"Presidential Directive on National Space Policy,"
February 11, 1988.
[Editorial headnote: Between the issuance of the first Reagan
administration space policy statement in July 1982 and 1987, there
were a number of significant changes, including the Challenger
accident, increased emphasis on the commercial uses of space,
and the report of the blue ribbon National Commission on Space.
A five-month SIG (Space) review during the second half of 1987
resulted in a new statement of national space policy reflecting
these and other changes. President Reagan approved the new policy
statement on January 5, but witheld its release until a parallel
review of commercial space policy initiatives being conducted
by the Economic Policy Council was completed. The policy statement
itself was classified; this unclassified summary was all that
was publicly released. Available in NASA Historical Reference
Collection, History Office, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC.
Page references to original document in brackets.]
Presidential Directive on National Space Policy
The President approved on January 5, 1988, a revised national
space policy that will set the direction of U.S. efforts in space
for the future. The policy is the result of a five-month interagency
review which included a thorough analysis of previous Presidential
decisions, the National Commission on Space report, and the implications
of the Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle accidents.
The primary objective of this review was to consolidate and update
Presidential guidance on U.S. space activities well into the future.
The resulting Presidential Directive reaffirms the national commitment
to the exploration and use of space in support of our national
well being. It acknowledges that United States space activities
are conducted by three separate and distinct sectors: two strongly
interacting governmental sectors (Civil, and National Security)
and a separate, non-governmental Commercial Sector. Close coordination,
cooperation, and technology and information exchange will be maintained
among sectors to avoid unnecessary duplication and promote attainment
of United States space goals.
GOALS AND PRINCIPLES
The directive states that a fundamental objective guiding United
States space activities has been, and continues to be, space leadership.
Leadership in an increasingly competitive international environment
does not require United States preeminence in all areas and disciplines
of space enterprise. It does require United States preeminence
in key areas of space activity critical to achieving our national
security, scientific, technical, economic, and foreign policy
- The overall goals of United States space activities are: (1)
to strengthen and security of the United States; (2) to obtain
scientific, technological, and economic benefits for the general
population and to improve the quality of life on Earth through
space-related activities; (3) to encourage continuing United States
private-sector investment in space and related activities; (4)
to promote international cooperative activities taking into account
United States national security, foreign policy, scientific, and
economic interests; (5) to cooperate with other nations in maintaining
the freedom of space for all activities that enhance the security
and welfare of mankind; and, as a long-range goal, (6) to expand
human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar
- The directive states that United States space activities shall
be conducted in accordance with the following principles:
- The United States is committed to the exploration and use
of outer space by all nations for peaceful purposes and for the
benefit of all mankind. "Peaceful purposes" allow for
activities in pursuit of national security goals.
-  The United States will pursue activities in space in support
of its inherent right of self-defense and its defense commitments
to its allies.
- The United States rejects any claims to sovereignty by any
nation over outer space or celestial bodies, or any portion thereof,
and rejects any limitations on the fundamental right of sovereign
nations to acquire data from space.
- The United States considers the space systems of any nation
to be national property with the right of passage through and
operations in space without interference. Purposeful interference
with space systems shall be viewed as an infringement on sovereign
- The United States shall encourage and not preclude the commercial
use and exploitation of space technologies and systems for national
economic benefit without direct Federal subsidy. These commercial
activities must be consistent with national security interests,
and international and domestic legal obligations.
- The United States shall encourage other countries to engage
in free and fair trade in commercial space goods and services.
- The United States will conduct international cooperative space-related
activities that are expected to achieve sufficient scientific,
political, economic, or national security benefits for the nation.
The United States will see mutually beneficial international participation
in its space and space-related programs.
CIVIL SPACE POLICY
The directive states that:
- The United States civil space sector activities shall contribute
significantly to enhancing the Nation's science, technology, economy,
pride, sense, of well-being and direction, as well as United States
world prestige and leadership. Civil sector activities shall comprise
a balanced strategy of research, development, operations, and
technology for science, exploration, and appropriate applications.
- The objectives of the United States civil space activities
shall be (1) to expand knowledge of the Earth, its environment,
the solar system, and the universe; (2) to create new opportunities
for use of the space environment through the conduct of appropriate
research and experimentation in advanced technology and systems
(3) to develop space technology for civil applications and, wherever
appropriate, make such technology available to the commercial
sector; (4) to preserve the United States preeminence in critical
aspects of space science, applications, technology, and manned
space flight; (5) to establish a permanently manned presence in
space; and (6) to engage in international cooperative efforts
that further United States space goals.
COMMERCIAL SPACE POLICY
The directive states that the United States government shall not
preclude or deter the continuing development of a separate, non-governmental
Commercial Space Sector. Expanding private sector investment in
space by the market-driven Commercial Sector generates economic
benefits for the Nation and supports governmental Space Sectors
with an increasing range of space goods and services. Governmental
Space Sectors shall purchase commercially available space goods
and services to the fullest extent feasible and shall not conduct
 activities with potential commercial applications that preclude
or deter Commercial Sector space activities except for national
security or public safety reasons. Commercial Sector space activities
shall be supervised or regulated only to the extent required by
law, national security, international obligations, and public
NATIONAL SECURITY SPACE POLICY
The directive further states that the United States will conduct
those activities in space that are necessary to national defense.
Space activities will contribute to national security objectives
by (1) deterring, or if necessary defending against enemy attack;
(2) assuring that forces of hostile nations cannot prevent our
own use of space; (3) negating, if necessary, hostile space systems;
and (4) enhancing operations of United States and Allied forces.
Consistent with treaty obligations, the national security space
program shall support such functions as command and control, communications,
navigation, environmental monitoring warning, and surveillance
(including research and development programs which support these
This section contains policies applicable to, and binding on,
the national security and civil space sectors:
- The United States Government will maintain and coordinate
separate national security and civil operational space systems
where differing needs of the sectors dictate.
- Survivability and endurance of national security space systems,
including all necessary system elements, will be pursued commensurate
with their planned use in crisis and conflict, with the threat,
and with the availability of other assets to perform the mission.
- Government sectors shall encourage, to the maximum extent
feasible, the development and use of Unites States private sector
space capabilities without direct Federal subsidy.
- The directive states that the United States Government will:
(1) encourage the development of commercial systems which image
the Earth from space competitive with or superior to foreign-operated
civil or commercial systems; (2) discuss remote sensing issues
and activities with foreign governments operating or regulating
the private operation of remote sensing systems; and (3) continue
a research and development effort for future advanced, remote
sensing technologies. Commercial applications of such technologies
will not involve direct Federal subsidy.
- The directive further states that assured access to space,
sufficient to achieve all United States space goals, is a key
element of national space policy. United States space transportations
systems, must provide a balanced, robust, and flexible capability
with sufficient resiliency to allow continued operations despite
failures in any single system. The goals of United States space
transportation policy are: (1) to achieve and maintain safe and
reliable access to transportation in, and return from, space;
(2) to exploit the unique attributes of manned and unmanned launch
and recovery systems; (3) to encourage to the maximum extent feasible,
the development and use of United States private sector space
transportation capabilities without direct Federal subsidy; and
(4) to reduce the costs of space transportation and related services.
- The directive also states that communications advancements
are critical to all United States space sectors. To ensure necessary
capabilities exits, the directive states  that the United States
Government will continue research and development efforts for
future advanced space communications technologies. These technologies,
when utilized for commercial purposes, will be without direct
- The directive states that it is the policy of the United States
to control or prohibit, as appropriate, exports of equipment and/or
technology that would make an significant contribution to a foreign
country's strategic military missile programs. Certain United
States friends and allies will be exempted from this policy, subject
to appropriate non-transfer and end-use assurances.
- The directive also states that the United States will consider
and, as appropriate, formulate policy positions on arms control
measures governing activities in space, and will conduct negotiations
on such measures only if they are equitable, effectively verifiable,
and enhance the security of the United States and its allies.
- The directive further states that all space sectors will seek
to minimize the creation of space debris. Design and operations
of space tests, experiments and systems will strive to minimize
or reduce accumulation of space debris consistent with mission
requirements and cost effectiveness.
The directive states that normal interagency procedures will be
employed wherever possible to coordinate the policies enunciated
in this directive. To provide a forum to all Federal agencies
for their policy views, to review and advise on proposed changes
to national space policy issues to the President for decisions
as necessary, a Senior Interagency Group (SIG) on Space shall
continue to meet. The SIG (Space) will be chaired by a member
of the National Security Council staff and will include appropriate
representatives of the Department of State, Department of Defense
(DOD), Department of Commerce (DOC), Department of Transportations
(DOT), Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), Organization of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff, United States Arms Control and Disarmament
Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),
Office of Management and Budget, and the Office of Science and
Technology Policy. Other Executive agencies or departments will
participate as the agenda of meeting shall dictate.
POLICY GUIDELINES AND IMPLEMENTING ACTIONS
The directive also enumerates Policy Guidelines and Implementing
Actions to provide a framework through which the policies in the
directive shall be carried out. Agencies are directed to use this
section as guidance on priorities, including preparation, review,
and execution of budgets for space activities, within the overall
resource and policy guidance provided by the President. Within
120 days of the date of this directive, affected Government agencies
are directed to review their current policies for consistency
with the directive and, where necessary, establish policies to
implement the practices contained therein.
CIVIL SPACE SECTOR GUIDELINES
- The directive specifies that in conjunction with other agencies:
NASA will continue the lead role within the Federal Government
for advancing space science, exploration, and appropriate applications
through the conduct of activities for research, technology, development
and related operations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
will gather data, conduct research, and make predictions about
the  Earth's environment; DOT will license and promote commercial
launch operations which support civil sector operations.
- Space Science. NASA, with the collaboration of other appropriate
agencies, will conduct a balanced program to support scientific
research, exploration, and experimentation to expand understanding
of: (1) astrophysical phenomena and the origin and evolution of
the universe; (2) the Earth, its environment and its dynamic relationship
with the Sun; (3) the origin and evolution of the solar system;
(4) fundamental physical, chemical, and biological processes;
(5) the effects of the space environment on human beings; and
(6) the factors governing the origin and spread of life in the
- Space Exploration. In order to investigate phenomena and objects
both within and beyond the solar system, the directive states
that NASA will conduct a balanced program of manned and unmanned
- Human Exploration. To implement the long-range goal of expanding
human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar
system the policy directs NASA to begin the systematic development
of technologies necessary to enable and support a range of future
manned missions. This technology program (Pathfinder) will be
oriented toward a Presidential decision on a focused program of
manned exploration of the solar system.
- Unmanned Exploration. The policy further directs NASA to continue
to pursue a program of unmanned exploration where such exploration
can most efficiently and effectively satisfy national space objectives
by among other things: achieving scientific objectives where human
presence is undesirable or unnecessary; exploring realms where
the risk or costs of life support are unacceptable; and providing
data vital to support future manned missions.
- Permanent Manned Presence. The directive states that NASA
will develop the Space Station to achieve permanently manned operational
capability by the mid-1990s. The directive further states that
the Space Station will: (1) Contribute to United States preeminence
in critical aspects of manned spaceflight; (2) provide support
and stability to scientific and technological investigations;
(3) provide early benefits, particularly in the materials of life
sciences; (4) promote private sector experimentation preparatory
to independent commercial activity; (5) allow evolution in keeping
with the needs of Station users and the long-term goals of the
United States; (6) provide opportunities for commercial sector
participation; and (7) contribute to the longer term goal of expanding
human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar
- Manned Spaceflight Preeminence. The directive specifies that
approved programs such as efforts to improve the Space Transportation
System (STS) and return it to safe flight and to develop, deploy
and use the Space Station, are intended to ensure United States
preeminence in critical aspects of manned spaceflight.
- Space Applications. The policy directs NASA and other agencies
to pursue the identification and development of appropriate applications
flowing from their activities. Agencies will seek to promote private
sector development and implementation of applications. The policy
also states that:
- Such applications will create new capabilities, or improve
the quality or efficiency of continuing activities, including
long-term scientific observations.
- NASA will seek to ensure its capability to conduct selected
critical missions through an appropriate mix of assured access
to space, on-orbit sparing, advanced  automation techniques,
redundancy, and other suitable measures.
- Agencies may enter cooperative research and development agreements
on space applications with firms seeking to advance the relevant
state-of-the-art consistent with United States Government space
- Management of Federal civil operational remote sensing is
the responsibility of the Department of Commerce. The Department
of Commerce will: (1) consolidate Federal needs for civil operational
remote sensing products to be met either by the private sector
or the Federal government; (2) identify needed civil operational
system research and development objectives; and (3) in coordination
with other departments or agencies, provide for the regulation
of private sector operational remote sensing systems.
- Civil Government Space Transportation. The policy states the
unique Space Transportation System (STS) capability to provide
manned access to space will be exploited in those areas that offer
the greatest national return, including contributing to United
States preeminence in critical aspects of manned spaceflight.
The STS fleet will maintain the Nation's capability and will be
used to support critical programs requiring manned presence and
other unique STS capabilities. In support of national space transportation
goals, NASA will establish sustainable STS flight rates to provide
for planning and budgeting of Government space programs. NASA
will pursue appropriate enhancements to STS operational capabilities,
upper stages, and systems for deploying, servicing, and retrieving
spacecraft as national and user requirements are defined.
- International Cooperation. The policy guidelines state that
the United States will foster increased international cooperation
in civil space activities by seeking mutually beneficial international
participation in its civil space and space-related programs. The
SIG (Space) Working Group on Space Science Cooperation with the
U.S.S.R. shall be responsible for oversight of civil space cooperation
with the Soviet Union. No such cooperative activity shall be initiated
until an interagency review has been completed. The directive
provides that United States cooperation in international civil
space activities will:
- Be consistent with United States technology transfer laws,
regulations, Executive Orders and presidential directives.
- Support the public, nondiscriminatory direct readout of data
from Federal civil systems to foreign ground stations and the
provision of data to foreign users under specified conditions.
- Be conducted in such a way as to protect the commercial value
of intellectual property developed with Federal support. Such
cooperation will not preclude or deter commercial space activities
by the United States private sector, except as required by national
security or public safety.
COMMERCIAL SPACE SECTOR GUIDELINES
- The directive states that NASA, and the Departments of Commerce,
Defense, and Transportation will work cooperatively to develop
and implement specific measures to foster the growth of private
sector commercial use of space. A high-level focus for commercial
space issues has been created through establishment of a Commercial
Space Working Group of the Economic Policy Council. SIG (Space)
will continue to coordinate the development and implementation
of national space policy.
-  To stimulate private sector investment, ownership, and
operation of space assets, and directive provides that the United
States Government will facilitate private sector access to appropriate
U.S. space-related hardware and facilities, and encourage the
private sector to undertake commercial space ventures. The directive
states that Governmental Space Sectors shall, without providing
direct Federal subsidies:
- Utilize commercially available goods and services to the fullest
extent feasible, and avoid actions that may preclude or deter
commercial space sector activities except as required by national
security or public safety. A space good or service is "commercially
available" if it is currently offered commercially, or if
it could be supplied commercially in response to a government
service procurement request. "Feasible" means that such
goods or services meet mission requirements in a cost-effective
- Enter into appropriate cooperative agreements to encourage
and advance private sector basic research, development, and operations
while protecting the commercial value of the intellectual property
- Provide for the use of appropriate Government facilities on
a reimbursable basis;
- Identify, and eliminate or propose for elimination, applicable
portions of United States laws and regulations that unnecessarily
impede commercial space sector activities;
- Encourage free trade in commercial space activities. The United
States Trade Representative will consult, or, as appropriate,
negotiate with other countries to encourage free trade in commercial
space activities. In entering into space-related technology development
and transfer agreements with other countries, Executive Departments
and agencies will take into consideration whether such countries
practice and encourage free and fair trade in commercial space
- Provide for the timely transfer of Government-developed space
technology to the private sector in such a manner as to protect
its commercial value, consistent with national security.
- Price Government-provided goods and services consistent with
OMB Circular A-25.
- The directive also states that the Department of Commerce
(DOC) will commission a study to provide information for future
policy and program decisions on options for a commercial advanced
earth remote sensing system. This study, to be conducted in the
private sector under DOC direction with input from Federal Agencies,
will consist of assessments of the following elements: (1) domestic
and international markets for remote sensing data; (2) financing
options, such as cooperative opportunities between government
and industry in which the private sector contributes substantial
financing to the venture, participation by other government agencies,
and international cooperative partnerships; (3) sensor and data
processing technology and; (4) spacecraft technology and launch
options. The results of this study will include an action plan
on the best alternatives identified during the study.
NATIONAL SECURITY SPACE SECTOR GUIDELINES
- General. The directive states that:
- The Department of Defense (DOD) will develop, operate, and
maintain an assured mission capability through an appropriate
mix of robust satellite control, assured access to  space,
on-orbit sparing, proliferation, reconstitution or other means.
- The national security space program, including dissemination
of data, shall be conducted in accordance with Executive Orders
and applicable directives for the protection of national security
information and commensurate with both the missions performed
and the security measures necessary to protect related space activities.
- DOD will ensure that the military space program incorporates
the support requirements of the Strategic Defense Initiative.
- Space Support. The directive states that:
- The national security space sector may use both manned and
unmanned launch systems as determined by specific mission requirements.
Payloads will be distributed among launch systems and launch sites
to minimize the impact of loss of any single launch system or
launch site on mission performance. The DOD will procure unmanned
launch vehicles or services and maintain launch capability on
both the East and West coasts. DOD will also continue to enhance
the robustness of its satellite control capability through and
appropriate mix of satellite autonomy and survivable command and
control, processing, and data dissemination systems.
- DOD will study concepts and technologies which would support
future contingency launch capabilities.
- Force Enhancement. The directive states that the national
security space sector will develop, operate, and maintain space
systems and develop plans and architectures to meet the requirements
of operational land, sea, and air forces through all levels of
conflict commensurate with their intended use.
- Space Control. The directive also states that:
- The DOD will develop, operate, and maintain enduring space
systems to ensure its freedom of action in space. This requires
an integrated combination of antisatellite, survivability, and
- Antisatellite (ASAT) Capability. DOD will develop and deploy
a robust and comprehensive ASAT capability with programs as required
and with initial operational capability at the earliest possible
- DOD space programs will pursue a survivability enhancement
program with long-term planning for future requirements. The DOD
must provide for the survivability of selected, critical national
security space assets (including associated terrestrial components)
to a degree commensurate with the value and utility of the support
they provide to national-level decision functions, and military
operational forces across the spectrum of conflict.
- The United States will develop and maintain an integrated
attack warning, notification, verification, and contingency reaction
capability which can effectively detect and react to threats to
United States space systems.
- Force Application. The directive states that the DOD will,
consistent will treaty obligations, conduct research, development,
and planning to be prepared to acquire and deploy space weapons
systems for strategic defense should national security conditions
The directive states that the following paragraphs identify selected,
high priority cross-sector efforts and  responsibilities to
implement plans supporting major United States space policy objectives:
- Space Transportation Guidelines.
- The United States national space transportation capability
will be based on a mix of vehicles, consisting of the Space Transportation
System (STS), unmanned launch vehicles (ULVs), and in-space transportation
systems. The elements of this mix will be defined to support the
mission needs of national security and civil government sectors
of United States space activities in the most cost effective manner.
- As determined by specific mission requirements, the national
security space sector will use the STS and ULVs. In coordination
with NASA, the DOD will assure the Shuttle's utility to national
defense and will integrate missions into the Shuttle system. Launch
priority will be provided for national security missions as implemented
by NASA-DOD agreements. Launches necessary to preserve and protect
human life in space shall have the highest priority except in
times of national security emergency.
- The STS will continue to be managed and operated in an institutional
arrangement consistent with the current NASA/DOD Memorandum of
Understanding. Responsibility will remain in NASA for operational
control of the STS for civil missions, and in the DOD for operational
control of the STS for national security missions. Mission management
is the responsibility of the mission agency.
- United States commercial launch operations are an integral
element of a robust national space launch capability. NASA will
not maintain an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) adjunct to the
STS. NASA will provide launch services for commercial and foreign
payloads only where those payloads must be man-tended, require
the unique capabilities of the STS, or it is determined that launching
the payloads on the STS is important for national security or
foreign policy purposes. Commercial and foreign payloads will
not be launched on government owned or operated ELV systems except
for national security or foreign policy reasons.
- Civil Government agencies will encourage, to the maximum extent
feasible, a domestic commercial launch industry by contracting
for necessary ELV launch services directly from the private sector
or with DOD.
- NASA and the DOD will continue to cooperate in the development
and use of military and civil space transportation systems and
avoid unnecessary duplication of activities. They will pursue
new launch and launch support concepts aimed at improving cost-effectiveness,
responsiveness, capability, realiablity, avaliability, maintainability
and flexibility. Such cooperation between the national security
and civil sectors will ensure efficient and effective use of national
- The directive lists guidelines for the federal encouragement
of commercial unmanned launch vehicles (ULVs):
- The United States Government fully endorses and will facilitate
the commercialization of United States unmanned launch vehicles
- The Department of Transportation (DOT) is the lead agency
within the Federal Government for developing, coordinating, and
articulating Federal policy and regulatory guidance pertaining
to United States commercial launch activities in consultation
with DOD, State, NASA, and other concerned agencies. All Executive
departments and agencies shall assist the DOT in carrying out
its responsibilities as  set forth in the Commercial Space
Launch Act and Executive Order 12465.
- The United States Government encourages the use of its launch
and launch-related facilities for United States commercial launch
- The United States Government will have priority use of Government
facilities and support services to meet national security and
critical mission requirements. The United States Government will
make all reasonable efforts to minimize impacts on commercial
- The United States Government will not subsidize the commercialization
of ULVs, but will price the use of its facilities, equipment,
and services with the goal of encouraging viable commercial ULV
activities in accordance with the Commercial Space Launch Act.
- The United States Government will encourage free market competition
within the United States private sector. The United States Government
will provide equitable treatment for all commercial launch operators
for the sale or lease of Government equipment and facilities consistent
with its economic, foreign policy, and national security interests.
- NASA and DOD, for those unclassified and releasable capabilities
for which they have responsibility shall, to the maximum extent
- Use best efforts to provide commercial launch firms with access,
on a reimbursable basis, to national launch and launch-related
facilities, equipment, tooling, and services to support commercial
- Develop, in consultation with the DOT, contractual arrangements
covering access by commercial launch firms to national launch
and launch-related property and services they request in support
of their operations;
- Provide technical advice and assistance to commercial launch
firms on a reimbursable basis, consistent with the pricing guidelines
- Conduct, in coordination with DOT appropriate environmental
analyses necessary to ensure that commercial launch operations
conducted at Federal launch facilities are in compliance with
the National Environmental Policy Act.
- The directive lists government ULV Pricing Guidelines. The
price charged for the use of United States Government facilities,
equipment, and service, will be based on the following principles:
- Price all services (including those associated with production
and launch of commercial ULVs) based on the direct costs incurred
by the United States Government. Reimbursement shall be credited
to the appropriation from which the cost of providing such property
or service was paid.
- The United States Government will not seek to recover ULV
design and development costs or investments associated with any
existing facilities or new facilities required to meet United
States Government needs to which the U.S. Government retains title;
- Tooling, equipment, and residual ULV hardware on hand at the
completion of the United States Government's program will be priced
on a basis that is in the best overall interest of the United
States Government, taking into consideration that these sales
will not constitute a subsidy to the private sector operator.
-  The directive also states that commercial launch firms
- Maintain all facilities and equipment leased from the United
States Government to a level of readiness and repair specified
by the United States Government;
- Comply with all requirements of the Commercial Space Launch
Act, all regulations issued under the Act, and all terms, conditions
or restrictions of any license issued or transferred by the Secretary
of Transportation under the Act.
- The directive establishes the following technology transfer
- The United States will work to stem the flow of advanced western
space technology to unauthorized destinations. Executive department
and agencies will be fully responsible for protecting against
adverse technology transfer in the conduct of their programs.
- Sales of United States space hardware, software, and related
technologies for use in foreign space projects will be consistent
with relevant international and bilateral agreements and arrangements.
- The directive states that all Sectors shall recognize the
importance of appropriate investments in the facilities and human
resources necessary to support United States space objectives
and maintain investments that are consistent with such objectives.
A task force of the Commercial Space Working Group, in cooperation
with OSTP, will conduct a feasibility study of alternate methods
for encouraging, without direct Federal subsidy, private sector
capital funding of United States space infrastructure such as
ground facilities, launcher developments, and orbital assembly
and test facilities. Coordinated terms of reference for this study
shall be presented to the EPC and SIG (Space).
- The directive notes that the primary forum for negotiations
on nuclear and space arms is the Nuclear and Space Talks (NST)
with the Soviet Union in Geneva. The instructions to the United
States Delegation will be consistent with this National Space
Policy directive, established legal obligations, and additional
guidance by the President. The United States will continue to
consult with its Allies on these negotiations and ensure that
any resulting agreements enhance the security of the United States
and its Allies. Any discussions on arms control relating to activities
in space in fora other than NST must be consistent with, and subordinate
to, the foregoing activities and objectives.
- Finally the directive states that using NSC staff approved
terms of reference, an IG (Space) working group will provide recommendations
on the implementation of the Space Debris Policy contained in
the Policy section of this directive.
For additional information contact Roger D. Launius, NASA Chief
Historian, roger.lau[email protected]