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA; Kaman Sciences Corporation, Albuquerque, NM; and Science & Engineering Associates, Albuquerque, NM.
Project 8809, Space Systems Survivability and Hardness Technology: This project develops survivability/vulnerability technology for future space systems. This includes design analysis, systems response modeling, and methods for enhancing electrical and optical components survivability against a wide range of natural and hostile electromagnetic irradiation and space debris environments. Techniques will be developed to harden electronics against space and/or nuclear environment radiation effects. This project also provides the technology base for satellite survivability assessments through the development of potential failure models and computer simulations of multiple threat environments.
The Phillips Laboratory's Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate, Kirtland AFB, MM, performs in-house research and manages this program. The contractors are: RDA Logicon, Marina Del Rey, CA; Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA; and University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM.
63302F Space and Missile Rocket Propulsion
Project 6340 Space Systems Propulsion(20)
This Science and Technology (S&T) program demonstrates advanced rocket propulsion technology. This program is the key technology step to transition the most promising rocket propulsion technologies developed in Rocket Propulsion and Astronautics Technology (PE 0602302F) and demonstrates them in applications using full-scale, proof-of-principle demonstrations. Solid propellant technology with higher performance than current propellants and environmentally acceptable exhaust products, manufactured using environmentally sensitive processes, is under development. Technology which will reduce the manufacturing cost of nozzles by 20 percent is also under development. Anticipated technology advances in this program are a 100 percent increase in payload capability from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), a $100 million savings in space launch, and liquid engines which can be used 50 times before being rebuilt. Technologies demonstrated under this program may be applied to all DoD and NASA propulsion needs. The propulsion industry also leverages the technologies from this program to enhance the country's rocket propulsion industry competitiveness.
This project develops and demonstrates advanced and innovative storable liquid, cryogenic liquid, and electric arcjet propulsion systems for current and future national space systems. Launch vehicle, orbit maneuvering and transfer, and satellite station keeping applications are the focus of the technology developed under this project. The emphasis is on space propulsion system reliability, reusability, reduced weight, reduced operation and launch costs, and increased life and performance.
Recent activities include demonstration of one of two candidate XLR-132 engines under conditions which simulate orbit transfer missions from low earth to high earth orbit, and completion of XLR-132 engine testing. The project has also evaluated the design of the ten kilowatt electric propulsion system components through a series of bench-scale tests, and is fabricating a 30 kilowatt electric propulsion flight unit for flight test.
Managed by the Phillips Laboratory Propulsion Directorate, Edwards AFB, CA. The major contractors are: Aerojet Propulsion, Sacramento, CA; Rockwell Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, CA; and TRW Missile Systems, Redondo Beach, CA.
63406F Advanced Military Spaceflight Technology(21)
Includes the RDT&E funds for a technology program to establish, by the mid 1980s, a technology base capable of supporting an AMSC acquisition decision. This technology program would examine a broad range of conceptual approaches to a survivable, responsive, and flexible military spaceflight capability. The AMSC will be complementary to a follow-on Shuttle spacelift capability. The program will conduct a utility analysis to evaluate the benefits of the AMSC in performing military missions. The bulk of the program will seek to solve those long lead technology problems that would prohibit the development of an AMSC. The AMSC program encompasses the Reusable Aerodynamic Space Vehicle (RASV), the previous title For this Program Element. The new pro;ram defines a broader conceptual base than the specific RASV configuration. Excluded are civilian and military personnel and their related costs, military construction, procurement costs, and any costs not directly related to the RDT&E for the AMSC technology program.
63438F Satellite System Survivability(22)
This program performs survivability planning, modelling, analysis, concept evaluations and technology prototyping to meet current and projected military space system survivability requirements. Develops and demonstrates technologies and prototype hardware and software, as well as operational procedures, strategy, and tactics that will provide survivability capabilities for military space systems. The program is structured to provide a balanced development of survivability capabilities for the space, ground, and communications segments of space systems. Since space system life cycles are long and systems cannot be modified once on orbit, survivability must be incorporated early in the design process. Failure to protect our space systems could result in the denial of their critical support to the National Command Authorities and our military forces during crisis and conflict The major prototyping efforts within this program are the Miniaturized Satellite Threat Reporting System (MSTRS) and Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS). MSTRS is a demonstration of an attack detection, characterization, and attack reporting system, composed of a suite of modular sensors which could be tailored for a specific satellite. TAOS is a free-flying space demonstration of several autonomy and survivability technologies. Technologies from this program are made available to all satellite program offices for system level implementation.
This program will enhance the survivability of U.S. military satellites through the use of attack identification techniques, self-defense, and mission deception techniques. Nuclear hardening and ground station survivability are not a part of this program element. an-board satellite sensors will be developed which will identify that an attack on a satellite is in progress or has occurred. When integrated with the space surveillance activities, it will reduce the possibility of an enemy clandestine attack on U.S. military satellites and will provide the NCA sufficient information to exercise military and/or political options to prevent an attack, or respond to the results of an attack, and to exercise responsive countermeasures. The signatures of a satellite will be controlled to decrease the enemy's probability of satellite detection and mission identification so that all U.S. military satellites appear as a threat, and, thus, enemy counteractions become uneconomical. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program
Project 2611 Survivability and Planning Analysis performs planning, analysis, modeling, and concept evaluation to meet current and projected spare system survivability requirements. Develops software models and tools to evaluate and validate satellite survivability environmental responses and interactions to perform space asset survivability/vulnerability assessments.
Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC), Los Angeles, CA, has overall responsibility for program management. Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, provides technical assistance.
Project 2612 Technology Prototyping develops and prototypes satellite survivability technologies and operational concepts in support of current and projected space system survivability requirements. Satellite On-Board Attack Reporting System (SOARS)/Miniaturized Satellite Threat Reporting System (MSTRS) and Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) are the major efforts. This technology is critical to ensure USCINCSPACE is able to provide unambiguous assessment of attacks on U.S. Space Systems.
Space and Missiles Systems Center, Los Angeles, CA. Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, manages MSTRS. The MSTRS concept study effort is with Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM; Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM. The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA, provides system engineering support for MSTRS. TAOS: Phillips Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM, manages the TAOS development effort. The TAOS payload contracts are with: Microcosm, Torrance, CA; GTE, Mountain View, CA; Honeywell, Phoenix, AZ; Rockwell, Anaheim, CA; TRW, Redondo Beach, CA; Intelligent Interactive Imagery Corp, Foster City, CA; and Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM.
Project 2613 Technology Advancement develops critical technologies to improve survivability of space, ground, and communications segments of space systems. Objective is to ready technology efforts for insertion into system applications.
Work is performed by Space and Missiles Systems Center, Los Angeles, CA. Aerospace Corp., Los Angeles, CA, provides technical assistance.
63605F Advanced Weapons Technology(23)
This project develops and demonstrates technology and conducts detailed assessments needed for high energy laser weapons The technology developed by this project is directly applicable to most high power applications. The project demonstrates the critical technologies for: (1) scalable laser devices; (2) optical components; and (3) laser beam control to efficiently compensate and propagate the laser radiation through the atmosphere to a target. It also develops and uses detailed computational models to establish laser weapon effectiveness and satellite and missile vulnerability. Correcting the laser beam for atmospheric disturbances is the key technology in most high energy laser applications. The beam control technology developed in this project had, and will continue to have, a significant benefit to the astronomy community.
Recent activities include completion of laboratory testing of advanced chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) technologies (50% power increase and significant size reduction) and identification of promising applications. The project has also demonstrated performance of advanced atmospheric compensation technology (three times improvement) through field experiments on 1.5 meter telescope and completed fabrication of the 3.5 meter telescope and began development of first generation beam train and adaptive optics. Future plans include efforts to demonstrate sufficient placement of a low power laser beam, including atmospheric compensation, from an airborne platform against realistic targets.
The Phillips Laboratory's Lasers and Imaging Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, performs major in-house research and manages this program. The five top contractors are: Textron Defense Systems (Everett Research Laboratory), Everett, MA; Rockwell Power Service Company, Albuquerque, NM; RDA-Logicon, Marina del Rey, CA; Rockwell International Rocketdyne Division, Canoga Park, CA; and The Optical Sciences Company, Placentia, CA.
Project 3277, Systems Survivability Technology: This project develops technologies to evaluate and enhance Air Force system electromagnetic pulse survivability.
The Phillips Laboratory's Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, manages this program. No contracts have been awarded at this time.
High Power Semiconductor Laser Technology project continues to yield significant advances in compact, robust, low-cost laser system technology, which is being transitioned/ developed for a wide range of military applications requiring low to moderate power optical sources. It builds upon and enhances commercial advancements. Commercially available semiconductor lasers (1/10 watt) are widely used due to their low-cost, small size and weight, high reliability, and high efficiency in converting electricity to laser energy. The project preserves these attractive features while scaling to the higher powers (one to ten watts and above) and/or military application specific wavelengths. The project is divided into three integrated technology areas. First, it investigates methods to increase output power from individual semiconductor laser diodes. Second, it develops individual laser and semiconductor laser array integration methods, producing a single, high quality laser beam at significantly higher power levels. Third, it develops wavelength-specific laser diodes for-military applications. This technology has many commercial applications, especially for eye-safe lasers.
The Phillips Laboratory's Lasers and Imaging Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, performs major in-house research and manages this program. The five-top contractors are: McDonnell Douglas, St. Louis, MO; SRI, David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, NJ; TRW, Redondo Beach, CA; Spectra Diode Laboratories Incorporated, San Jose, CA; and Hughes-Danbury Optical Systems, Danbury, CT.
High Power Microwave (HPM) Technology project develops high power microwave (HPM) generation technologies. It also develops a susceptibility/vulnerability/lethality data base to identify potential vulnerabilities of U.S. systems to HPM threat parameters and to provide a basis for future weaponization decisions. Representative U.S. and foreign assets will be tested to understand real system susceptibilities. Both wideband (wide frequency range) and narrow band (very small frequency range) technologies are being developed.
The Phillips Laboratory's Advanced Weapons and Survivability Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM, performs major in-house research and manages this program. The top five contractors are: Maxwell Laboratories, San Diego, CA; Kaman Sciences Corp., Dikewood Division, Albuquerque, NM, Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA; Fiore Industries, Albuquerque, NM; and-Power Spectra Inc., Sunnyvale, CA.
64406F Space Defense System(24)
This program develops anti-satellite systems capable of negating hostile satellites on orbit. The program includes engineering development of a miniature homing vehicle satellite interceptor, and target satellite intercept demonstration tests. In addition, an interface is maintained with laser developments for future ASAT applications. Excludes civilian and military personnel and their related costs and military construction costs which are included in appropriate management and support elements in this program.
D - Defense Nuclear Agency
62715H Readiness to Test (Thor ASAT)
Includes personnel authorizations , peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to provide nuclear warheads for the THOR missile for the Defense Nuclear Agency for High Altitude Program (HAP) portion of the National Nuclear Test Readiness Program (NNTRP)
E - Deparment of Energy
ASAT Nuclear Warhead
Provides concept definition for nuclear warheads for potential anti-satellite weapons.
Readiness to Test (Thor ASAT)
Includes personnel authorizations, peculiar and support equipment, necessary facilities and the associated costs specifically identified and measurable to provide nuclear warheads for the THOR missile for the Defense Nuclear Agency for High Altitude Program (HAP) portion of the National Nuclear Test Readiness Program (NNTRP)
1. Stares, Paul, The Militarization of Space: US Policy, 1945-84, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1985, p. 117.
2. "USAF Asat Test Advances 1959 Aircraft Launch Data," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 August 1983, p. 22.
3. "Washington Roundup," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 October 1963, p. 25.
4. Leary, Frank, "Antisatellite Defense," Space/Aeronautics, June 1969, p. 44.
5. Stares, Paul, The Militarization of Space: US Policy, 1945-84, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1985, p. 81.
6. Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., "Piecing Together the ASAT Puzzle," U.S. House of Representatives, 26 April 1990.
7. Kiernan, Vincent, "Pentagon Prepares for ASAT Flight Testing in 1996," Space News, 5-18 August 1991, p. 23
8. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 293.
9. Department of the Army, Supporting Data Amended FY 1992 / FY 1993 Biennial Budget Estimate, Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test & Evaluation Army Appropriation, January 1992, page 622.
10. Department of the Navy, Supporting Data for the Fiscal Year 1987 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, February 1986, page 84.
11. Department of the Navy, Supporting Data for the Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1983, page 160.
12. Department of the Navy, Supporting Data for the Fiscal Year 1984 Budget Estimates Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, Navy, January 1983, page 169.
13. 13 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-22.
14. 14 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-25.
15. 15 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-26.
16. 16 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 1-27.
17. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimates: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, 31 January 1983, page 58.
18. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimates: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, 31 January 1983, pages 65-66.
19. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 293.
20. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 392.
21. 21 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6F-25.
22. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 420.
23. Department of the Air Force, Supporting Data for Fiscal Year 1994, Budget Estimate Submission: Descriptive Summaries, Research, Development, Test & Evaluation, April 1993, page 430.
24. 24 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), The Five Year Defense Program; Book 1 FYDP Program Structure, DoD 7045.7-H, August 1984, page 6F-55.