Approval Date:

03 Nov 93


(NO. CCC 11.19)

1.  Defense Planninq Guidance Element. This Mission Need Statement responds to two of the four foundations of Regional Defense Strategy of the Defense Planning Guidance: Forward Presence and Crisis Response. In the Marine Corps Master Plan 1994-2004, dated 21 July 1993, capability numbers 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 28, and 29 document this need.

2.  Mission and Threat Analyses

a.  Mission. The Marine Corps has a requirement to access Department of Defense (DoD) Extra High Frequency (EHF) communications satellites during peacetime, heightened hostilities and wartime. EHF satellite communications give commanders reliable, secure, mobile, anti-jam, data and voice communications which are not subject to terrain masking and distance limitations. Two distinct EHF satellite communication terminals are required: a single channel manportable terminal and a multichannel terminal capable of interfacing with digital switchboards. General capabilities required are embedded communications security devices, over-the-air-rekeying, low data rate service for the single channel terminals, medium data rate for the multichannel terminals, remote and unattended operations, and built-in test diagnostics/prognostics that fault isolate to a single line replacement unit. The Marine Corps currently does not possess the capability to use EHF communications.

b.  Threat.  Threat forces may attempt to adversely affect, degrade, or deny use of selected portions of the radio frequency spectrum through the use of Electronic Warfare (EW) (including detection and location of radio transmission sources). Radio communications may be severely degraded by nuclear or non-nuclear electro-magnetic pulses. The terminal could be targeted for physical destruction. Furthermore, directed energy weapons (laser, radio frequency, and particle beam) will assist in performing the EW functions of jamming, degrading and destroying critical U.S. control of its operational elements. A classified threat assessment to satellite communications systems is found in the MILSTAR System Threat Assessment Report (U), SD-1400F-023-89, Space Division, Director of Intelligence, dated April 1989, SECRET/NONFORM/WN INTEL.

c.  Timinq and Priority.  An Initial Operational Capability by FY96 is required for the single channel capability and FY98 for the multichannel capability.  A Full Operational Capability is required by FY97 for the single channel capability and FY99 for the multichannel capability.  Relative to other required
capabilities in Mission Area 11, Command and Control, the MILSTAR Advanced Satellite Terminal (MAST) is a medium-priority program.

3.  Nonmateriel Alternatives.  This requirement is driven by the DoD mandated change to an EHF communications backbone in support of the information requirements of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force. There are no changes in doctrine, tactics, organization, or training that will provide this capability to the Marine Corps.

4.  Potential Materiel Alternatives

a.  Nondevelopmental. Consideration of joint or other service programs could lead to procurement of the MAST. A commercial off the shelf nondevelopmental item could be procured to fulfill this requirement.

b.  Research and Development.  A research and development effort could be initiated for the MAST.

5.  Constraints

a.  Logistics Support. The MAST must be supportable within the existing three-level maintenance concept using common tools and general purpose test equipment. The MAST must be powered using standard DoD power sources.

b.  Transportation. An individual Marine with full combatload will be able to carry the single channel terminal. The multichannel terminal configuration shall be mounted in a High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle. Configurations must not exceed vehicle weight limits when loaded with crew and the normal combat load of equipment and supplies.

c.  Mannower, Personnel, and Traininq. The MAST will be employed in the Fleet Marine Force without the requirement for additional personnel or additional military occupational specialties. Terminals will be operated by the field radio operator (2531) and maintained by the ground radio repairman (2841) or radio technician (2861). Initial fielding will be supported by new equipment training teams. Formal school training of operators/maintainers will be provided by the Marine Corns Communications-Electronics School at Twentynine Palms.

d.  Command, Control. Communications, and Intelliqence Interfaces. The single channel and multichannel terminals must be interoperable. MILSTAR will be used by Services and Agencies
throughout DoD.

e.  Security. Users of MAST will be able to pass communications traffic of any security level.

    f.  Operational Environment

(1) Weather and Terrain. The MAST must be operational and maintainable in any type of climate/terrain in the world where Marines deploy.

(2) Nuclear, Bioloqical, and Chemical. There is no requirement for this system to be nuclear hardened, however there is a requirement for this equipment to be functional in a chemical or biological environment. Personnel must be capable of operating either MILSTAR terminal while wearing NBC protective equipment, mission oriented protective posture IV, in a contaminated environment.

6.  Joint Potential Designator

    a.  U.S. Army: Joint Potential.
    b.  U.S. Navy: Joint Potential.

    c.  U.S. Air Force: Joint Potential.