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301. GENERAL The control segment of the DSCS provides the means for near-real-time allocation of satellite power, antenna orientation/ nulling, and terminal monitoring and control to ensure maximum performance under changing traffic conditions, natural or man-made stresses, disturbances, and equipment disruption. It consists of hardware distributed among control centers, satellites and earth terminals, and common software to evaluate the status of the system.
302. MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION Overall operational control of the DCS, of which the DSCS is a subsystem, is exercised through DISA. Within DISA, the DSCS Operations Control System (DOCS) is responsible for DSCS control. The DOCS consists of the DISA Operations Center, two Regional Control Centers (RCC) (Wheeler Air Force Base, Hawaii, and Vaihingen, Germany) and a DSCS Operations Center (DSCSOC) for each satellite area (ELANT and WLANT, EPAC and WPAC, and IO). The RCCs are responsible for the day-to-day operation and control of all DSCS satellites and execute this task through the DSCSOCs. Specifically, the DSCSOCs provide network and communications control and provide backup spacecraft control. Special users who establish subnetworks via the DSCS are responsible for their own subnetwork control procedures, but interface with the DSCSOC to provide status and performance data and to receive operational direction. Navy terminals operating in the DSCS will be controlled by the subnetwork control terminal operating under the DSCSOC for the satellite area. The DSCS control organization is illustrated in figure 3-1.
303. OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES As explained in Chapter 1, various organizations have responsibilities regarding the DSCS. Control responsibilities are as follows:
A. Operational Control. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, jointly with the ASD (C3I) provides guidance to DISA and the unified and specified commands that serves as a basis for their relationships, to include provision of service by the DSCS. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff validates all ICDB (formerly ISDB) requirement submissions for use of the DSCS and provides guidance to Director, DISA for control procedures and allocation of DSCS resources.
B. Technical Management. The Commander in Chief, USCINCSPACE is responsible to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for maintaining the health, status, and survivability aspects of the DSCS space segment. In this role, USCINCSPACE plans and executes satellite tracking, station keeping, and payload control (planned by DISA). The command is also involved in the planning and integration of satellite systems. 54
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DSCS Control Organization
C. Technical Direction. DISA is the DOD-designated system manager for the DSCS. DISA plans and manages operations at the system level for the DSCS program. Other tasks include design, engineering, and development to satisfy validated requirements in support of operations by elements of DOD or other users. DISA also establishes configuration standards for the earth and communications control segments of the system.
304. SYSTEM CONTROL The control segment performs the functions of spacecraft control, payload control, and network control.
A. Spacecraft Control. Spacecraft functions provide for maintaining the satellites in assigned orbital positions, maintaining orientation, and supporting functions to ensure optimal operations. The Consolidated Space Operations Center (CSOC), the associated Remote Gateway Facilities (RGF), and auxiliary satellite control terminals (ASCT) are responsible for DSCS in-orbit tracking, telemetry, and spacecraft control. Backup spacecraft control is provided by the DSCSOCs.
B. Payload Control. Payload control functions control and configure the DSCS communications payload. DISA payload management decisions will be implemented through the 55
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shared satellite command capabilities of the DSCSOC, the Consolidated Space Test Center (CSTC), and the CSOC. Satellite Configuration Control Elements (SCCE) at each DSCSOC perform telemetry and command functions for the control of critical satellite payload functions. This includes configuration of MBAs, GDAs, and control of transpolar gain. The SCCE consists of a computer interface processor, secure telemetry equipment, and command communications equipment.
C. Network Control. Network control functions manage communications between operators and processors, generate and drive display formats, process operator data entries, and maintain and provide rapid access to the network database. Network control ensures efficient use of satellite power and bandwidth. The RCCs monitor the satellites to detect power and bandwidth violations and report these to the respective controlling authority of the offending terminal.
1. DSCS ECCM Network Control. The Navy does not participate in DSCS ECCM operations. Control of the ECCM networks is exercised through the ECCM network controller at the DSCSOCs. The designated NCT for each satellite area provides synchronization, control, and management of ECCM networks via the critical control circuit (CCC). Status and direction is distributed to the network terminals (NT) over this circuit. All NTs establish a return orderwire to the NCT. In the case of the AN/ USC-28( V) modem, the return orderwire is the return critical control orderwire. The NCTs notify the NTs via the CCC when the control units or receiver/ transmitter link margins are out of tolerance to initiate actions to maintain link efficiency and quality. The DSCS ECCM Control System (DECS) provides for network establishment, network configuration control, status reporting, and performance monitoring of the equipment and communications signals of the DSCS ECCM network. The DECS provides automation and flexibility in the execution of ECCM network control functions such as day-to-day network performance monitoring and status gathering, anomaly detection and resolution, and response to adverse operating conditions. Further information can be found in the classified DISA Circular 800-E70 series, such as DISA Circular 800-E70-12 (DSCS ECCM Operating and Control Procedures). Plain Language Addresses for the DSCSOCs are found in table 3-1.
2. DSCS FDMA Control System (DFCS). DFCS is an automated system installed at heavy and medium earth terminal locations to enable automated control of the FDMA networks. DFCS replaces the manually operated Pilot Control System-Extension equipment. Specifically, DFCS is a highly sophisticated control and monitoring subsystem which provides automatic continuous monitoring of carrier transmit power and receive quality, equipment status reporting, and real-time power control for each point-to-point and fan link in the DSCS FDMA network. Each network consists of 2 NCTs and up to 48 NTs. One NCT is online in each network at all times. The NCT equipment (AN/ GSC-96) is located in the operations and equipment rooms of the DSCSOCs. The NT equipment (AN/ GSC-51( V) 1 or AN/ GSC-51( V) 2) is collocated with the AN/ FSC-78( V), AN/ GSC-39( V) 1, AN/ GSC-39( V) 2, AN/ GSC-39A( V) 1, AN/ GSC-39A( V) 2, AN/ GSC-52( V) 1, and AN/ GSC-52( V) 2. A typical DFCS network is illustrated in figure 3-2. 56
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LOCATION PLAIN LANGUAGE ADDRESS// OFFICE SYMBOL//
Ft. Detrick, MD CDRACO1STSATCONBN FT DETRICK MD// MOSC-SB-A// Ft. Meade, MD CDRUSARSPACE DET FT GEORGE G MEADE MD// ASNKE-SAT- FM//
Landstuhl, GE CDRCCO1STSATCONBN LANDSTUHL GE// ASE-X-K// Camp Roberts, CA CDRDCO1STSATCONBN CP ROBERTS CA// ASQNK-RO// Ft Buckner, JA CDRECO1STSATCONBN FT BUCKNER JA Falcon AFB, CO CDRHHC1STSATCONBN FALCON AFB CO Ft. Monmouth, NJ CDRCECOM FT MONMOUTH NJ// AMSEL-RD-ST-SE-TF// INFO DSCS DSCS NETWORK MANAGER WASHINGTON DC// DISA DISA WASHINGTON DC// D333// DISA WASHINGTON DC// GCC//
PLAs for DSCSOCs Table 3-1
a. NCT. The online NCT implements link carrier control through carrier definition data from the SATCOM network controller. This data is entered into the NCT database and identifies the carriers to be monitored by the network, the required link quality, and limits to be maintained by the network. When performance is determined to be outside desired limits, the NCT identifies the problem to the respective NT for adjustment. The NCT also monitors the FDMA transponder for saturation caused by excess uplink power and establishes net timing.
b. NT. The purpose of the NT is to interface directly with the Earth terminal (ET) for the collection of fault/ status data, to control uplink power, and to communicate with the NCT. It measures carrier-to-noise density, measures pseudo bit-error rate, and measures carrier and transmitter power levels. Additionally, it monitors the status of radio frequency terminal equipment and the Digital Communications Subsystem equipment (i. e., AN/ GSC-24( V), Integrated Digital Network Exchange [IDNX] multiplexers, OM-73 modems, etc). Performance data collected by the NT is passed to the NCT by means of the control data link in burst mode as the NCT polls the NT.
3. Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA). DAMA is a DISA proposal that will be supported by FDMA SCPC circuits and will offer a broad range of messaging, director, 57
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Figure 3-2 Typical DFCS Network
port, internetwork, and billing services. It will support semipermanent fixed bandwidth and bandwidth-on-demand through user recognition.
4. FDMA Network Management System (FNMS). FNMS is a DSCS DAMA control system that will monitor and control links using standard FDMA modems. FNMS capabilities include login/ logout, orderwire, FDMA link setup and characterization, FDMA link maintenance and teardown, NCT handover, remote NCT operations, and Circuit Control TRANSEC protection. FNMS will eventually replace GMF Interim Tactical Orderwires and be incorporated into DFCS.
5. Demand Assigned Bandwidth System (DABS). DABS is a DISA service-on-demand initiative to provide users with various types of communications service when required. It is a system that makes efficient use of limited satellite bandwidth and power. DABS, an on-demand scheduled service, exploits the COTS technology of "Smart Muxs," such as the Automated Digital Multiplexer System (ADMS) TIMEPLEX Link/ 2+ ICS and the DISN Backbone IDNX 90. It consists of a DISA/ CFE-developed personal computer (PC)-based software for rapid channel reconfiguration of smart multiplexers and, through out-of-band signaling, modem reconfiguration for expanded throughput and bandwidth reallocation. The 58
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DABS software controls access and bandwidth to the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII)/ DISN wide area network from remote locations ashore and afloat. DABS allows any commander to make connections across DISN through rapid channel level interface between IDNX and TIMEPLEX.
6. DISN Tactical Extension Program (DTEP). DTEP is a DISA pilot network program that provides near-real-time bandwidth management of DSCS through DAMA. It provides the tactical warfighter access to DII/ DISN circuitry on demand from a remote location using DABS.
7. Interim Tactical Orderwire System (ITOS). ITOS is intended to be the universal, interim, satellite control capability for deployable terminals prior to the implementation of SHF DAMA. Its primary role is to fill the gap between the phase-out of the existing orderwire and the introduction of DAMA. ITOS equipment will be deployed at the DSCSOCs, tactical terminals, and STEP sites to coordinate DISN entry.
305. CONTROL OF SUBNETWORKS A. Ground Mobile Force Satellite Control (GMFSC) System and C4I Afloat Networks. Previously these were considered subnetworks whose access to satellite resources was limited to either channel 1 or 2. However, a recent joint Service/ Navy decision will allow all users to have the "best fit" at the time of access request, rather than limiting GMF users to transponder 2 and maritime users to transponder 1. DISA will now determine the best path to fulfill the communication requirement at the time SHF SATCOM service is requested.
B. SURTASS Network. The control of this system in DSCS is assigned to the Naval Satellite Communications Facilities (NAVSATCOMMFAC) located at NCTAMS Pacific (PAC) and NCTAMS LANT. The Army-operated DSCS facility at Fort Buckner, Okinawa, Japan, serves as the control and monitoring facility for SURTASS units communicating via the DSCS IO transponder. Monitoring of the net is accomplished by the SURTASS Control Satellite Monitoring System (SCSMS) which measures link status and margins. SCSMS also performs the monitoring functions to provide information to the NAVSATCOMMFAC for control of the system located on DSCS III. Bandwidth and power of the system are monitored by the appropriate DSCSOCs and RCCs; violations are reported to the NAVSATCOMMFAC. The current Navy SURTASS bandwidth validated and authorized for DSCS satellites is 2 MHz on the ELANT, EPAC, WPAC, and IO satellites. 59