15 Nov 93
MISSION NEED STATEMENT
ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY TACTICAL SATELLITE
(NO. CCC 11.20)
1. Defense Planning Guidance Element. This Mission Need Statement (MNS) responds to two of the four foundations the Regional Defense Strategy of the Defense Planning Guidance: Forward Presence and Crisis Response. In the Marine Corps Master Plan 1994-2004 dated 21 July 1993, capability numbers 14 and 29 document this need.
2. Mission and Threat Analyses
a. Mission. The Marine Corps deploys Marine Air-Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs) throughout the world to meet operational commitments. These MAGTFs must be capable of expeditionary operations across the entire operational continuum. When these MAGTFs deploy, the Marine Corps has a requirement to access Department of Defense (DoD) Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) communications satellites during peacetime, heightened hostilities, and wartime. During movement,UHF satellite communications must give commanders reliable, secure, mobile (manpack and vehicular mounted) data and voice communications that are not subject to terrain masking and distance limitations. The Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum, MJCS-63-89, dated 17 April 1989, requires that all UHF satellite terminals operate in the Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) mode no later than 30 September 1996. The current inventory of UHF satellite terminals do not have this DAMA capability.
b. Threat. Threat forces may attempt to adversely affect, degrade, or deny use of selected portions of the radio frequency spectrum through the use of Electronic Warfare (EW) including detection and location of radio transmission sources. Radio communications may be severely degraded by nuclear or non-nuclear electromagnetic pulses. The terminal could be targeted for physical destruction. Furthermore, directed energy weapons (laser, radio frequency, and particle beam) will assist in performing the EW function of jamming, degrading, and destroying critical U.S. control of satellites. A classified threat assessment to satellite communications systems is found in the System Threat Assessment for Satellite Systems, Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), System Threat Analysis Report, "Satellite Systems," ONI TA#008-92.
c. Timing and Priority. An Initial Operational Capability of FY96 is required and a Full Operational Capability of FY00 is desired. Relative priority of this need in Mission Area 11 is high.
3. Nonmateriel Alternatives. There are no changes in doctrine, tactics, organization, or training that will provide this capability to the Marine Corps.
4. Potential Materiel Alternatives
a. Product Improvement Program. A joint solution could be sought to meet this requirement for the existing inventory of tactical satellite terminals.
b. Nondevelopmental. Procure commercially available off- the-shelf items, or buy from another Service's existing contract. An example would be the U.S. Army's Enhanced Manpack UHF Terminal Phase I program.
c. Research and Development. Initiate, or participate with another Service in, research and development of a new program.
a. Logistics Support. Maintenance support will be established within the Marine Corps organic levels of maintenance. Depot maintenance will be determined at a future date by the assigned program manager, but a service agreement with the U.S. Army for depot support may be desired.
b. Mobility and Transportation. This MNS addresses two versions of UHF satellite terminals: manpack and vehicular/ shelter mounted. An individual Marine with a full combat-load must be able to carry the manpack UHF satellite terminal. Both versions must be air/sea transportable without any special preparation.
c. Manpower, Personnel, and Training. The UHF satellite terminals will be employed in the Fleet Marine Force without the requirement for additional personnel or the requirement for new or additional Military Occupational Specialties (MOS). Terminals will be operated by the field radio operator (MOS 2531) and maintained by the ground radio repairman (MOS 2841) or radio technician (MOS 2861). Initial fielding will be supported by new equipment training teams. Formal school training of operators/maintainers will be determined at a later date. Single channel terminal operator training at the Marine Corps Communications-Electronics School, Field Radio Operator Course is desired.
d. Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Interfaces. The UHF satellite terminals shall meet all DoD
interoperability standards and interface with all other Services, Commanders in Chief and DoD agencies.
e. Security. Users of these UHF satellite terminals will be able to pass communications traffic of any security level.
f. Operational Environment
(1) Organizational Concept. The UHF satellite terminal will be employed with the MAGTF Command Element and the major subordinate commands of the Marine Expeditionary Force to support Joint and MAGTF communications networks.
(2) Weather and Terrain. These UHF satellite terminals will be employed in all environmental and weather conditions to include, but not limited to: tropical, desert, temperate, arctic, maritime, forest, jungle, rain, snow, sleet, fog, dust,and sand.
(3) Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical. There is no requirement for this system to be nuclear hardened; although, there is a requirement for this equipment to be functional in a chemical or biological environment. Furthermore, it is required for Marines to operate these UHF satellite terminals while wearing all levels of mission oriented protective posture gear.
6. Joint Potential Designator
a. U.S. Army: Joint Interest.
b. U.S. Navy: Joint Interest.
c. U.S. Air Force: Joint Interest.
d. U.S. Central Command (CINC): Joint Interest.