Flying Operations


This MCI implements AFI 11-2, Flight Rules and Procedures, to establish procedures to operate C-12, C-135, CT-43, C-20, UH-1(except 89 Airlift Wing [AW]), and C-21 aircraft, performing as OSA aircraft in a worldwide mission (also applies to 45Squadron [AS]). It provides the most acceptable policies and procedures for most circumstances, but should not replace sound judgment. Comply with AFI 11-206, General Flight Rules; AFI 11-401, Flight Management; appropriate flight information publications (FLIP) documents; AFI 24-405, Department of Defense Foreign Clearance Guide (FCG); and this MCI. It applies to all personnel assigned or attached to ACC, AFMC, AFSPC, AMC, PACAF, and USAFE OSA units; AETC C-12 and C-21A aircrew; and USEUCOM flight operations C-21A aircrews. It also applies to the Air National Guard and United States Air Force Reserve units. Office of primary responsibility (OPR) is HQ AMC/DOTA. Offices of collateral responsibility are HQ ACC/DOT, HQ AETC/XOT, HQ AFMC/DO, HQ AFSPC/DO, HQ PACAF/DOTV, HQ USAFE/ DOOTT, and USEUCOM/DCINC. The use of the name or mark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity, or service in this publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force.


The standard crew duty day for an OSA standby launch is now 14 hours for C-12 and 12 hours for C-21s. Aircrews are now charged with keeping their commanders informed of mission progress and or difficulties. Crash and rescue units are no longer required during aeromedical evacuation. All OSA crewmembers are allowed to travel on additional crewmember status. Once established on approach, aircrews are allowed to continue to decision height or minimum descent altitude regardless of ceiling and visibility. Minimums are no longer modified without full flight instrumentation. New items have been added to the reportable mishap list. Many paragraphs in chapters 1 through 6 have been renumbered in an attempt to standardize paragraph numbering between other airlift and tanker aircraft. In addition, some paragraphs have been rewritten to clarify their intent. Aborted takeoff procedures now use the word "ABORT." AETC formal schoolhouse-assigned C-12 and C-21 instructor pilots are authorized to use 5,000 feet for touch-and-go landings.

Paragraph Page
Chapter 1--General Information
General 1.1 6
Not used 1.2 6
Deviations and Waivers 1.3 6
Supplements 1.4 6
Requisition and Distribution Procedures 1.5 6
Revisions 1.6 6
Definitions 1.7 6
Chapter 2--Command and Control (C2)
General 2.1 8
Operational Control (OPCON) 2.2 8
Not used 2.3 8
Not used 2.4 8
Aircraft Commander Responsibility and Authority 2.5 8
Mission Clearance Decision 2.6 8
Aircrew Responsibilities 2.7 8
Operational C2 Reporting 2.8 8
Not used 2.9 8
Paragraph Page
Not used 2.10 8
Not used 2.11 8
Chapter 3--Crew Complement and Management
Aircrew Qualification 3.1 9
Crew Complement 3.2 9
Additional Crewmembers (ACM) 3.3 9
Mission-Essential Ground Personnel (MEGP) 3.4 9
Mobility Mission Observer (MMO) 3.5 10
Scheduling Restrictions 3.6 10
Alerting Procedures 3.7 10
Crew Release Policy 3.8 10
Crew Duty Time (CDT) 3.9 10
Crew Rest 3.10 11
Standby Duty 3.11 11
Incentive Flights 3.12 12
Chapter 4--Command Operating Guidelines
Objectives 4.1 13
Policy 4.2 13
Minimum Equipment 4.3 13
Chapter 5--Operating Policy
Checklists 5.1 15
Control 5.2 15
Flight Station Entry 5.3 15
Takeoff and Landing Policy 5.4 15
Cockpit Coordination 5.5 15
Outside Observer 5.6 16
Seat Belts 5.7 16
Aircraft Lighting 5.8 16
Portable Electronic Devices 5.9 16
Smoking Restriction 5.10 16
Advisory Calls 5.11 16
Communications Policy 5.12 17
Transportation of Pets 5.13 18
Alcoholic Beverages 5.14 18
Airfield Requirements 5.15 18
Aircraft Taxi Obstruction Clearance Criteria 5.16 19
Illumination Requirements for Helicopter Landing Areas 5.17 19
Reverse Taxi 5.18 20
Aircraft Recovery From Unprepared Surfaces 5.19 20
Engines Running Offload and Onload (ERO) Procedures 5.20 20
Rotor Turning Onload and Offload Procedures (UH-1) 5.21 20
UH-1 Altitude Restrictions 5.22 20
Functional Check Flights (FCF) 5.23 20
Chapter 6--Operations
Section A--Premission
Aircrew Uniform 6.1 21
Personal Requirements 6.2 21
Mission Planning 6.3 21
Aircrew Publications Requirements 6.4 21
Section B--Predeparture
Authentication and Classified Documents 6.5 21
Aircrew Intelligence Briefing 6.6 22
Flight Crew Information File (FCIF) 6.7 22
Not used 6.8 22
Not used 6.9 22
Mission Kits 6.10 22
Route Navigation Kits 6.11 22
Briefing Requirements 6.12 22
Aircraft Call Signs 6.13 22
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) 6.14 22
Flight Plan Verification 6.15 22
Departure Planning (not applicable for UH-1) 6.16 23
Alternate Planning 6.17 23
Takeoff Minimums and Departure Alternates 6.18 23
Destination Requirements (not applicable for UH-1) 6.19 24
Alternate Requirements 6.20 24
Adverse Weather Planning 6.21 24
Fuel Planning 6.22 25
Section C--Preflight
AFTO Form 781 Binder 6.23 25
Aircraft Servicing and Ground Operations 6.24 25
Dropped Object Prevention 6.25 26
Oxygen Requirements 6.26 26
Life Support Equipment Documentation 6.27 26
Passenger Handling and Cargo Documentation 6.28 26
Hazardous Cargo Procedures 6.29 27
Handling Classified Cargo, Registered Mail, and Courier Material 6.30 28
Section D--Departure
Takeoffs 6.31 28
Takeoff Minimums 6.32 29
Section E--En Route
Flight Progress 6.33 29
NAVAID Capability 6.34 29
Intelligence Reports 6.35 29
Communications 6.36 29
Inflight Meals 6.37 30
Inflight Emergency Procedures 6.38 30
Weather Forecasts 6.39 30
Forced and Precautionary Landings (UH-1) 6.40 30
Section F--Arrival
Briefings 6.41 31
Instrument Approach Procedures 6.42 31
Classified Equipment and Material 6.43 32
Operational Landing Site Procedures (UH-1) 6.44 32
Power Available Check (UH-1) 6.45 33
Power Required (UH-1) 6.46 34
Border Clearance 6.47 34
Insect and Pest Control (Aircraft Spraying) 6.48 36
Aircraft Impoundment 6.49 37
Section G--Debriefing Requirements
Maintenance 6.50 37
Weather 6.51 37
Chapter 7--Aircraft Security
General 7.1 38
Security 7.2 38
Security Procedures 7.3 38
Protective Standards for Aircraft Carrying Distinguished Visitors (DV) 7.4 38
Arming Crewmembers 7.5 38
General Hijacking Guidance 7.6 39
Ground Resistance 7.7 39
Inflight Resistance 7.8 39
Covert Communications 7.9 40
Forced Penetration of Unfriendly Airspace 7.10 41
Chapter 8--Operational Reports and Forms
General 8.1 42
AF Form 457, USAF Hazard Report 8.2 42
AF Form 651, Hazardous Air Traffic Report (HATR) Program 8.3 42
USAF Aircraft Mishap Report Worksheet, MAJCOM-Approved Form 8.4 42
Reports of Violation 8.5 43
Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants (POL), Aviation Fuels Documentation 8.6 44
AF From 15, United States Air Force Invoice 8.7 44
Aircraft Commander's Report on Services/Facilities, MAJCOM-Approved Form 8.8 44
Transient Aircrew Facilities Report, MAJCOM-Approved Form 8.9 44
MIJI Incident Report Sheet, MAJCOM-Approved Form (AFI 10-707) 8.10 45
Chapter 9--Training Policy
General 9.1 46
Crew Complement and Scheduling 9.2 46
Crew Duty Time 9.3 46
Instructor Pilot Briefings 9.4 46
Debriefing 9.5 46
Not used 9.6 46
Simulated Emergency Flight Procedures (not applicable for UH-1) 9.7 46
Touch or Stop-and-Go Landings 9.8 47
Training Restrictions (not applicable for UH-1) 9.9 48
Not used 9.10 48
Simulated Instrument Flight 9.11 48
Category II Instrument Landing System (ILS) Training 9.12 48
Helicopter Maneuver Standards 9.13 48
Unaided Night Unprepared Area Operation (UH-1) 9.14 52
Chapter 10--Local Operating ProceduresGeneral 10.1 53
Chapter 11--Navigator Procedures
General 11.1 54
Flight Charts 11.3 54
Navigator Procedures 11.4 54
Flight Records 11.5 55
Celestial Fixing 11.6 56
Grid Navigation 11.7 56
Chapter 12--Flight Engineer and Flight Mechanic Procedures
General 12.1 58
Responsibilities 12.2 58
Authority to Clear Red X 12.3 58
Refueling and Defueling 12.4 58
Concurrent Servicing Operations 12.5 58
AFTO Form 76, C-135 Aircraft Structural Assessment Data 12.6 58
AMC Form 139, C-25/C-135/C-137 Mission History 12.7 58
Mission Flight Planning and Weight and Balance Documentation (UH-1) 12.8 58
Not used 12.9 58
Chapter 13--Inflight Passenger Service Specialist Procedures
General 13.1 59
Responsibilities 13.2 59
Not used 13.3 59
Premission Duties 13.4 59
Preflight Duties 13.5 59
Passenger Handling 13.6 59
Border Clearance 13.7 59
En Route and Postflight Duties 13.8 59
Not used 13.9 60
MEGP Procedures 13.10 60
Not used 13.11 60
Not used 13.12 60
Not used 13.13 60
AMC Form 409, Mission Planning Worksheet 13.14 60
AMC Form 410, Mission Expense Record 13.15 60
Chapter 14--Communication System Operator (CSO) Procedures
General 14.1 61
Responsibilities 14.2 61
Premission Procedures 14.3 61
Preflight Procedures 14.4 61
Inflight Procedures 14.5 61
Postflight Procedures 14.6 61
Postmission Procedures 14.7 61
Chapter 15--Aeromedical Evacuation (AE)
Section A--General Information
Mission 15.1 62
Definitions 15.2 62
Deviations and Waivers 15.3 62
AE Forms 15.4 62
Not used 15.5 62
Section B--Aeromedical Evacuation C2
Operational Control and Reporting of Aeromedical Forces 15.6 62
Aircraft Commander Responsibilities 15.7 62
Flight Crew Responsibilities 15.8 63
Aeromedical Crew Responsibilities 15.9 63
Patient Death Inflight 15.10 63
Section C--Aeromedical Crew Complement and Management
Aeromedical Crew Complement 15.11 63
Aeromedical Crew Management 15.12 64
Not used 15.13 64
Section D--Aeromedical Aircrew Procedures
Checklists 15.14 64
Section E--Aeromedical Airlift Operations
General 15.15 64
En Route Diversions 15.16 64
Ground Handling 15.17 65
Refueling Operations 15.18 65
Aircraft Pressurization 15.19 65
Aircraft Configuration 15.20 65
Passengers and Cargo 15.21 66
Crash Coverage and Fire Protection 15.22 66
AE Call Sign and Use Of Priority Clearance 15.23 66
Not used 15.24 66
Load Message 15.25 67
Change In Patient Status 15.26 67
Not used 15.27 67
Not used 15.28 67
Chapter 16--Crew Chief Duties and Responsibilities
General 16.1 68
Responsibilities 16.2 68
Briefings 16.3 68
Chapters 17-18Not used
Chapter 19--MAJCOM Specific Guidance 69
Chapters 20-31--Not used
3-1. Crew Complement 12
3-2. Crew Duty Time (CDT) Limitations 12
4-1. Operational Equipment and Systems 13
5-1. C-20 Takeoff and Landing Crosswind Components 18
5-2. C-12 and C-21 Takeoff and Landing Crosswind Components 18
5-3. Minimum Runway Lengths 19
6-1. Aircrew Publications Requirements 21
6-2. Takeoff Minimums and Departure Alternate Requirements 24
6-3. C-12 and C-21 Fuel Planning Chart 33
6-4. C-135, C-20, and CT-43 Fuel Planning Chart 33
9-1. Training Maneuver Restrictions (not applicable for UH-1) 48
Glossary of References and of Abbreviations and Acronyms 70

Chapter 1


1.1. General:

1.1.1. This instruction should be used by aircrews that operate OSA aircraft and 45th Airlift Squadron (AS) aircrews. Use it with the aircraft flight manual, FLIPs, and applicable Air Force directives. This instruction contains policy and guidance unique to the performance of the OSA passenger, cargo, and aeromedical mission. Procedures for training missions are also included.

1.1.2. The Chief, Aircrew Standardization (HQ AMC/DOV), has overall responsibility for administration of this MCI.

1.2. Not used

1.3. Deviations and Waivers. Do not deviate from the policies and guidance in this instruction except:

When waived by appropriate command authority as published in chapter 19.
If beyond command and control (C2) communications capability, aircraft commanders (AC) have the authority to deviate, the responsibility to exercise sound judgment, and the accountability for her or his decisions. However, in no case will safety, personnel welfare, or aircraft limitations be compromised.
Request waivers through normal C2 channels. Report deviations without waiver to appropriate operations group (OG) standardization-evaluation (stan/eval).

1.4. Supplements. The applicable operations group or equivalent will publish chapter 10 to show unit operating procedures. Local operating procedures will not amend the provisions of this instruction. Each major command (MAJCOM) will supplement chapter 19 with MAJCOM-unique requirements. Following publication of local procedures and MAJCOM supplements, AMC request the OPR for the document send two copies to appropriate headquarters, intermediate standardization levels, and HQ AMC/DOV.

1.5. Requisition and Distribution Procedures. Order this MCI through servicing publishing distribution offices (PDO). PDOs will consolidate unit requirements within their area of responsibility. Requisitions for additional copies will contain a statement of justification, i.e. fair wear and tear, unit activation, increase of personnel, etc. Distribute this MCI to each aircrew member assigned or attached to OSA units.

1.6. Revisions. Personnel at all echelons are encouraged to submit proposed changes to the office of primary responsibility (OPR). Use AF Form 847, Recommendation for Change of Publication.

1.7. Definitions:

1.7.1. BLUE BARK--US military personnel, US citizen civilian employees of the Department of Defense (DoD), and the dependents of both categories who travel in connection with the death of an immediate family member. It also applies to escorts for dependents of military members traveling under competent orders.

1.7.2. Category I Route--Any route that does not meet the requirements of a category II route, including tactical navigation and overwater routes.

1.7.3. Category II Route--Any route on which the position of the aircraft can be accurately determined by the overhead crossing of a radio aid (nondirectional beacon [NDB), very high frequency omnidirectional radio [VOR], tactical air navigation [TACAN]) at least once each hour with positive course guidance between such radio aids.

1.7.4. COIN ASSIST--Nickname used to designate dependent wives accompanying dependent children, and dependent parents of military personnel reported missing or captured who may travel space available on military aircraft for humanitarian purposes upon approval of the Chief of Staff, US Army; Chief of Staff, US Air Force; Chief of Naval Operations; or the Commandant of the Marine Corps.

1.7.5. Conference SKYHOOK--Communication conference available to help aircrews solve inflight problems that require additional expertise.

1.7.6. Controlling Agency--AMC Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) is responsible for central management of all continental United States (CONUS) based C-21 aircraft during airlift missions. For other OSA aircraft, controlling agencies will be defined in each theater-published supplement to chapter 19.

1.7.7. HAMMER ACE--Air Force Command, Control, Communications and Computer Agency (AFC4A) assigned personnel performing essential communication missions carried by OSA aircraft for accident investigations.

1.7.8. Maintenance Status:

1.7.9. Unit Commanders--For purposes of this MCI, unit commanders are operations group commanders or equivalent and USEUCOM/ECJ3-FO.
Chapter 2


2.1. General. C2 of OSA operational airlift forces is exercised through controlling agencies. Aircrews will receive information and direction from these agencies and in turn must keep them advised of changes and problems.

2.2. Operational Control (OPCON):

2.2.1. Airlift Missions. OPCON will be exercised through appropriate C2 agencies. The AMC Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) is responsible for central management of all continental United States (CONUS) based C-21 aircraft during airlift missions. Theater-assigned OSA will publish specific C2 guidance in chapter 19.

2.2.2. Training Missions. Local commanders have control.

2.2.3. OPCON during exercises, contingencies, or war may transfer to other commanders.

2.3 and 2.4. Not used

2.5. Aircraft Commander Responsibility and Authority. The AC is:

In command of all persons aboard the aircraft.
Responsible for the crew welfare and the safe accomplishment of the mission.
Vested with the authority necessary to manage the crew and accomplish the mission.
Final mission authority and will make decisions not specifically assigned to higher authority.
Final authority for accepting any waiver affecting the crew or the mission.
Charged to keep applicable commander informed concerning mission progress and difficulties.

2.6. Mission Clearance Decision. Decision to delay a mission may be made by the controlling agency or the AC when, in the opinion of either, conditions are not safe to start or continue a mission. Final responsibility for the safe conduct of the mission rests with the AC. If an AC refuses a mission, it will not depart until the conditions have been corrected or improved so that the mission can operate safely. Another AC and aircrew will not be scheduled to take the same mission under the same conditions.

2.7. Aircrew Responsibilities. The aircrew is the key factor in successful mission accomplishment. The AC is the focal point for interaction between aircrew and mission support personnel. The controlling agency is the focal point for all required mission support activities and, therefore, must receive information from the AC on any factor that may affect mission accomplishment. Additionally, mission itinerary, passenger requirements, scheduled arrival times, etc., will be updated and verified as required.

2.8. Operational C2 Reporting. Check in with the controlling agency prior to the first scheduled departure each day. Keep the controlling agency informed concerning mission progress or difficulties. They should be contacted:

When aircraft maintenance is required. The controlling agency will contact the designated contractor maintenance representatives.
When a deviation of 15 minutes, early or late, or more from the scheduled takeoff or landing time is expected or has occurred.
When scheduled passengers are "no-shows."
When any unusual occurrence, incident, or mishap has occurred. In addition, ensure the unit of assignment is notified.
When waivers to directives are required. Waiver requests must be initiated by the AC through the controlling agency, who will coordinate the request with the appropriate waiver authority.
When overflying scheduled en route stops. When overflying an en route stop, the overflown station and controlling agency should be informed. Controlling agencies must approve planned overflights. Exception: PACAF does not require controlling agency approval.
When entering crew rest at a remain-overnight (RON) station. Provide the controlling agency the maintenance status, planned departure time, and telephone number where the AC can be contacted.

2.9 through 2.11. Not used
Chapter 3


3.1. Aircrew Qualification. Primary crewmembers must be qualified and current. Those occupying primary crew positions during flight must also be qualified and current or in training for qualification in that crew position and mission. (See below.)

3.1.1. Pilots: Operational missions. Two qualified and current pilots must be at the controls for all takeoffs and landings. exception: Comply with MAJCOM or theater directives. Operational training missions, local training, or evaluation missions. Noncurrent or unqualified pilots may perform crew duties under the supervision of a current instructor or flight examiner. If passengers (including mission-essential ground personnel) are carried, paragraph applies.

3.1.2. Other noncurrent or unqualified crewmembers may be assigned in addition to the minimum complement of qualified or current primary crewmembers and may perform duties in their designated crew position when under direct supervision of a current instructor or flight examiner qualified in the respective crew position. Noncurrent or unqualified crewmembers may fill a primary crew position under the direct supervision of a flight examiner during flight evaluations according to MAJCOM directives.

3.1.3. Distinguished visitor (DV) operating procedures. The following applies for incumbents of general officer positions who desire to fly:

Approved by the HQ AMC/DO (CONUS OSA).
Must fly under the supervision of an instructor pilot.
When a supported general officer has flight authority and has indicated a desire to fly, the local unit will include the general officer on the AFORMS flight authorization. See AFI 11-401.
When a general officer not mission-qualified occupies a primary crew position on an operational mission an additional pilot will accompany the mission.

3.2. Crew Complement. Comply with the minimum crew complements of table 3-1. Schedule additional air passenger specialists or crew chiefs as required.

3.2.1. Crew complement for UH-1 functional check flights (FCF):

Aircraft commander.
Copilot or flight engineer is required to occupy the copilot seat. Unit operations officer or designated representative concurrence is required when a copilot is not used.
Other personnel as required to flight check aircraft indicators, systems, and subsystems.
UH-1 pilots noncurrent for mission items may perform FCFs.
Any UH-1 pilot performing FCF ground runs and checks must be FCF-qualified. exceptionS: Beep range adjustments, manual fuel changeover, as well as other routine ground checks approved by the flight commander.

3.2.2. When mission needs dictate inflight passenger service specialists (IPSS) in excess of table 3-1, the unit commanders may authorize any IPSS current and qualified in another unit aircraft to serve in addition to the crew complement. These persons will not perform duties or operate equipment requiring specific aircraft qualifications.

3.3. Additional Crewmembers (ACM). Detailed ACM policies are in MAJCOM or appropriate theater directives. In general, OSA crewmembers who are assigned to or authorized to accompany the normal crew complement are authorized ACM status on all AMC and OSA operating aircraft. Cargo or manifested duty passengers will not be displaced.

3.4. Mission-Essential Ground Personnel (MEGP). Procedures and restrictions will be according to MAJCOM directives.

3.5. Mobility Mission Observer (MMO). Procedures and restrictions will be according to MAJCOM directives.

3.6. Scheduling Restrictions. Procedures and restrictions will be according to AFI 11-401 and its supplements.

3.7. Alerting Procedures:

3.7.1. The AC sets crew reporting time when self-alerting procedures are used. Crew reporting time is normally 2 hours prior to scheduled departure time. exception: CONUS OSA crew reporting time following en route crew rest is normally 2 hours. This time may be reduced to a minimum of 1 and 1/2 hours through coordination with the AC and the controlling agency. The AC may establish other reporting times as required for mission accomplishment, e.g. scheduled mission departure time changes, etc.

3.7.2. Agency Alerting. The controlling agency will alert the crew 3 hours prior to departure. exception: CONUS OSA crews will self alert en route and will establish unit home station alerting procedures.

3.8. Crew Release Policy. If aircraft is not in commission or otherwise capable of home station departure within four hours after scheduled departure time, the aircrew will be released. Exceptions may be granted only with the concurrence of the AC.

3.9. Crew Duty Time (CDT):

3.9.1. CDT begins at the scheduled crew reporting time. exceptions:

Early reporting for aircrew member convenience: CDT begins at the scheduled reporting time.
Crewmembers performing other duties prior to flight-related duties: CDT begins when reporting for other duties.
CDT for a standby crew begins when the crew is notified of the mission.

3.9.2. CDT ends when the aircraft blocks in at the end of a mission or series of mission legs. Scheduled ground time includes sufficient time to accomplish required post flight or preflight duties, attend to personal needs, and obtain adequate rest. exceptions:

If any crewmember is required to remain at the aircraft to perform duties exceeding normal postflight duties, CDT ends when these duties are completed.
Communication system operators, navigators, and passenger service specialists may exceed duty if the final portion of a mission or series of mission segments can be conducted without their services, and they do not exceed authorized CDT up to this point. They will be credited with flying time, but not assigned duties.

3.9.3. Comply with the maximum CDT limitations of table 3-2. Aircrews that have begun CDT on operational mis-sions and standby launches may exceed the CDT limits of table 3-2 by up to 2 hours at the AC's discretion for mis-sion accomplishment. EXCEPTION: C-21 ACs may not extend their crew duty day beyond limitations in table 3-2. Operations group commanders are waiver authority for exceeding table 3-2 limitations for up to 2 hours.

3.9.4. A basic crew may not be augmented after the crew duty day has started.

3.9.5. Flight examiners, when administering evaluations and not occupying a primary crew position, will not exceed the augmented CDT limitations of table 3-2.

3.9.6. For missions in progress, waiver authority for maximum CDT (in excess of 2 hours) is delegated to the operations group commander. ACs initiate request for waiver ACs must concur with requests. Waivers are granted only for the next mission leg.

3.9.7. Waivers anticipated prior to mission operation require approval from appropriate authority as published in command chapter 19.

3.9.8. Deadhead time before or after performing primary crew duties is CDT. Crewmembers may perform primary duties after deadheading if they will not exceed the applicable CDT limitations. In this case, CDT begins at reporting time for the deadhead flight. Crewmembers may deadhead following primary crew duties if they will not exceed the augmented crew limitations of table 3-2.

3.9.9. Aircraft with inoperative autopilot: If the autopilot fails while airborne, the mission may continue to next stop, even though the limitations of this paragraph are exceeded. If the autopilot can't be repaired, comply with table 3-2 unless a waiver is requested and granted by the appropriate operations group commander.

3.9.10. The CDT limitations of table 3-2 do not apply to crew chiefs and other crewmembers assigned to perform ground duties.

3.10. Crew Rest:

3.10.1. Home Station Predeparture Crew Rest. All crewmembers will enter crew rest 12 hours prior to reporting for a mission (including local training missions). When mission requirements permit, 24 hours crew rest will be given for crewmembers departing on missions which exceed a basic crew duty day. If the aircraft is incapable of departure within 6 hours of show time, the crew will reenter crew rest. The AC must concur with exceptions.

3.10.2. En Route Ground Time or Crew Rest. Minimum scheduled ground time between arrival at the end of a crew duty period and the next departure is 15 hours (exception: CONUS OSA minimum scheduled ground time will be 14 hours and 30 minutes). This provides crew sufficient time for postflight duties, aircraft servicing, transportation, and eight hours rest. If aircraft is incapable of departure within 4 hours of scheduled departure time, the crew will reenter crew rest. The AC must concur with exceptions. The AC may modify ground time: In the interest of safety. To no less than 12 hours from the start of crew rest until mission reporting, if the mission is behind schedule. The controlling agency will not ask the AC to accept less than normal ground time.

3.10.3. Postmission Crew Rest. Crewmembers returning to home station will be given time to recover from the cumulative effects of the mission and tend to personal needs. For aircrews TDY in excess of a basic crew duty day, one hour of postmission crew rest (up to 72 hours) will be given for each 3 hours of TDY. This time is in addition to and will not run concurrently with predeparture crew rest. (Not applicable to continuing missions.) Crewmembers will not be required to perform duties or attend formations during postmission crew rest. In cases of extreme operational necessity, the appropriate OG/CC may defer postmission crew rest and require aircrew members to report for another mission with a minimum of 12 hours rest. For aircrew TDY less than a basic crew duty day, the flying unit commander will determine postmission crew rest time.

3.11. Standby Duty:

3.11.1. Prestandby Crew Rest. Crews receive 12 hours rest.

3.11.2. Duty Time. Normally, standby duty will not exceed 24 hours. If launched while on standby, CDT begins at mission notification and will not exceed the times specified in table 3-2.

3.11.3. Poststandby Mission. On completing standby duty, the crew may be used for a mission. Standby duty and predeparture crew rest may be concurrent if at least a 12-hour notice is given before departure.

3.11.4. Poststandby Crew Rest:

3.12. Incentive Flights. Procedures and restrictions will be according to MAJCOM directives.

Table 3-1. Crew Complement.
Basic Augmented
C-20 C-135 CT-43 C-21 C-12 UH-1 C-135
AC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
First pilot 1
Copilot 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Navigator1 1 2
Flight engineer or mechanic 15 1 1 2
Communications systems operators2 1 1 2
IPSS3 1 2 3 34
1. Not required for local training missions, nor for missions over category II routes (unless weather conditions dictate).
2. Not required for local training missions. Required only for missions needing special communication equipment capability. When required, minimum complement is one first qualified communications systems operator.
3. Required only for designated passenger missions. MEGPs alone do not require an IPSS.
4. One may be noncurrent or unqualified (in upgrade training or requalification) if under the supervision of an instructor or flight examiner.
5. Not required for local training flights if a qualified observer is aboard.

Table 3-2. Crew Duty Time (CDT) Limitations.
Mission Basic Crew Augmented Crew
OSA C-21 missions 124
Other OSA missions 161 24
HQ USAF/CVAM directed mission 182 242
Local training mission and FCFs 12 NA
Operational training mission 143 NA
UH-1 missions and locals 12 NA
NOTES: The maximum crew duty day authorized for aircraft without an operable autopilot will be 12 hours for a basic crew and 16 hours for a pilot-augmented crew.
1. C-12: Limit CDT to 14 hours for missions with more than 6 sorties, standby alert launches, or operational training missions.
2. CVAM may approve 27-hour augmented crew days, as required. (Not applicable to C-12 or C-21.)
3. Multiple approaches or landings and simulated emergencies will not be performed on training missions after 12 hours of CDT.
4. The C-21 maximum crew duty day for all types of missions is 12 hours, waiverable by operations group commanders to 14 hours. MAJCOM DOs are waiver authority for extending crew duty day beyond these limitations.
Chapter 4


4.1. Objectives. The ultimate objective of the logistics effort is to provide aircraft with operational equipment. However, redundant systems may allow safe and reliable operation with less than all equipment operational for certain mis-sions under specific circumstances. Acceptance by one AC to operate an aircraft with an inoperative item or system on a mission or mission segment does not commit that AC or a different AC to subsequent operations with the same discrepancies.

4.2. Policy:

4.2.1. ACs with maintenance difficulties away from home station (operational or training missions) will coordinate all requirements for supply and maintenance assistance through the controlling agency. In all cases, the AC will ensure the controlling agency is kept informed of the maintenance condition and mission-ready status of the aircraft.

4.2.2. If an aircraft has a safety-of-flight condition beyond the repair capability of an en route facility, a decision may be made to allow a one-time flight to a pre-selected facility capable of final repair. ACs will coordinate mission requirements, i.e. revised departure time, maintenance requirements, etc., through the controlling agency.

4.2.3. Flight engineers and flight mechanics supervise or perform aircraft maintenance (C-20 and CT-43 in compliance with contract logistics support (CLS) agreement) as required to maintain aircraft in a mission-capable condition.

4.3. Minimum Equipment:

4.3.1. Aircraft Recorder Procedures. Both the flight or crash data recorder (FDR or CDR) and the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) should be operative prior to mission departure. It is the responsibility of the aircrew to check the status of this equipment prior to engine start according to flight manual procedures. If either the FDR or CDR or CVR fail en route, the aircraft may continue the flight or series of flights (i.e. mission) to a destination where repairs or replacement can be made. If involved in a mishap or incident after landing with the emergency terminated, open the CVR power circuit breaker.

4.3.2. Crash Position Indicators (CPI). If installed, CPIs must be operative for all flights except those remaining in the local area. If the CPI deploys inadvertently, notify the air traffic control (ATC) agency immediately. If the aircraft is scheduled to fly a local or is en route with no replacement airfoil available and the airplane is per-mitted to continue the mission, a locally manufactured airfoil will be installed over the mission CPI.

4.3.3. C-21 Go or No-Go Equipment List. Table 4-1 contains operational equipment and systems considered essential for safe flight. Unless otherwise specified, restrictions apply at home and en route stations. "En route" applys to locations where contract maintenance is not available. When AC considers an item not covered by this list essential, that item will be treated as if it is included in the table. Listing does not include all of the minimum essential sub-sytems list (MESL) required by the maintenance contractor. Go or no-go items are required for all C-21 operations:

Table 4-1. Operational Equipment and Systems.
Equipment and System

Pitch trim systems

Both yaw damper systems
Both stall warning systems
Both control-wheel master switches fully operational
Spoiler and spoileron Can operate below 25,000 feet; must comply with abnormal procedures
Known flight control malfunctions
All fuel system components (except fuel counter) Fuselage transfer or fill pump and valves not required on local missions with no fuel in fuselage
Engine hydraulic pumps
Auxillary hydraulic pump
Hydraulic pressure gage
All ice and rain protection Can operate in areas without known or forecast icing
Ice detection lights OK in daytime
Anti-skid system

Table 4-1. (Continued)
Nose-wheel steering
All pressurization components
Anti-collision and strobe lights If 1 inoperative, comply with AFI 11-206
Landing and taxi lights OK in daytime, en route OK if 1 inoperative nighttime
Position lights OK in daytime
Minimum communication radios required for flight
Flight data recorder En route OK
CVR En route OK
All electrical generators and batteries
All attitude gyros 2 or 3 attitude gyros must be working to continue en route
Weather radar Can operate in areas without known or forecast thunderstorms
Transponder Locals OK according to AFI 11-206
NAVAIDs appropriate for flight En route OK if 1 inoperative
Magnetic compass
Emergency air system
Fuel computer
RPM N1 and N2 (fan and turbine speeds) En route OK with either analog or digital readout
ITT (inlet turbine temperature) En route OK with either analog or digital readout
Oil pressure and temperature
Crew oxygen system
NOTE: MAJCOMs will establish waiver authority for operating without an item in this table.

Chapter 5


5.1. Checklists. Accomplish all checklists with strict discipline. Insert only current, approved checklist guides. The operations group standardization-evaluation section (DOV) is the approving authority. Normally, the pilot taxiing will not read the checklist.

5.2. Control. A qualified pilot will be in control of the aircraft at all times during flight. All required crewmembers, except inflight passenger specialists, will normally be in their seats at all times, except while at cruise altitude.

5.3. Flight Station Entry. Procedures and restrictions will be according to MAJCOM directives.

5.4. Takeoff and Landing Policy (not applicable for UH-1). The pilot in command will occupy either the left or right seat during all takeoffs and landings, and after thoroughly evaluating all conditions, determine who accomplishes the takeoff and landing.

5.4.1. Newly upgraded ACs may allow other pilots to takeoff and land after thoroughly evaluating all conditions.

5.4.2. Multiple approaches and landings are not authorized on airlift missions.

5.4.3. A qualified AC will:

Accomplish all engine out approaches and landings.
Accomplish category II ILS approaches.

5.4.4. Copilot Takeoff and Landing Policy (not applicable for UH-1). Instructor and flight evaluator pilots may allow copilots to takeoff and land from either seat.

5.5. Cockpit Coordination:

5.5.1. C-12 Cockpit Coordination: The landing gear will normally be operated by the pilot in the left seat. Actuate landing gear on command of the pilot flying the aircraft and acknowledgment by the other pilot. The flaps will normally be operated by the pilot not flying the aircraft. Actuate flaps on command of the pilot flying the aircraft, acknowledge the command setting, and visually confirm the flap gauge indicates the desired setting. Instructors may operate flaps as required. Propeller levers are normally operated by the pilot not flying aircraft. On command of the pilot flying aircraft, the other pilot will select the desired propeller setting. Pilots may elect to operate their own propeller levers as situation warrants. In all cases, propeller lever commands and settings will be verified by both pilots.

5.5.2. C-21 Cockpit Coordination: The landing gear normally will be operated by the pilot in the right seat. Actuate the landing gear upon command of the pilot flying the aircraft and acknowledgment by the other pilot. The flaps will normally be operated by the pilot not flying the aircraft. Actuate the flaps upon command of the pilot flying the aircraft, acknowledge the flap setting commanded, and visually confirm the flap gauge indicates the desired setting. Instructors may operate the flaps as required.

5.5.3. Right-Seat Procedures (not applicable for C-12, C-21, and UH-1). Use when active pilot is in right seat. Gear and flap operation, including go-arounds, will be commanded and activated by the right seat pilot. The left-seat pilot will acknowledge the command prior to system activation. The right-seat pilot will call for the appropriate checklist. The FE or FM (or other pilot if applicable) will read it. The right-seat pilot will respond to items that require both pilots' replies, e.g. "gear down." (IPs may perform their own checklists.)

5.6. Outside Observer. Use an observer when available to aid in outside watch during taxi operations and inflight during arrivals and departures when below 10,000 feet (FL 100).

5.7.Seat Belts:

5.7.1. All occupants will have a designated seat with a seat belt. The AC directs use of seat belts.

5.7.2. Crewmembers occupying a primary crew position seat will have seat belts fastened at all times.

5.7.3. All crewmembers will be seated with seat belts and shoulder harnesses fastened during taxi, takeoff, and landing unless circumstances dictate otherwise. Personnel performing flight examiner or instructor duties need not use seat belts and shoulder harnesses during ground or flight operations unless they occupy a crew station.

5.7.4. On the UH-1, a seat belt, or authorized restraint harness, will be worn by all occupants in the cabin compartment during flight when doors are open. Crewmembers may perform duties that require them to be unrestrained for short periods of time provided the doors are closed. The AC may direct crewmembers to perform duties that require the use of an approved restraint harness in lieu of a seat and seat belt when mission requirements dictate (e.g. photography, etc.). At least one pilot will have seat belt and harness fastened when rotors are engaged.

5.8. Aircraft Lighting. Procedures and restrictions will be according to AFI 11-206, General Flight Rules; AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operation and Movement on the Ground; and the aircraft flight manual.

5.9. Portable Electronic Devices. Procedures and restrictions will be according to AFI 11-206.

5.9.1. Approved electronic devices will only be used in cruise flight, above 10,000 feet. If the aircrew detects any interference from an electronic device used aboard the aircraft, then the use of this device will be discontinued for the duration of flight.

5.9.2. Non-transmitting battery operated, hand-held pocket-sized tape recorders, laptop computers, dictaphones and radio receivers may be used.

5.9.3. Cellular telephone use is prohibited by the Federal Communications Commission Report # CL-142.

5.10. Smoking Restriction. Smoking is not authorized.

5.11. Advisory Calls:

5.11.1. Mandatory altitude calls for the pilot not flying the aircraft: Nonprecision Approaches:

100 feet above minimum descent altitude (MDA).
"Minimums" at MDA.
"Runway in sight." Call when the runway environment is in sight.
"Go-around." Call at missed approach point if the runway environment is not in sight. Precision Approaches:

100 feet above decision height (DH).
"Land." Call at decision height if the runway environment is in sight and the aircraft is in a position for a safe landing.
"Go-around." Call at decision height if the runway environment is not in sight or if the aircraft is not in a position for a safe landing. Category II ILS: 100 feet above DH. "Land." Call at DH if the following are met:

Landing environment is in sight.
Airspeed is plus or minus 5 knots of the final approach speed.
Localizer or glide slope deviations do not exceed one-half dot deviation on the GSI or CDI.
The aircraft track will remain within the lateral confines of the runway extended. "Go-around." Call at DH if any of the tolerances above are exceeded or if the aircraft is not stabilized, with reference to glide slope, localizer, altitude, or airspeed. Climb Out: Transition altitude 1,000 feet below assigned altitude Descent:

Transition level
1,000 feet above assigned altitude
1,000 feet above initial approach fix altitude or holding altitude
100 feet above procedure turn and final approach fix altitude

5.11.2. Crewmembers will announce when heading or airspeed deviations are observed, or an altitude variation of 100 feet or more.

5.11.3. UH-1 mandatory altitude calls for the pilot not flying the aircraft during initial night VFR descents will be:

1,000 feet above intended altitude
100 feet above intended altitude
Intended altitude

5.12. Communications Policy:

5.12.1. Aircraft Interphone: Do not discuss classified information on interphone. During takeoff, if a condition arises before GO (V1, S1) speed is reached which would make the takeoff unsafe, the crewmember observing the condition will state "ABORT" and the takeoff will be discontinued. Pilots will periodically announce their intentions when flying departures, arrivals, and approaches. All crewmembers will notify the AC prior to going off interphone.

5.12.2. Command Radios: The pilot not flying the aircraft normally makes all radio calls. In terminal areas, the pilot and copilot, navigator and flight engineer or mechanic (if applicable), and crewmembers at ACM stations will monitor the primary command radio unless directed to do otherwise. The pilot operating command radios tells the crew which radio is primary. Monitor guard frequency. One pilot will record and read back all ATC clearances.

5.13. Transportation of Pets. Transporting pets (birds, fish, mammals, reptiles, etc.) is prohibited unless approved by a service chief of staff according to DoDR 4515.13, Air Transportation Eligibility.

5.14. Alcoholic Beverages. Controlling agencies will inform crewmembers when alcoholic beverages are authorized.

5.15. Airfield Requirements. Comply with the weather and runway limits listed below.

5.15.1. Wind Restrictions. Airfields will be considered below minimums for takeoff and landing when winds (including gusts) are greater than established below. Fixed Wing:

Maximum operating wind--50 knots
Maximum tailwind component--10 knots.
Crosswinds--Maximum takeoff and landing crosswind component for a dry runway (runway condition reading [RCR] 23) is 25 knots (C-12/21) or 30 knots (C-20, CT-43, C-135). Maximum takeoff and landing crosswind components, corrected for RCR, are shown in tables 5-1 and 5-2. UH-1:

Training Mission:
30 knots steady state or 20 knots gust spread
40 knots steady state or 20 knots gust spread when an instructor pilot is in command
Operational and Support Missions. According to the flight manual.

5.15.2. RCR and RSC Limitations. Use RCR values as prescribed by the aircraft flight manual. If the aircraft flight manual does not specify RCR values, use RCR 12 for wet runways and RCR 6 for icy runways. Conversions from other braking action standards to RCR should be according to applicable DoD FLIP documents. C-20. Maximum takeoff and landing crosswind components, versus RCR, are shown in table 5-1.

Table 5-1. C-20 Takeoff and Landing Crosswind Components.
RCR Values 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 and above*
Crosswind Component for Takeoff and Landing 0 2 5 7 10 12 15 17 20 22 C-135 and CT-43 aircraft will use RCR versus maximum allowable crosswind component values depicted in the applicable performance manual, except in no case will the maximum crosswind component exceed 30 knots. C-12 and C-21. RCR 6 is the minimum, regardless of wind conditions. (See table 5-2.)

Table 5-2. C-12 and C-21 Takeoff and Landing Crosswind Components.
RCR VALUES 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 and above
Crosswind Component for Takeoff and Landing 10 12 15 17 20 22 25 For operation on wet, ungrooved runways, use RCR designated as "wet" in the aircraft flight manual for all takeoff and landing data. For operations on grooved runways, use the reported RCR. When RCR and RSC reporting is not available, flight crews are to consider a runway surface as wet when there is sufficient water on the surface to cause a reflective glare, or when rain is falling. Do not use runways with a reported RCR lower than the lowest RCR correction contained in the flight manual.

5.15.3. Runway and Minimum Taxi Width Requirements (not applicable for UH-1): Minimum Runway Length. Do not use runways shorter than specified in table 5-3. If operationally necessary, C-12 and C-21 aircraft may use shorter runways provided:

A qualified instructor or flight examiner makes the takeoff or landing. (MPs require applicable operations group commander waiver.)
Operations are limited to daytime. (The applicable operations group commander is waiver authority.)
Takeoff distance does not exceed or landing distance is less than theparagraph requirements.
For C-21. Runway available will not be less than 4,500 feet.
For 517 AS site-qualified pilots, minimum runway length for takeoff is computed takeoff distance (including climb to 50 feet) plus 500 feet. Site-qualified pilots must be instructor-qualified or highly experienced ACs and approved by 517 AS commander. Runway Length for Takeoff:

Do not attempt takeoff if runway available is less than critical field length, takeoff distance, or accelerate stop distance adjusted for RCR, whichever applies.
C-12s do not attempt takeoff if runway available is less than accelerate-stop distance (computed without reverse). Use of stopways and overruns in determining runway available is authorized.
NOTE: When flying a civil SID, runway available must equal accelerate-go or accelerate-stop, whichever is greater to comply with climbout gradient.
For 517 AS site-qualified pilots, minimum landing distance will be computed ground roll plus 500 feet. Plan to land in the first 500 feet of usable runway. Site-qualified pilots must be instructor-qualified or highly experienced ACs and approved by 517 AS commander. Runway Length for Landing. The minimum required runway for landing, corrected for RCR in accordance with the flight manual. Compute landing distance with no reverse thrust.

exception: When operationally necessary and reported RVR (VIS) is equal to or greater than 40 (3/4 mile), landing distance for C-135 aircraft with operational four-engine reverse capability may be computed with 2-engine reverse. Minimum Taxiway Width. 49 feet and 15 meters for C-135 and CT-43 operations.

Table 5-3. Minimum Runway Lengths.
Aircraft Minimum Runway (Feet/Meters)
C-20 5,000/1,525
C-135 7,000/2,135
CT-43 5,000/1,525 (for touch-and-go: 7,000/2,135)
C-21 5,000/1,525 (for touch-and-go: 6,000/1,830)
C-12C 4,000/1,220 (for touch-and-go: 5,000/1,525)
C-12F 4,500/1,373 (for touch-and-go: 6,000/1,830)
NOTE: Lengths consider dry surfaces only.
exception: 45 AS assigned C-12 and C-21 instructor-pilots may use 5,000 for touch-and-go landings.
517 AS-assigned C-12s will adhere to 4,500 feet minimum except at austere landing airfields where paragraphs, bullet 5, and, bullet 3, apply.

5.16. Aircraft Taxi Obstruction Clearance Criteria. Comply with AFI 11-218. When taxi clearance is doubtful, use a wing walker or stop. Deplane a crewmember if required.

5.17. Illumination Requirements for Helicopter Landing Areas. Helicopters on essential operational or support missions may be authorized by the unit commander to operate into and from unlighted areas provided all available illumination is used. On all other missions, operations into remote restricted areas between official sunset and official sunrise will be made only if one of the following conditions can be met:

5.17.1. The area is outlined by discernible lights.

5.17.2. The pilot can clearly see the approach path and landing surface (as would be possible immediately after official sunset or before sunrise).

5.18. Reverse Taxi (C-12 only). The aircraft may be backed, using reverse, when no other means of moving the aircraft is available. This procedure will not be used at any time for the purpose of preventing delays when towing equipment is available or when other aircraft or equipment can be moved to provide adequate taxi clearance. Pilots should exercise extreme caution during reverse taxi operation due to the inherent hazards. Ensure a marshaller is present for all reverse taxi operations.

5.19. Aircraft Recovery From Unprepared Surfaces. Aircrews should not normally attempt to recover an aircraft after inadvertent entry onto soft, unprepared surfaces which are not suitable for taxi.

5.20. Engines Running Offload and Onload (ERO) Procedures. An ERO may be made if it will not cause a deviation in scheduled itinerary of more than 30 minutes and all passengers are available. Controlling agency approval is required for deviations greater than 30 minutes.

5.21. Rotor Turning Onload and Offload Procedures (UH-1). The following procedures will be employed when rotors are turning:

5.21.1. Throttles will normally be set at flight idle.

5.21.2. Passengers will be briefed by the aircraft commander or designated representative on procedures to be followed.

5.21.3. One crewmember will escort passengers through the safe approach zone when onloading or offloading the aircraft.

5.22. UH-1 Altitude Restrictions:

5.22.1. Conduct all operations at or above 500 feet above ground level (AGL) according to AFI 11-206 except when lower altitudes are required for takeoff, landing, and operational missions.

5.22.2. Minimum en route altitude during night navigation, both operationally and for training, is 500 feet above the highest obstacle within 5 NMs.

5.23. Functional Check Flights (FCF). FCF and acceptance flights will be flown according to TO 1-1-300, the applicable -6 TO and local procedures.

Chapter 6


Section A--Premission

6.1. Aircrew Uniform:

6.1.1. Wear the aircrew uniform, as outlined in AFI 36-2903, Dress and Personal Appearance of Air Force Personnel, on all missions, unless otherwise authorized. When the Foreign Clearance Guide requires civilian attire, wear conservatively styled civilian clothing.

6.1.2. Each wing commander will determine clothing and equipment to be worn or carried aboard all flights commensurate with mission, climate and terrain involved.

6.1.3. Personnel will have in their possession the appropriate items of clothing when flying in Arctic and Antarctic regions. exception: Not applicable to trans-oceanic flights or when staging or transiting Elmendorf.

6.2. Personal Requirements. Crewmembers will carry and comply with the following:

Passports (not applicable for UH-1). Carry a valid passport when required. A crewmember who has applied for a passport, or submitted one for renewal, may be used providing the planned mission does not transit countries that require possession of a passport. The AC is responsible for ensuring passports (with applicable visas) are included in the mission kit.
Shot Record (not applicable for UH-1). Ensure immunizations are current for the mission duration. Carry shot records when required.
Finger Rings or Jewelry. Do not wear finger rings or other loose fitting jewelry while in, on, or around aircraft.
Identification (ID) Tags. Individuals will wear (or have in their possession) ID tags when performing duties as an aircrew member. Do not wear ID tags while working on electrical systems.
Wearing Corrective Lenses. Comply with AFI 11-206.
Helmets (UH-1). Helmets are required for all flights in the UH-1.
UH-1 Tool Kits. One flight engineer tool kit will be on board for all missions. Tool kits will be stored inside the navigation kit. Contents of tool kits will be determined by the section superintendent. Annual inventories will be the responsibility of the superintendent.
All aircrew members will have Nomex gloves in their possession.
Wearing Nomex gloves is highly recommended for all primary aircrew members during engine start, taxi, takeoff, and landing.

6.3. Mission Planning. The AC is responsible for all mission planning, foreign clearance requirements, and coordination of all support requirements.

6.4. Aircrew Publications Requirements. Primary crewmembers will ensure the applicable publications specified in table 6-1 are carried on all missions. Units determine if publications may be stored on aircraft.

Table 6-1. Aircrew Publications Requirements.
Publication AC NAV 1FE/FM 1CS 1IPSS
Aircraft Flight Manual X X
Aircraft Performance Manual X X
Abbreviated Checklist X X X X X
AFI 11-206 X
MCI 11-221 X X X X X
AMCP 55-17** X*
NOTE: **Per PACAF request, however, AMCP 55-17 has been rescinded. *Only applies to C-135 FEs.

Section B--Predeparture

6.5. Authentication and Classified Documents. Obtain and safeguard authentication and operational code documents. These documents are required for flights into an Air Defense identification zone (ADIZ), when specified by operations plans or theater directives, or when directed by the unit commander.

6.6. Aircrew Intelligence Briefing. This paragraph and MAJCOM directives (C/NOFORN) apply to overseas missions only. The controlling agency, AC, unit commander, and unit intelligence personnel are jointly responsible to ensure that aircrew receive intelligence information as necessary. ACs will be advised (mission directive, CCC, etc.) when formal intelligence briefings or debriefings are required. As a minimum, if not formally briefed, review the intelligence read file.

6.7. Flight Crew Information File (FCIF). Comply with AFI 11-401 and appropriate MAJCOM directives.

6.8 and 6.9. Not used

6.10. Mission Kits. Mission kits will be used on all missions. Flying unit commanders will ensure the kit contents contain all forms and publications necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of the mission.

6.11. Route Navigation Kits. Route navigation kits will be used on all missions. The AC and navigator, if applicable, are jointly responsible for currency and contents of route navigation kits. Kit contents are determined by the appropriate operations group commander.
1. Navigation sight reduction tables (HO 249, volumes I, II, and III) and the Air Almanac will be maintained on C-135 aircraft at all times.
2. UH-1 crews will annotate the current amendment low flying (CALF) edition on their maps.

6.12. Briefing Requirements:

6.12.1. Aircraft Commander Briefing. Before departing home station, the AC will brief crewmembers using approved briefing guides.

6.12.2. Predeparture Briefing. Contact the controlling agency prior to flight planning to confirm mission requirements.

6.12.3. Weather Briefings. Obtain current weather, trends, and forecast for the proposed route, destination, and alternates. Comply with AFI 11-206.

6.12.4. Buffer Zone. Prior to operating aircraft within or adjacent to an established buffer zone, ensure crewmembers are briefed on current buffer zone procedures outlined in appropriate directives.

6.12.5. Wartime SAFE PASSAGE Procedures. All pilots must be familiar with wartime safe passage of friendly military aircraft procedures in NORAD Regulation 55-67. On implementation of safe passage procedures, get specific procedural information for operations in the NORAD area from C2 prior to entry into such area.

6.13. Aircraft Call Signs:

6.13.1. Airlift Missions. Mission call signs are designated by the controlling agency using unit call signs. For RON missions, call signs may change for the following day's mission. After RON, confirm mission call sign with the con-trolling agency. Personal distinguished visitor (DV) call signs are to be used only on the leg transporting that DV. Some countries may require using diplomatic clearance in lieu of standard call signs while operating in their airspace.

6.13.2. Aeromedical Evacuation Missions. For aeromedical evacuation missions, use call sign "E" followed by the 5-digit aircraft tail number or mission designator (as required by FLIP). Use this call sign during positioning leg and evac portion of the mission. Use unit call sign for depositioning.

6.13.3. Training Missions. Use assigned unit call signs.

6.14. Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Comply with AFI 11-206.

6.15. Flight Plan Verification. The aircrew will verify proposed routes and flight altitudes or levels, provide proper terrain clearance (AFI 11-206), and agree with the computer flight plan (CFP), FLIP requirements and charts, notices to airmen (NOTAM), FCG, organized tracks and the approved diplomatic clearances.

6.15.1. On flights requiring a navigator, use the navigation forms prescribed in chapter 11 in lieu of AF Form 70, Pilot's Flight Plan and Flight Log.

6.15.2. On flights without a navigator, computer flight plans and AMC Form 488, Pilot's INS Flight Plan and Log, or other approved MAJCOM forms, may be used in lieu of AF Form 70.

6.15.3. Other navigation forms may be utilized in lieu of AF Form 70 if approved by headquarters standardization.

6.16. Departure Planning(not applicable for UH-1). Use instrument departure procedures to maximum possible extent. If departure at night or in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), request radar monitoring, if available.

6.16.1. Gross Weights. Limit aircraft to gross weight, zero fuel weight, and center of gravity according to aircraft flight manual. Flight safety may also require additional restrictions due to operating conditions, such as turbu-lence, icing, temperature, altitude, runway length, runway weight bearing capacity, and obstacles in the flight path. Limit maximum takeoff gross weight so that in the event of an engine failure after decision speed takeoff can be continued and aircraft will be able to make minimum climb gradient of at least 2 percent for CT-43, at least 2.4 percent for C-12, C-20, and C-21, and at least 2.8 percent at recommended TRT, MAX mode, 3-engine climb speed for C-135.

6.16.2. Obstacle Clearance. Aircraft must be capable of clearing all obstacles in climb-out flight path in the event of engine failure after decision speed. Use flight manual performance data to determine maximum takeoff gross weight limited by obstacle clearance. Criteria for obstacle clearance is always based on one engine inoperative, and does not require any specified clearance above obstacles. Just be able to clear them. If you are unable to limit gross weight sufficiently and the mission requires, ACs may use a see-and-avoid concept of obstacle clearance at their discretion. The pilot must know the location of the obstacles to be avoided, and there must be at least 3 miles' flight visibility until aircraft is past or above obstacles. If departure maneuvering is required, coordinate in advance with ATC.

6.16.3. Comply with AFMAN 11-217, Instrument Flying and AFI 11-206 for airfield or NAVAID capability, SIDs, and IFR departure procedures.

6.17. Alternate Planning. Comply with AFI 11-206.

6.18. Takeoff Minimums and Departure Alternates. See table 6-2 for fixed-wing operations. For UH-1 operations, AFI 11-206 and the following guidance apply:

6.18.1. VFR Minimums. The following minimum weather criteria, ceiling, and visibility applies during all VFR training operations (unless higher is specified elsewhere): VFR Training Minimums:

Day training--700-foot ceiling and 1 statute mile (1,600 meters)
Night training--1,000-foot ceiling and 2 statute mile (3,200 meters) VFR Operational Mission Minimums:

Day--700-foot ceiling and 1 statute mile (1,600 meters)
Night--700-foot ceiling and 2 statute miles (3,200 meters)

6.18.2. IFR Takeoff Minimums: Training flight weather will be equal to or higher than published approach minimums (ceiling and visibility), but no less than one-half mile (RVR 2400) at the departure airfield (unless higher is specified elsewhere). Operational Mission:

Weather at the departure airfield must be equal to or higher than ceiling and visibility minimums required for appropriate aircraft category for an available approach if takeoff is made without departure alternate.
Takeoff with a departure alternate requires weather conditions equal to or above 1/2 the visibility minimums required for the appropriate aircraft category, but no less than 1/4 mile (1200 RVR) for an available approach at the departure airfield. Select the departure alternate using the following criteria:
Weather en route to the alternate must permit flight within aircraft limitations. The aircraft must be capable of maintaining minimum en route altitudes (MEA or MOCA, whichever is higher) to the alternate if an engine fails.
The departure alternate prevailing weather must be equal to or better than the lowest published approach ceiling and visibility minimum (no lower than 1200 RVR) and forecast to remain so for one hour after takeoff. NOTE: When a copter-only approach is used, published visibility is required.

Table 6-2. Takeoff Minimums and Departure Alternate Requirements.
Takeoff minimums based on departure weather: A departure alternate weather is:
At or above authorized ceiling and visibility Not required
landing minimums for approach in use.

Below published approach minimums, but RVR Existing weather at an alternate within 30 minutes flying time will be is 16 or greater ( 1/4 mile or greater). (See Note 1.) equal to or better than the published approach minimums and forecast to
remain so until 1 hour after takeoff, but in no case forecast to be lower
than 200 foot ceiling/RVR 24 (visibility 1/2 mile).
or or
Below published approach minimums, but RVR Existing weather at an alternate within 1-hour flying time must be at
is 12 or greater at the approach end and 10 or least 500-1 above lowest compatible published approach minimums,
greater at the departure end, and runway center- but in no case lower than 600-2 for a precision approach, or 800-2 for
line lighting is operational. (See notes 1, 2, 4.) a nonprecision approach, and forecast to remain so until 1 hour after
ETA at the alternate.
1. If an engine fails, the aircraft must be able to climb to and maintain MEA or MOCA if published on an airway or route or the minimum altitude as established in AFI 11-206.
2. Must have centerline lighting and dual RVR display slave readouts for both approach and departure ends of the runway. If a middle RVR display is installed and operational, corresponding required RVR is that of departure end.
3. For runways that provide triple RVR slave readouts, takeoff may be performed using 2 consecutive RVR displays equal to or greater than the minimum required provided runway available between 2 RVR instruments is equal to or greater than basic runway requirements.
4. For C-20, CT-43, and C-135 on USAF/CVAM-directed mission and USAFE-scheduled mission in support of DV-4 or higher, use RVR 700/210M and 600/180M in lieu of RVR 1200/370M and 1000/300M. The AC must have 2,500 hours of total flying time and 200 in the aircraft. The copilot must be AC-qualified or have 2,500 hours total with 200 hours in type.

6.19. Destination Requirements(not applicable for UH-1). Destination alternate requirements will be according to AFI 11-206, except as follows:

6.19.1. File two alternates if forecast visibility, prevailing or intermittent, is less than published for an available approach or forecast surface winds, prevailing or intermittent, exceed limits when corrected for RCR, or when RCR is below operating minimums.

6.19.2. File an alternate when the destination is outside CONUS. If the destination is remote or an island, with no alternate available, use 1+15 holding fuel in lieu of an alternate. Intratheater flights outside CONUS, comply with AFI 11-206. Forecast weather at the remote or island destination must meet the following restrictions: The prevailing surface winds, considering RCR, must be within limits at ETA and remain so for 2 hours thereafter. The prevailing ceiling and visibility are equal to or greater than published minimums for an available nonprecision approach (excluding ASR) for ETA plus two hours or, if a precision approach is available, the ceiling or visibility may be temporarily or intermittently below nonprecision approach minimums (excluding ASR), but not below precision approach minimums.

6.20. Alternate Requirements. Comply with AFI 11-206 and paragraph 6.18 and 6.19 above.

6.21. Adverse Weather Planning. Plan all missions to avoid areas of forecast or known severe weather, including icing or severe turbulence. National Weather Service inflight weather advisories are not limiting to Air Force aircraft, but may indicate a need for the aircrew to contact an Air Force weather facility.

6.21.1. Avoid thunderstorms and cumulonimbus (CB) clouds using the following criteria: Climbout--En Route--Descent:

FL 230 and above: 20 NMs.
Below FL 230: 10 NMs (5 NMs for UH-1).
Avoid gust fronts and winds preceding a rapidly moving thunderstorm or CB cloud.
Do not fly directly above thunderstorm or CB clouds (within 2,000 feet).
Avoid the rain shaft and cloud base of thunderstorms and CB clouds by 10 NMs (5 NMs for UH-1).
Avoid thunderstorm and CB clouds visually by airborne radar or by specific request to a ground-based radar with a weather painting capability. When relying exclusively on ground-based radar for weather avoidance and the ground controller is unable to provide avoidance instructions, attempt to maintain VMC. Takeoff and Landing. Size and intensity of thunderstorm or CB clouds are variable. The AC must determine avoidance criteria to be used during takeoff or landing. Takeoff and landing may be made without regard to the criteria above, provided:

Thunderstorm or CB clouds and associated gust front can be avoided.
The distance from thunderstorm or CB clouds is increased as soon as possible after takeoff to meet the criteria in
A missed approach course from the missed approach point is available which will provide separation similar to that for departures.
Aircraft is not flown below thunderstorm, CB clouds, or through rain shaft associated with CB clouds. Lightning Avoidance. Most lightning strikes occur in or near convective activity, but the presence of thunderstorms in the immediate vicinity is not always a factor.

6.21.2. Icing. Operation is prohibited in forecast or reported areas of freezing rain or severe icing.

6.21.3. Turbulence. Operation is prohibited in forecast or reported areas of severe turbulence. Operations are prohibited in forecast or reported areas of moderate to severe mountain wave turbulence.

6.21.4. Volcanic Dust Precautions. See Airman's Information Manual. Plan all missions to avoid general vicinity of volcanic activity. Aircraft operation in area of forecast or known volcanic activity or dust is prohibited.

6.22. Fuel Planning. Use flight manual data for fuel planning. (C-135 aircraft use AMCP 55-17, C-135A/B Fuel Planning Manual [rescinded, but listed here per PACAF request].)

6.22.1. Cruise Speed. Plan fuel to overhead destination at normal cruise speed and Mach.

6.22.2. Required ramp fuel load (RRFL) and flight plan fuel load (FPFL) will be according to tables 6-3 and 6-4. Add extra fuel above RRFL only if required for mission accomplishment.

6.22.3. Fuel Conservation. Conserve fuel. Jettison fuel (if applicable) only in an emergency.

6.22.4. For UH-1, when visibility-only criterion is used for determining destination suitability, fuel requirements for descent, approach, and missed approach will be 250 pounds. Additionally, for all flights VFR or IFR, plan to arrive at destination with fuel reserve of 200 pounds. Initiate action to assure safe landing when the fuel low-level caution light illuminates.

Section C--Preflight

6.23. AFTO Form 781 Binder. Review AFTO 781-series forms before applying power to the aircraft or
operating aircraft systems. The exceptional release, if required, must be signed before flight. The maintenance officer, authorized contract personnel, or AC may sign the exceptional release.

6.24. Aircraft Servicing and Ground Operations:

6.24.1. Aircraft Refueling and Defueling. Qualified flight engineers or mechanics and crew chiefs as well as C-12 and C-21 pilots are authorized to refuel or defuel their aircraft. Comply with the appropriate aircraft technical orders and TO 00-25-172.

6.24.2. Concurrent Ground Operations. See TO 00-25-172 for authorization to perform concurrent ground operations. The following restrictions apply to aircraft authorized concurrent ground operations: Aircrew members are authorized to enplane or deplane during fuel servicing to perform mission essential duties. INS FSAS systems may remain energized and may be updated during refueling operations. Aircrew personnel are authorized to conduct "power off" portions of inspections during servicing when this is essential to meet operational turnaround requirements. (TO 00-25-172) Passengers may remain on-board aircraft during refueling, provided they are briefed on hazards of the operation and given the option to deplane prior to refueling. Standby fire truck is required. (TO 00-25-172.)

6.25. Dropped Object Prevention. During aircraft exterior visual inspections, pay particular attention to surfaces, panels, fuel caps, and other components which are potential dropped objects. If a dropped object is discovered, the flight crew will ensure the write-up is entered in AFTO Form 781A and notify the controlling agency as soon as practical to include route of flight, altitude, weather, etc.

6.26. Oxygen Requirements. Comply with AFI 11-206. The minimum aircraft oxygen quantity before takeoff must be sufficient to accomplish the planned flight or divert should oxygen be required.

6.27. Life Support Equipment Documentation:

6.27.1. The AC or designated representative will ensure sufficient quantities of appropriate serviceable life support or survival equipment and protective clothing for the mission are aboard the aircraft.

6.27.2. UH-1 aircrews and passengers will wear life preservers and carry life rafts on overwater flights when route of flight is beyond autorotational gliding distance of the shore. Flights of these types also require crewmembers to wear HEEDS. The above is not required for overwater flights immediately after takeoff or before landing.

6.27.3. If equipment is discovered missing at en route stops, ensure an entry is made in AFTO Form 781A. Contact local authorities, local C2, or airport management representatives, as appropriate. Aircraft will not be delayed for extensive searches for missing equipment. Also, shortages of life support equipment need not be replaced if not required to complete the mission.

6.27.4. Assist, as required, in preparing report of survey in accordance with appropriate Air Force instructions.

6.28. Passenger Handling and Cargo Documentation:

6.28.1. Passenger Handling. ACs of UH-1, C-12, and C-21 aircraft are responsible for required passenger handling duties. Passengers are limited to 30 pounds of baggage unless specific allowance for excess baggage is authorized and planned by the controlling agency. Passengers (duty and standby) with excess baggage may be transported after the AC determines that aircraft weight limitations and mission requirements are satisfied. Ensure passengers are manifested and the required antihijacking inspections are performed. When passenger service is not available, leave a passenger manifest with a responsible ground agency prior to takeoff.

6.28.1..3. After security and antihijacking inspection, passengers should be under the constant supervision of a passenger service representative or a crewmember. Ensure the security and antihijacking inspection is reaccomplished prior to boarding passengers when unable to provide constant supervision. Make every effort to enhance passenger comfort. Accomplish passenger briefings according to aircraft checklist or approved briefing guides. Use of seat belts, shoulder harnesses, and emergency equipment will be briefed or demonstrated as required. Additionally, passengers should be notified prior to takeoffs and landings to ensure seat belts and harnesses are fastened, loose articles stowed, seat backs upright, etc. Ensure the highest ranking DV is afforded the seat of preference, and other passengers are aware of DV status of passengers. Release space available seats to the maximum extent possible, unless restriced by the controlling agency. Child or infant safety seats or restraints for use in aircraft: Acceptable child or infant safety seats. The following child or infant safety seats are considered acceptable for use in all phases of air transportation:

Any child or infant safety seats manufactured between 1 Jan 81 and 26 Feb 85, which have a label stating: "This child restraint system conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards."
Seats and restraints manufactured after 26 Feb 85 must have an additional label printed in red stating: "This restraint is certified for use in motor vehicles and aircraft."
No other seat or restraint is authorized. Use of child and infant safety seats and restraints:

Acceptable child and infant safety seats or restraints may be used for takeoff, landing, or during an emergency in forward or aft facing seats only.
If a passenger seat is not available for an infant less than 2 years old, the infant should be taken out of the child or infant seat or restraint and held in the adult's lap. Normally, passengers with infants will be manifested so each person has a seat. In-lap seating is authorized in unusual or abnormal circumstances; however, each person must have an emergency oxygen mask available. Passenger Restrictions. On missions directed by the Special Air Missions Office, USAF/CVAM, consult the controlling agency prior to releasing seats on nonrevenue, revenue, or White House missions. This includes positioning and depositioning legs.

6.28.2. Cargo Documentation. OSA Aircraft do not normally carry cargo. If cargo other than passenger bags are carried, proper cargo documentation must accompany each cargo load. A cargo manifest is required prior to all departures with cargo, unless one is not available because of a lack of, or failure of, the manifest processing equipment. In this case, a cargo listing or a punch card deck will accompany the load. The C-135 Load Planning Worksheet is not a manifest. Cargo or mail listing may be an abbreviated manifest, but will contain all required MILSTAMP data and 463L pallet information for weight and balance purposes. Special handling documents (DD Form 1387-2, Special Handling Data Certification; DD Form 1252, US Customs Declaration for Personal Property Shipments; AF Form 127, Traffic Transfer Receipt) are required for special handling cargo.

6.29. Hazardous Material Procedures:

6.29.1. Hazardous material will not normally be carried without an operations group commander or equivalent waiver. Small arms ammunition in quantities less than 11 pounds may be carried within a passenger's checked baggage provided they are in the manufacturer's original package or securely boxed (49 Code of Federal Regulations, paragraph 175.1). This excludes asmmunition with explosive or incendiary projectiles. Prohibited items are cryogenic liquids, poisonous liquids or gases, and toxic materials. These items will not be carried.

6.29.2. Hazardous material will be handled in strict compliance with AFMAN 24-204 , Preparing Hazardous Material for Military Air Shipment, and AFJI 11-204, Operational Procedures for Aircraft Carrying Hazardous Materials. The term "hazardous material" (AFJI 11-204) includes any material that, because of its quantity, properties, or packaging, may endanger human life or property.

1. Aircraft may carry approved medical support equipment and supplies when performing aeromedical evacuation missions.
2. High pressure spheres and canisters are authorized in support of the USs Air Force and DoD Atmosphere Research Program.
3. Equipment containing lithium batteries or batteries themselves may be transported as required to support special mission needs.
4. Aircraft batteries may be carried when required for maintenance support or mobility requirements.
5. HAMMER ACE personnel and equipment, including lithium batteries, may be carried when properly packaged and loaded. When transporting HAMMER ACE, no other passengers are authorized. Aircraft consumables, i.e. icing inhibitors, oil, etc., are aircraft supplies and may be carried.

6.30. Handling Classified Cargo, Registered Mail, and Courier Material. Use the cargo manifest to acknowledge receipt for classified cargo and registered mail at on and offload stations:

6.30.1. Defense Courier Service (DCS) couriers are authorized to designate officer crewmembers on military aircraft as couriers to escort and safeguard courier material when other qualified personnel are not available. Qualified passengers will be designated prior to designating crewmembers. It is the basic responsibility of aircrew members to support this program. If aircrew members are selected, the following restrictions apply: Neither the AC nor copilot will be designated without consent of the AC. Crewmembers on aircraft scheduled to make an extended en route stop at a location where DCS couriers cannot provide en route support will not be designated as couriers. This does not relieve the AC of the responsibility for life and death urgent shipments.

6.30.2. During stops at en route locations supported by DCS stations, DCS couriers are required to meet designated couriers and guard and protect the material so that crewmembers can perform their primary duty or use their ground time as authorized by the AC.

6.30.3. During unscheduled en route stops, crewmembers may place courier material in temporary custody of the following in descending order of priority:

DCS courier
TOP SECRET control officer of the United States armed forces
United States Department of State diplomatic courier
United States Department of State activity
United States military guards
United States DoD civilian guards

6.30.4. If unable to follow the itinerary to the destination of the courier material or material is lost, stolen, or otherwise compromised, report circumstances to the nearest DCS station and notify the local United States military commander or United States Government activity.

Section D--Departure

6.31. Takeoffs:

6.31.1. Takeoff and Landing Data (TOLD) Cards. Complete the TOLD card according to the aircraft flight manual. Set airspeed reminder "bugs" if applicable.

6.31.2. Departure Briefing. The pilot performing takeoff or departure will brief the crew according to aircraft flight manual or approved briefing guide.

6.31.3. On-Time Takeoffs: Departures are on time when airborne within 0.3 hours before to 0.2 hours after scheduled takeoff.

Home station delay occurs when scheduled takeoff time is exceeded by 0.2 hours.
En route delay occurs when the later of authorized ground time or scheduled takeoff time is exceeded by 0.2 hours. Early en route departures are authorized if all passengers are available.

6.32. Takeoff Minimums. See table 6-2.

Section E--En Route

6.33. Flight Progress. The pilot not flying the aircraft and, if applicable, the navigator will monitor the departure and report any deviations from the planned departure. The pilot flying the aircraft will announce intentions periodically throughout the departure.

6.33.1. Use all available NAVAIDs to monitor INS/doppler/UNS/GNS navigation system performance. Obtain a coast-out fix prior to the overwater portion of any mission leg. Use all available NAVAIDs to confirm your position prior to ADIZ penetration within sufficient time to maneuver the aircraft to meet tolerances. When the aircraft is operated at an altitude where terrain clearance is a factor, use all available NAVAIDs to maintain positive fixing of aircraft position relative to the intended flight path.

6.33.2. Maintain a fuel management log for any category I route mission when the flight time between suitable en route airfields within 50 NMs of flight plan course exceeds 5 hours.

6.33.3. The pilot in control of the aircraft will review the fuel management log after each entry to confirm mission progress.

6.33.4. Update CFP, AF Form 70, Pilot's Flight Plan and Flight Log, or AMC Form 488, INS Flight Plan and Log, or approved MAJCOM form at selected points on the route.

6.33.5. Oceanic planning charts (OPC) will be used on all transoceanic flights.

6.34. NAVAID Capability:

6.34.1. North Atlantic route minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) and Hawaii-Mainland United States composite route navigation standards: MNPS standards of FLIP AP/2 and the Hawaii-Mainland United States composite route navigation standards of the FLIP IFR en route supplement (Pacific, Australia, and Antarctica) are mandatory. C-135 aircraft that lose one INS prior to airspace entry may continue. Aircraft that lose all INS capability prior to designated airspace entry may continue if the crew refiles outside MNPS airspace or outside the Hawaii-Mainland United States composite route structure.

6.34.2. North Pacific Region. Westbound aircraft on the NOPAC North route that lose radar capability at any point may continue when one INS is inoperative providing INS accuracy can be monitored and radar is not required for weather avoidance. If INS accuracy cannot be determined, refile a route on another track, fuel permitting, or return to the nearest facility with radar maintenance.

6.34.3. C-12 and C-21 Aircraft. Long-range navigation systems must be operable for all category I routes unless positive course guidance is provided for the entire route. If the long range system is required, both pilots need to check position, time accuracy, and waypoint coordinates.

6.35. Intelligence Reports. Report all vital intelligence sightings from the aircraft as indicated in FLIP planning or the FLIP Flight Information Handbook.

6.36. Communications:

6.36.1. Contact command posts, when applicable. Other times, contact pilot-to-dispatcher (PTD) or as directed by IFR supplement. Call at least 15 minutes prior to arrival at military stations and include the following information:

Block time.
Maintenance status.
Fuel requirements.
Passenger and cargo offload and outbound seat release.
DV code on board and special requirements. Do not pass the name of the DV on board without the consent of the DV. Outside the continental limits of the United States, the name of the DV will not be passed over unsecure radios.
Proposed departure time and next destination.

6.36.2. Radio Calls. All radio calls to flight service, pilot dispatcher, command post, PMSV, etc., should be completed prior to commencing descent (except CSOs).

6.36.3. HF Communications. Confine message traffic to essential operational matters. Support DV requests within operational capabilities.

6.37. Inflight Meals. The AC and the pilot should not eat meals at the same time, and their meals should consist of different menus.

6.38. Inflight Emergency Procedures. If conditions or severity of the emergency dictate, consideration should be given to replacing flying general officers or unqualified OP or XP with the mission copilot. Deviations from directives that may occur as a result of an emergency will be reported by the AC in accordance with AFI 11-206 or this directive.

6.39. Weather Forecasts. Aircrews must be aware of weather affecting their mission. En route, destination, and alternate weather should be updated while en route and prior to descent.

6.40. Forced and Precautionary Landings (UH-1). Precautionary landings have proven to be an extremely effective safety measure and our aircrews are encouraged to take this action anytime conditions warrant. Report all precautionary landings through appropriate channels as soon as communications are established.

6.40.1. Forced and Precautionary Landings Due to Inflight Malfunction: When forced or precautionary landing occurs at an Air Force base and the cause has been investigated, corrected, and inspected by qualified maintenance personnel in accordance with applicable directives, and, further, the AC has determined that no operational hazards exist at the departure base or en route, the aircraft may continue flight. The squadron commander's approval is required prior to further flight when the host base commander transfers maintenance responsibility to the crew, or when the precautionary landing occurs at a location other than a United States Air Force base. In the event a forced or precautionary landing occurs at a location where communications are not available, the following procedures apply: Remain at the landing site and await search and rescue if the AC determines the aircraft is not safe for flight.

If the aircraft is safe for flight, the AC may authorize further flight.
If a greater hazard exists to the crew or aircraft at the landing site than continuing to the nearest safe landing area, flight may be resumed. The decision to resume flight under these circumstances may be based on a thorough evaluation of all the hazards and risks involved.

6.40.2. Precautionary Landings Due to Weather: If deteriorating weather is encountered during VFR operations, consider a precautionary landing as a viable option in addition to course reversal and deviation or continuing under IFR. Further flight may be authorized by the AC after a precautionary landing for weather. Make a reasonable effort to notify appropriate agencies of the precautionary landing and to determine additional weather information.

Section F--Arrival

6.41. Briefings:

6.41.1. Prior to Descent. Ensure the crew is briefed on the expected route of flight, minimum safe altitude, significant terrain and obstacle hazards in the terminal area, and the approach procedure.

6.41.2. Primary crewmembers will not be involved in duties other than aircraft operation, descent and approach monitoring, and required checklist items from the initial descent point to block in.

6.41.3. Prior to Approach. The pilot flying the approach will update the approach briefing as required. The pilot not flying the aircraft (and navigator) will monitor the approach and report any deviations.

6.42. Instrument Approach Procedures:

6.42.1. Instrument approaches will normally be flown to maintain proficiency and to positively identify arrival airports. Radar vectors to a visual approach are authorized. VFR approaches and patterns are authorized when required for mission accomplishment.

6.42.2. A precision approach, if available, should be flown at night and during marginal weather. If required, pilots may fly night non-precision approaches or VFR traffic patterns at familiar airfields. Back up the VFR approach using precision approach guidance if available.

6.42.3. When an autopilot-coupled approach is flown, assume manual control of the aircraft at or above published minimum altitude, but no lower than 200-foot AGL.

6.42.4. Radio Altimeter Procedures. Set the radio altimeter on the runway available (RA), height above touchdown (HAT), and height above approach (HAA) for the approach. Comply with flight manual procedures.

6.42.5. Category II ILS Approaches: Do not fly category II ILS approaches that have no RA setting for decision height (RA-NA). To fly actual approaches to category II minimums, the aircraft and crew must be category II certified.

6.42.6. Alternate Flight Publications. The following publications are authorized if acceptable DoD FLIP products are not available: Jeppesen United States Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Host government instrument approach procedures (must be approved by headquarters standardization, approval will include approach minimums)

6.42.7. If the minimum sector or en route altitude is not adequately depicted on the instrument approach procedure chart and terrain clearance is not confirmed by ATC radar, continue to the initial approach fix at or above the minimum altitude depicted on the en route chart and complete the descent to the initial approach altitude in a holding pattern.

6.42.8. Instrument Approach Minimums (not applicable for UH-1). Instrument approach visibility and ceiling minimums will be as published with the following exceptions: Limit PAR minimums to a DH based on HAT of 200 feet and visibility no lower than RVR 24 (1/2 mile when no RVR is available), or published minimums if higher. Circling approach minimums will be as published for category. Weather Below Minimums. If the ceiling is below the value depicted for approach, but the visibility is at or above the authorized minimum, comply with the fuel requirements for missed approach plus alternate as outlined in table 6-3 or 6-4 prior to initiating an en route descent, penetration, or approach. If advised prior to commencing en route descent, penetration, or approach that the field is below authorized landing minimums, but forecast to improve to (or above) minimums, pilots may hold until the weather improves provided: The aircraft has more fuel remaining than that required to fly to the alternate plus the required fuel over the alternate (see tables 6-3 and 6-4). The weather at the alternate must be forecast to remain at or above required alternate minimums for filing purposes for the period, including holding time. The destination weather is forecast to be at or above minimums before the excess fuel is consumed. Established on a segment of the approach. Established on published non radar approach. Once established on a published segment of the approach and subsequently advised that the field is below minimums, the pilot may continue to the MAP/DH and, if sufficient visual cues are available, execute a landing. Established on radar approach. If the airfield is reported below landing minimums after initiating descent on final approach, the pilot may continue to the MAP/DH and, if sufficient visual cues are available, execute a landing.

6.43. Classified Equipment and Material:

6.43.1. Equipment. Zero IFF SIF mode 4 before leaving the aircraft.

6.43.2. Material. Safeguard classified material according to AFI 31-401, Managing the Information Security Program. Arrange for turn-in or temporary storage with base operations, base command post, United States embassy, or other suitable facility. If equipped with suitable and certified safe, aircraft safe may be used when turn-in is not feasible and the aircraft is appropriately guarded.

6.44. Operational Landing Site Procedures(UH-1):

6.44.1. An operational site is one which is specifically prepared and maintained for helicopter operations and used in the performance of unit missions (nontraining).

6.44.2. A mission site evaluation will be made prior to landing at each site that does not have current site folder, and: Out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover power is not available at the landing site, or; An "operational site evaluation" (OSE) will be accopmplised when any of the following conditions exist:

No published information (DoD or host nation publications) is available for the site (i.e. elevation, location, obstructions, etc.), or
Out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover power is not available at the landing site, or
When deemed necessary by the AC.

6.45. Power Available Check (UH-1). Perform a power available check prior to a cargo sling or unprepared area operation or any time use of near maximum power is anticipated. When power available is within 10 percent of power required, a second crewmember will confirm power requirements.

Table 6-3. C-12 and C-21 Fuel Planning Chart.
Fuel Load Component
1. Start, taxi, takeoff C-21--200 pounds; C-12--90 pounds (150 pounds with run-up).

2. En route1 Fuel for planned climb and cruise to overhead destination at cruise altitude or initial
approach fix altitude.

3. En route reserve Fuel for 10 percent of flight time over category 1 route or route segments not to exceed 1
hour at normal cruise.

Table 6-3. (Continued)
4. Alternate, required by Fuel from overhead destination to the alternate at normal speed and altitude.
paragraph 6.19

Alternate, based on VIS only Fuel for descent, approach, and missed approach; use 300 pounds (C-21 and 200 pounds
criteria (see paragraph 6.42)2 (C-12) + fuel from destination to alternate using climb and normal cruise charts.

5. Holding 0+45 fuel using holding charts at 10,000 feet. When holding in lieu of alternate is required
(paragraph 6.19) or when the alternate is located in Alaska or at latitudes greater than 59
degrees N/S, use 1+15 holding fuel computed at 20,000 feet.

6. Approach and landing C-21--200 pounds; C-12--150 pounds.

7. Known holding delays Fuel for planned holding when delays are anticipated.
1Include all planned off-course maneuvering for departure or en route deviations.
2When two alternates are required, compute fuel from the destination to the most distant alternate only.
3Required ramp fuel loads include 1-7.
4Flight plan fuel load includes 2-7.
5Minimum fuel required over destination or alternate is fuel for holding plus approach and landing or 1,000 pounds (C-21) or 600 pounds (C-12), whichever is greater.

Table 6-4. C-135, C-20, and CT-43 Fuel Planning Chart.
Fuel Load Component Aircraft Type
1. Start, taxi, takeoff C-135--2000 pounds1; C-20--500 pounds; CT-43--1,000 pounds.

2. En route2 Fuel for planned climb and cruise to overhead destination at cruise altitude or IAF. Optional
for C-135: Fuel for planned climb and cruise to begin descent point + 1,500 pounds descent fuel.

3. En route reserve Fuel for 10 percent of flight time over category 1 route or route segments not
to exceed 1 hour at normal cruise.

4. Alternate, required Fuel from overhead destination to the alternate at normal speed and altitude. For C-135,
by paragraph 6.19 fuel from over destination to alternate according to AMCP 55-17 (per PACAF request).
Alternate, based on Fuel for descent, approach, and missed approach, use 500 pounds (C-20) and 2,000 pounds
VIS only criteria (CT-43) + fuel from destination to alternate using climb and normal cruise charts. For C-135,
(see paragraph 6.423) 3,500 pounds from destination to alternate according to AMCP 55-17 (per PACAF request).

5. Holding 0 + 45 fuel using holding charts at 10,000 feet. When holding in lieu of an alternate is required
(paragraph 6.19) or when alternate is located in Alaska or at latitudes greater than 59 degrees
N/S, use 1+15 holding fuel computed at 20,000 feet.

6. Approach and landing C-135--2400 pounds; C-20--500 pounds; CT-43--1,000 pounds.

7. Known holding delays Fuel for planned holding when delays are anticipated.
1Does not include fuel from brake release to flaps up. Acceleration fuel is 1500 pounds.
2Include all planned off-course maneuvering for departure or en route deviations.
3When two alternates are required, compute fuel from the destination to the most distant alternate only. Add 300 pounds per minute for C-135, if not in CFP.
4Required ramp fuel loads include 1-7.
5Flight plan fuel load includes 2-7.
6Minimum fuel required over destination or alternate is fuel for holding plus approach and landing or 3,000 pounds (C-20) or 4000 pounds (CT-43), whichever is greater.

6.46. Power Required (UH-1). Power required charts are based on having ground effect. When making a landing to a site that is less than the diameter of the rotor system, such as a pinnacle or ridge line, aircrews must ensure sufficient power is available. The degree of slope also affects power required due to loss of ground cushion. Power tables will be computed using "without wind" charts for unknown or predicted site conditions.

6.46.1. When landing to a surface area smaller than the rotor blade diameter, such as a pinnacle, power for an OGE hover should be available.

6.46.2. When landing to an area where the flat surface is not at least two rotor diameters, power for a 20 foot hover should be available.

6.46.3. Unprepared Area Operations Training Power Restrictions:

Clear escape route--Hover Power plus 5 percent
Restricted escape route--OGE plus 5 percent
Night power restriction--clear or restricted escape routes both require OGE plus 5 percent

6.47. Border Clearance:

6.47.1. General. AC is responsible for border clearance. Arrange for required border clearance inspections in the mission planning phase. US embassy personnel and defense attaches will assist DV aircraft. The air terminal manager or base operations at a regular United States foreign clearance base will arrange required inspections. If entering or departing the United States at a special foreign clearance base, contact with security police military customs inspectors can expedite arrangements. If clearing at a special foreign clearance base and not covered by one of the authorized projects for that base (see FCG), contact base commander for special arrangements. Contact United States Customs offices to arrange inspections at civil airports of entry or landing rights aerodromes. De-tailed border clearance requirements are in the FCG; AFPD 24-4, Customs and Border Clearance; AFI 24-401, Customs--Europe; AFI 24-402, Customs--Pacific; AFI 24-403, Customs--Southern; AFI 24-404, Customs--Domestic;and AMCR 76-1, volume I, chapter 16, Border Clearance. Be familiar with these directives.

6.47.2. Documentation. See the FCG for foreign countries' requirements. Documentation required to enter and depart the United States is specified in the FCG, AFPD 24-4, AFI 24-401, AFI 24-402, AFI 24-403, AFI 24-404, and AMCR 76-1. Requirements for passenger aircraft have been extracted from these publications and are outlined below for ease of reference: Aircraft departing the United States with only United States military passengers and crewmembers require no documentation. Aircraft departing the United States with United States civilian passengers or foreign nationals (NATO military excluded) require the following documentation for the United States Immigration Service inspector:

1 copy of Customs Form (CF) 7507, General Declaration, listing all crewmembers and the total number of passengers.
1 copy of Immigration Form I-92, Aircraft/Vessel Arrival/Departure Report, indicating the total number of civilian passengers, including United States civilians and all aliens aboard.
1 set of Immigration Forms I-94, Arrival/Departure Record, for each foreign national, except NATO military.
If departing the United States from an AMC aerial port, the air terminal manager (ATM) will complete I-92 and collect I-94 from each enplaning foreign national, except NATO military. The AC or designated representative will give the ATM the completed CF 7507 (if required by local officials). If departing from a base without an AMC aerial port facility or from a civilian airport, comply with immigration clearance requirements. Aircraft arriving in CONUS, Hawaii, Alaska, or Puerto Rico from a foreign area require the following documentation:

Four copies of CF 7507 (for United States Customs, Immigration, Agriculture, and Public Health). List all crewmembers and the number of passengers.
One copy of DD Form 1854, US Customs Accompanied Baggage Declaration, for each crewmember and passenger.
Two copies of the passenger manifest (for customs and immigration).
One copy of Immigration Form 1-94 for each foreign national (except NATO military) aboard aircraft.
One copy of Immigration Form I-92 if United States civilians or foreign nationals (NATO military excluded) are aboard.
All crewmembers and passengers will present passports, identification cards, and international certificates of vaccination for inspection, if requested.

6.47.3. Permit to proceed. Obtain a permit to proceed when military reasons require an aircraft (which has landed in United States for customs clearance) to proceed to another base in the United States to obtain border clearance. The permit-to-proceed delays customs inspection of passengers or crew until arrival at the offload station and saves intermediate offloading or reloading normally required for customs inspection. The permit-to-proceed is valid only to the airport of next landing where the border clearance must be completed or a new permit-to-proceed issued by a customs official. Do not make intermediate stops between the issue point of the permit-to-proceed and destination of manifested passengers, unless required by an emergency situation or directed by the controlling agency.

6.47.4. When an aircraft lands for United States border clearance, a United States customs representative will normally meet the aircraft to obtain required documents. Do not deplane passengers or crewmembers unless necessary for safety or the preservation of life and property (AC, FE or FM, and guards excepted). Do not unload until approved by customs and agriculture personnel. This procedure applies to the initial landing in the United States and all landings required when operating on a permit to proceed, or until all crew and passengers complete final border clearance. The military customs program (DoDR 5030.49, Customs Inspection; and AFI 24-4, Customs and Border Clearance) was developed to assist DoD and other US government agencies to expedite entry of DoD personnel and material into the customs territory of the United States (CTUS). This inspection will be accomplished by military customs inspectors immediately prior to departure and may involve more than one preclearance inspection on CTUS bound aircraft. Inspection of aeromedical evacuation crews, attendants, and patients will be conducted so as to preclude delays in patient movement. All crewmembers will ensure compliance with military customs preclearance requirements.

6.47.5. Obtain customs, agriculture, and public health clearance, as required, prior to enplaning and deplaning personnel.

6.47.6. Proceed directly from the aircraft to customs, immigration, or agricultural inspection for processing at those stations where federal or local inspections are required. The AC completes the necessary forms before reporting to inspectors.

6.47.7. After clearing with border clearance agencies, the AC will return to the aircraft for off-loading and other post flight procedures.

6.47.8. All crewmembers will obey foreign or host country laws and customs as prescribed in the FCG.

6.47.9. Inspections of United States aircraft by foreign officials: Follow Air Force policy stated in the Air Force FCG, General Information, chapter 3, section 4. This policy holds that United States military aircraft are immune from searches, seizures, and inspections (including customs and safety inspections) by foreign officials. In addition, ACs must be aware of and adhere to any specific FCG provisions for individual countries. When confronted with a search request by foreign authorities, aircrews should consider the following procedures: In most cases, search attempts may be stopped by a statement of the AC to the foreign officials that the aircraft is a sovereign instrumentality not subject to search without consent of Air Force or the Chief of Mission in the country concerned. This should be clearly conveyed in a polite manner so as not to offend foreign authorities who may honestly, but mistakenly, believe they have authority to search Air Force aircraft. If foreign authorities insist on conducting a search, the AC must negotiate to delay the search until contact is made with HQ USAF/XOXXI or the appropriate embassy. The AC should unequivocally state that she or he has no authority to consent to the search and that he or she must relay the foreign request to these agencies for decision. The AC should then notify these agencies of the foreign request by the most expeditious means available. Thereafter, the AC should follow instructions provided by the appropriate embassy and the Air Force. If foreign officials refuse to desist in their search request, the AC should indicate that he or she would prefer to fly the aircraft elsewhere (provided fuel and mechanical considerations permit a safe departure) and request permission to do so. If permission is refused and the foreign authorities insist on forcing their way on board an aircraft, the AC should state that he or she protests the course of action being pursued and that she or he intends to notify both Air Force and the appropriate American Embassy of the foreign action. The AC should then allow the foreign agents on board the aircraft, without physical resistance, and thereafter report the incident to Air Force and appropriate embassy as soon as possible. In all instances, specific instructions may be briefed because of sensitive cargo or equipment. These instructions and applicable provisions of classified supplements to the foreign clearance guide should be followed where applicable.

6.48. Insect and Pest Control (Aircraft Spraying):

6.48.1. Responsibility. ACs will ensure required spraying is done. Certify spraying on the General Declaration CF 7507 or host nation form.

6.48.2. When to spray. Spray all aircraft immediately before the last takeoff, prior to entering: The United States or its possessions from a foreign airport between 35 north and 35 south latitude (Japan excluded, and all Africa included).

Aircraft that land in that part of the United States north of 35 north latitude need not be sprayed between 1 October and 31 March, unless the aircraft will proceed immediately to a part of the United States located south of 35 north latitude.
The United States Public Health Service may require spraying of aircraft, not provided for above, for emergency purposes or special requirements. (See the FCG for exceptions.) The state of Hawaii, to include flights originating in the CONUS. A foreign area, according to the requirements of the country concerned or the United States. (See the FCG for individual country requirements.)

6.48.3. How to spray. Use insecticide Aerosol D-Phenotrin-2 percent, NSN 6840-1-067-6674 (or equivalent), to spray the aircraft.

Direct the spray nozzle toward the ceiling of the compartment. Do not spray any plastic surface or allow the spray to wet it.
Spray compartments inaccessible from within the aircraft after loading.
Spray the flight deck and passenger compartments after all hatches, doors, and windows are closed.

6.48.4. How long to spray. Spray as indicated in the following unless a longer time is specified by the nation being transited:

C-12 and C-21 4 seconds
UH-1 10 seconds
C-20 15 seconds
CT-43 45 seconds
C-135 65 seconds

NOTE: Keep used aerosol cans separate from other trash, so they may be disposed of safely.

6.49. Aircraft Impoundment. If an aircraft is involved in a serious inflight incident, the AC should impound the aircraft immediately after landing and contact the controlling agency for further instructions.

Section G--Debriefing Requirements

6.50. Maintenance. Ensure completion of the AFTO Forms 781. At home station, debrief maintenance personnel on all aircraft discrepancies. At en route stations, ensure maintenance or contract maintenance and servicing agencies are advised through C2 channels of any required support.

6.51. Weather. Debrief the base weather station duty forecaster, if available, on significant weather encountered en route. Give the completed AF Form 72 to the forecaster at first opportunity. Debrief the actual wind factor.

Chapter 7


7.1. General. This chapter provides guidance for aircraft security and unlawful seizure. AFI 31-209, The Air Force Resource Protection Program, contains more detailed guidance. Aircrew personnel will actively resist hijack attempts--resistance may vary from dissuasion to direct physical confrontation, including use of weapons. Crewmembers will not release information concerning hijack attempts or identify armed crewmembers to the public.

7.2. Security. The AC will ensure that adequate security of the aircraft is provided at all times. This will include determining that aircraft is properly chocked and responsible personnel on both military and civilian airfields are advised as to the length of stay and where the crew may be contacted.

7.3. Security Procedures:

7.3.1. Briefings. When required, ACs will receive a threat assessment and security capability evaluation briefing at home station and receive updates at en route command and control facilities.

7.3.2. Unauthorized Entry. The AC will have the aircraft locked with security system employed during all RONs and at other times when a crewmember is not at the aircraft:

If forced entry is apparent, notify the local authorities and nearest command and control. Inspect the aircraft thoroughly.
Coordinate with the local base operations or transient alert representatives on procedures for servicing the aircraft while the crew is away.

7.4. Protective Standards for Aircraft Carrying Distinguished Visitors (DV):

7.4.1. Applicability. This paragraph applies specifically to aircraft transporting DVs, code 4 or above.

7.4.2. AMC Bases. Special crew procedures are not required at AMC bases. Security will be provided.

7.4.3. Non-AMC Bases. ACs are responsible for aircraft security at en route stops:

DoD Installation--Notify the base security of estimated arrival and departure times. Request continuous security surveillance during the entire ground time. If the installation is unable to comply, arrange for the best protection available.
Foreign or Civilian Installations--Notify the airport manager, commander, or defense attache to arrange for aircraft security. If available security is inadequate, purchase additional security using AF Form 15, USAF Invoice.

7.5. Arming Crewmembers. When crewmembers are directed to carry weapons, arm as follows: C-135--2 flight engineers, C-20--1 flight mechanic, CT-43--1 flight mechanic, C-21--1 pilot, C-12--1 pilot, UH-1N--1 flight engineer (and AECMs when directed).

7.5.1. Before departing home station, obtain weapon and ammunition from the weapons storage area. Present a current AF Form 523, USAF Authorization to Bear Firearms, for weapon issue. The same weapon will be reissued until the mission terminates at home station. If an armed crewmember must leave the crew en route, transfer the weapon to another authorized crewmember using AF Form 1297, Temporary Issue Receipt.

7.5.2. Load and unload weapons at approved clearing barrels. To transfer loaded weapons to another crewmember, place the weapon on a flat surface. Do not use hand-to-hand transfer.

7.5.3. Wear weapons in a concealed holster at all times to prevent identifying armed crewmembers. Do not wear weapons off the flightline except to and from the armory and other facilities associated with aircrew activities, i.e. base operations, fleet service, cargo or passenger terminal, flightline cafeteria or snack bar, etc.

7.5.4. Crewmembers will be armed prior to preflight duties and until completion of all offload duties.

7.5.5. During crew rest, store weapons in the most secure facility available, normally a base armory. If a weapons storage facility is not available, secure firearms and ammunition in the aircraft. If aircraft is not equipped with a gun box, leave weapons in the most secure and least visible location on the aircraft. Lock aircraft during all RONs.

7.5.6. MAJCOMs will publish ammunition requirements in chapter 19.

7.6. General Hijacking Guidance. A hijacking could create a serious international incident and jeopardize the safety of passengers and property. An aircraft is most vulnerable when the crew is on board and ready for flight. Hijackers cannot be dealt with as ordinary criminals. Some are mentally disturbed, emotionally unstable indivi-duals for whom the threat of death is not a deterrent, but a stimulus. Delay tactics have been most successful saving lives and property. You must resist all attempts to hijack your aircraft. Resistance may vary from simple discouragement to direct physical attack with weapons. Detection of potential hijackers before they board the aircraft is the best solution to the problem:

7.6.1. The passenger processing and manifesting facility should conduct antihijacking inspections. Do not board passengers unless the AC is fully satisfied with these inspections.

7.6.2. During exercises or contingencies in support of combat operations involving the movement of large groups of personnel, the unit being supported should manifest passengers and perform antihijacking inspections.

7.6.3. Passengers will not carry weapons or ammunition on their person or in handcarried baggage. Exceptions include special agents and guards of the Secret Service or State Department and other individuals specifically authorized to carry weapons: Take every precaution to prevent accidental discharge of weapons. If guards or couriers must clear their weapons, ask them to:

Move to a safe, clear area at least 50 feet from any aircraft, equipment, or personnel before unholstering or unslinging their weapons.
Clear weapons in accordance with standard safety procedures. Troops and deadhead crewmembers will not retain custody of ammunition on an aircraft. They will turn it in to the troop commander or AC. Troops may carry unloaded weapons and ammunition aboard the aircraft during combat operations.

7.7. Ground Resistance. Well planned and executed actions by ground forces and crews provide the best opportunities to thwart hijackings on the ground:

7.7.1. Delay movement of the aircraft to provide time for ground forces and aircrews to evaluate the situation and coordinate their efforts.

7.7.2. Establish communications with ground agencies using radios, IFF SIF equipment or any other means available.

7.7.3. Continue to delay until, in the judgment of the AC, further delay may result in homicidal attempts by the hijacker. At this time, the AC will inform the on-scene commander. Final decision to discontinue delaying actions will be made by the highest ranking official available; military or civilian.

7.7.4. The aircraft will be detained or disabled when:

Requested by the AC.
Nuclear weapons are aboard.
Directed by commander-in-chief, or higher, for national security.

7.8. Inflight Resistance. After an aircraft is airborne, success in thwarting a hijack attempt depends on the resourcefulness of the crew. Take advantage of any opportunity to regain control of the aircraft or influence the conduct of the flight:

7.8.1. Notify ATC of your situation. If the hijacker does not permit the use of the radio and the aircraft is under positive control of an ATC facility, attempt to communicate using the IFF SIF.

7.8.2. Notify passengers as soon as practical for maximum assistance against the hijacker.

7.8.3. Be as negative to the hijacker's demands as possible. Initial response to the hijacker should leave the issue in doubt. Try to calm the hijacker. Get the person to talk.

7.8.4. Convince the hijacker that intermediate stops are necessary for fuel, maintenance, or other problems, and these stops must be at United States military bases because of incompatibility of fuel and starting units at other airfields. After landing, try to discharge passengers. Use ground forces to regain control of the aircraft.

7.8.5. Give reasons for not complying with hijacker demands; for example, inability to communicate with foreign sources (radio frequency or language problem), dangers from surface-to-air missiles, anti-aircraft fire, or armed intercept by hostile aircraft.

7.8.6. Propose favorable alternatives; for example, landing in a neutral rather than unfriendly nation.

7.8.7. As a last resort: Simulate emergencies to deceive the hijacker to believe that a forced landing is necessary. Depressurize at altitude to immobilize the hijacker. WARNING: Since the hijacker's reactions to hypoxia are unpredictable, this procedure could have serious consequences. If weapons are carried, use them.

7.9. Covert Communications. Aircrews faced with a hijacking threat will notify ground agencies by any means available as soon as practical, and follow up with situation reports as circumstances permit:

7.9.1. If in-the-clear radio transmissions are possible, transmit an in-the-clear notification of the hijacking to ATC. Controllers will then assign code 7500. (Assigning code 7500 does not preclude a subsequent change to code 7700 if required.)

7.9.2. When the situation does not permit in-the-clear notification, report "Am being hijacked" by setting transponder to code 7500. When unable to change the transponder setting or when not under radar control, transmit a radio message that includes the phrase "(aircraft call sign), transponder seven five zero zero."

7.9.3. Controllers will acknowledge receipt of beacon code 7500 by transmitting "(aircraft call sign), (name of facility), verify squawking 7500." An affirmative reply or no reply from the pilot indicates confirmation, and proper authorities are notified.

7.9.4. After start of a hijacking, aircrew may indicate to the air traffic controller that in-the-clear communications are not possible (hijacker is in the cockpit) by using the word "TRIP" after the aircraft call sign prefix (AMC "TRIP" 12345, FAME "TRIP" 11). The controller should respond using "TRIP" in the aircraft call sign. Use of the word "TRIP" in the aircraft call sign by the controller prior to its use by the aircrew asks the aircrew if clear communication is possible. In this situation, the aircrew response should include the word "TRIP" only if clear communication is not possible. After an aircrew has advised ATC that clear communication is not possible, ATC will limit radio transmissions to the minimum essential ATC functions until advised otherwise by the aircrew.

7.9.5. To report "situation appears desperate; want armed intervention"--after using code 7500, change the transponder to code 7700. If the aircrew is unable to change the transponder setting or when not under radar control, transmit "(aircraft call sign), transponder seven seven zero zero." When changing from code 7500 to 7700, remain on 7500 for at least 3 minutes or until a confirmation of 7500 has been received from the controller, whichever is sooner, before changing to 7700. Controllers acknowledge receipt of 7700 by transmitting "(aircraft call sign), (name of facility), now reading you on transponder seven seven zero zero." Aircraft squawking code 7700 after squawking 7500, and which are not in radio contact with the ground, are considered by air traffic control to have an inflight emergency (in addition to hijacking) and the appropriate emergency procedures are followed. In these cases, notification of concerned authorities includes information that the aircraft displayed the hijack code as well as the emergency code.

7.9.6. To report "Situation still desperate; want armed intervention and aircraft immobilized," leave full flaps down after landing or lower full flaps while on the ground. To facilitate message distribution, transmit "(aircraft call sign), flaps are full down."

7.9.7. To report "Leave alone; do not intervene," retract flaps after landing. Pilots who retract flaps after squawking code 7700 should return to code 7500 and remain on 7500 for the next leg of the hijacked flight unless the situation changes again. The pilot should transmit "(aircraft call sign), back on seven five zero zero" to emphasize the fact that intervention is no longer desired.

7.10. Forced Penetration of Unfriendly Airspace:

7.10.1. Procedures in this paragraph should prevent hostile actions against an aircraft which penetrates the boundary of an unfriendly nation as a result of a hijacking. Comply with instructions received by radio or from an interceptor. Without instructions, comply with the following before entering unfriendly airspace:

Do not exceed 400 KTAS.
Maintain an altitude between 10,000 and 25,000 MSL, if possible.
Fly the most direct course to destination demanded by hijacker unless hijacker insists on another route.
Transmit MAYDAY on 243.0, 121.5.
Squawk mode 3, code 7700.

7.10.2. Try to destroy all classified documents and equipment aboard aircraft before landing in an unfriendly nation.
Chapter 8


8.1. General. This chapter contains a description of applicable reports and forms.

8.2. AF Form 457, USAF Hazard Report (AFI 91-202, The US Air Force Mishap Prevention Program). The United States Air Force hazard reporting system provides a means for Air Force personnel to alert supervisors and commanders to hazardous conditions requiring prompt corrective action. A hazard is any condition, act, or circumstance that jeopardizes or may jeopardize the health and well being of personnel, or that may result in loss, damage, or destruction of any weapons system, equipment, facility, or material resource.

8.3. AF Form 651, Hazardous Air Traffic Report (HATR) Program (AFI 91-202):

8.3.1. The US Air Force HATR program provides a means for personnel to report all near mid-air collisions and alleged hazardous air traffic conditions promptly. Near mid-air collisions (NMAC) and alleged hazardous air traffic conditions must be reported and investigated. Inform the air traffic control agency as soon as conditions permit. Information taken from those reports must be used solely for mishap prevention and not for disciplinary action. Individuals who submit HATRs on incidents are granted immunity from disciplinary action provided: Violation was inadvertent, i.e. not deliberate No mishap occurred No criminal offense was intended or committed The individual reported the incident Reporting under this program covers events that occur in air traffic and aircraft operations in flight which, in the observer's opinion, created a potential for injury to personnel or damage to aircraft resulting from:

A hazardous air traffic situation in which there was less than the required separation between aircraft
Communications or air NAVAIDs that could (or did) contribute to a hazardous air traffic situation
Any publication, directive, or procedure that could (or did) contribute to the development of a hazardous air traffic condition
Personnel and facilities (e.g. DoD, Federal Aviation Administration [FAA], contractors, or host nation) that contributed to a hazardous air traffic condition
Any event (including vehicle operations) on the movement area that actually endangers an airborne aircraft or an aircraft on the ground intending flight

NOTE: The FAA must know if an official report is being filed.

8.4. USAF Aircraft Mishap Report Worksheet, MAJCOM-Approved Form (AFI 91-204, Investigating and Reporting US Air Force Mishaps):

8.4.1. Notify the appropriate authorities of any mishap involving aircraft or crew. When notified, units will initiate investigative and reporting actions in accordance with AFI 91-204 and OPREP-3. NOTE: Do not attempt to classify a mishap.

8.4.2. Reportable Mishaps: Report damage to the aircraft, or injury to the crew or passengers; also report any damage or injury to another organization's equipment or personnel resulting from the movements or actions of an aircraft or crew. Report the following occurrences: A physiological episode is a physiological reaction, near accident, or hazard inflight due to medical or physiological reasons. This includes:

Proven or suspected cases of hypoxia
Carbon monoxide poisoning or other toxic exposure
Decompression sickness due to evolved gas (bends, chokes, neurocirculatory collapse), or severe reaction to trapped gas resulting in incapacitation
Spatial disorientation or distraction resulting in an unusual attitude
Loss of consciousness from any cause
Death by natural causes of any crewmember during flight
Unintentional loss of pressurization if cabin altitude is above FL180, regardless of effects on personnel
Alcohol and hangover (crew only)
Illness (both acute and pre-existing), including food poisoning, dehydration, myocardial infarction, seizure, etc.
Exposure to toxic, noxious, or irritating materials such as smoke, fumes, or liquids (NOTE: In event of a physiological episode, all crewmembers and passengers involved will report to a flight surgeon as soon as practical and request AF Form 711GC, Life Sciences Report of an Individual Involved in an AF Accident/Incident, section A, Aircraft Accident/Incident, be accomplished.) Inflight flameout, engine failure, required engine shutdown, or loss of thrust sufficient to preclude maintaining level flight above MEA. NOTE: Intentional shutdowns for training and FCF are excluded; however, report failure to restart, using the criteria above. Unselected propeller reversal. Flight control malfunction resulting in an unexpected or hazardous change of flight attitude, altitude, or heading. Malfunction of landing gear when difficulty is experienced using emergency system or procedures. Inflight loss of all pitot-static instrument indications or all gyrostabilized attitude or directional indications. Spillage or leakage of radioactive, toxic, corrosive, or flammable material from aircraft stores or cargo. All cases of departure from intended takeoff or landing surface onto adjacent surfaces. Bird strike or lightening strike resulting in significant dammage or injury. Dropped objects. Fuel jettisoning. Engine case penetration by shrapnel from internal engine component failure. Engine case rupture or burn-through, engine bay fire, or massive fuel leakage. All inflight fires. Any incident which does not meet the established criteria for a reportable mishap but, in the judgment of the AC, needs to be emphasized in the interest of flight safety. Procedure. Report mishap as soon as possible to the local flying safety officer, CCC, base operations, or controlling agency using the reporting procedures in AFI 91-204, Investigating and Reporting US Air Force Mishaps.

8.5. Reports of Violation. Violations identified in AFI 11-206, alleged navigation errors exceeding 24 NMs, border, and air traffic control violations will be reported in the following format:

8.5.1. Include the following items:

8.5.2. Send the original investigation report to arrive within 45 days to headquarters standardization.

8.6. Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants (POL), and Aviation Fuels Documentation. Several different forms are used to record aviation fuels transactions. The form used to record the transaction depends on who and where the actual refueling takes place. Basically, these transactions can be broken down into two categories: refueling at United States Air Force locations and refueling at other than Air Force bases:

8.6.1. AF Form 1994, Fuels Issue/Defuel Document, is used to record the aviation fuels transaction (issue or defuel) at Air Force locations.

8.6.2. Refueling at locations other than Air Force bases: Use DD Form 1898, AvFuels Into-Plane Sales Slip, to record the aviation fuels transaction (issue or defuel) at other DoD locations (Army, Navy, and Marine Corps) and at commercial airports where into-plane contracts are in force. Use AF Form 315, United States Air Force Avfuels Invoice, to purchase aviation fuels and oils at commercial locations where into-plane contracts are not in force. The form is filled in by the aircraft commander or authorized representative and is described in AFI 23-202, Buying Petroleum Products, and Other Supplies and Services Off Station.

8.7. AF Form 15, United States Air Force Invoice:

8.7.1. Use AF Form 15 for vendor services or supplies only if contract vendors are not available or the contract vendor will not accept the aircraft identaplate.

8.7.2. If the vendors require a signature on their form and an AF Form 15 has been used, write the statement "AF Form 15 executed" on the vendor's form.

8.7.3. Return two copies of the AF Form 15 to the operations officer at home station.

8.8. Aircraft Commander's Report on Services and Facilities (RCS: AMD-DOV[AR]9301), MAJCOM-Approved Form. This is an instrument for ACs to report that services rendered or conditions encountered were unsatisfactory or detrimental to efficient airlift operation, or services rendered or procedures used are worth adopting for all organizations, or a performance rendered by a person (or persons) was commendable and deserves recognition. Attempt to solve problems at the lowest level. If further action is deemed necessary or the problem requires increased visibility, complete the form. NOTE: This report is designated emergency status code C1--continue reporting during emergency conditions, priority precedence.Submit data requirements in this categoryas prescribed or by any means to ensure arrival on the established due dates. Discontinue electroic reporting during MINIMIZE.

8.9. Transient Aircrew Facilities Report (RCS: AMC-DOV[AR]9402), MAJCOM-Approved Form. Any crewmember may submit reports when they encounter unsatisfactory conditions or have suggestions for improvements of transient facilities. The report may be submitted whether or not an unsatisfactory item is included in the AC's trip report. NOTE: This report is designated emergency status code C2--continue reporting during emergency conditions, normal precedence. Submit data requirements in this categoryas prescribed, or as soon as possible after submission of priority report. Continue electronic reporting during MINIMIZE.

8.10. MIJI Incident Report Sheet, MAJCOM-Approved Form(AFI 10-707, Spectrum Interference Resolution Program). The MIJI Reporting System is a DoD program to identify, analyze, and disseminate information concerning MIJI incidents. Since effective MIJI attempts could have a serious impact on flight safety, reporting under this program should ensure the widest and most rapid distribution.

Chapter 9


9.1. General. This chapter outlines procedures, requirements, and restrictions for qualification, continuation training, and evaluation flights. See AFI 11-401, AFI 11-206, Multicommand, MAJCOM, and applicable theater directives for additional information.

9.2. Crew Complement and Scheduling:

9.2.1. Minimum crew complement. See paragraph 3.2.

9.2.2. Crew qualification. Crew must be current and qualified or include a current and qualified instructor or flight examiner.

9.2.3. Training flights for initial qualification will normally be conducted during daylight under VMC conditions, except for night missions required by the training syllabus. Exceptions to this policy are permitted when extensive periods of bad weather would delay training to an unacceptable degree. Under no circumstances will the first transition training flight be conducted at night.

9.3. Crew Duty Time. See paragraph 3.11.

9.4. Instructor Pilot Briefings. Before all training and evaluation missions, instructors and flight examiners will brief their crews using unit approved briefing guides.

9.5. Debriefing:

9.5.1. Review and evaluate overall training performed.

9.5.2. Training requirements fulfilled for each student and aircrew member. (Each student and aircrew member must understand the training accomplished.)

9.5.3. Training reports completed and recorded.

9.6. Not used

9.7. Simulated Emergency Flight Procedures (not applicable for UH-1):

9.7.1. Simulated emergency flight procedures will be conducted according to AFI 11-206 and this directive. Use a realistic approach and do not compound emergencies.

9.7.2. Use radar flight following to the maximum possible, consistent with training objectives.

9.7.3. Conduct simulated emergencies only during training and evaluation or currency flights when an instructor or flight examiner pilot is occupying one of the pilot seats. Instructor or flight examiner pilot candidates who occupy a pilot seat and are under the direct supervision of a flight examiner pilot not in a pilot seat may conduct simulated emergencies during initial and requalification upgrade evaluations.

9.7.4. Simulated Engine Out Landing. Landings may be performed with one thrust lever in idle. For the C-21, simulated engine failure will not be initiated below 1,000-foot AGL or after beginning gear and flap extension.

9.7.5. Passengers (except flight surgeons, ACMs, and AECMs) are prohibited on training and evaluation or currency flights when simulated emergencies are practiced.

9.7.6. Notify the controlling agency when initiating an approach, landing, or missed approach in conjunction with a simulated emergency only when flying a nonstandard pattern requiring special sequencing.

9.7.7. Practice the following maneuvers in the simulator only, unless specified in IP upgrade syllabus (45 AS C-12Cs as specified in the initial training syllabus). Manuevers required for functional check flights (FCF) are authorized in flight.

Simulated engine-out takeoffs
Full stalls
Approach to stalls, slow flight, and flight on the backside of the power curve
Dutch rolls
No-flap landings (C-135)
Jammed stabilizer approach and landing
Split flap landings
Landing with anti-skid off (C-21)
Landing with inoperative hydraulic system
Rudder boost-OFF approach or landing.(C-135)
Two engines-out landings, go-arounds, failures (C-135)
Aborted takeoffs
Unusual attitudes
Emergency descents
Runaway pitch or roll trim, yaw demonstrations
Emergency brake landing (C-21)
Simulated total engine failure
Actual engine shutdown
Engine-out circling approach (CT-43, C-20, C-12, C-21)

NOTE: MAJCOMs will publish additional restrictions and simulator-only requirements in chapter 19.

9.7.8. Restrictions: Minimum weather for C-135 engine-out approach and landing or no-flap low approach is published circling minimums during daylight (use 600/2 if circling minimums are not published and 1000/2 or circling minimums, whichever is higher at night. All other aircraft will not perform engine-out or no-flap approaches and landings at night or in IMC conditions. (No-flap approaches are not restricted for C-21 and C-12.) Other simulated emergency procedures will be limited to noncritical phases of flight and will be kept to a minimum when IMC or at night. Simulated engine failure is not authorized at less than engine-out minimum control speed (as published in applicable flight manual), when actual emergency condition exists (all aircraft), or during no-flap approach and landing (C-135, C-21, and CT-43).

9.8. Touch and Stop-and-Go Landings (not applicable for UH-1):

9.8.1. Practice touch-and-go landings only on designated training, evaluation, and currency missions. Touch-and-go landings may be performed by: IPs, instructor candidates, or evaluator pilot candidates on initial or requalification instructor or evaluator pilot evaluations, and evaluator pilots in either seat. Any pilot from either seat provided that an instructor pilot, instructor pilot candidate on initial or requalification instructor evaluation, or flight examiner pilot is in the other seat. Touch-and go landings will not be performed when the reported ceiling or visibility values are less than 300-3/4 (RVR 40). Touch-and-go landings may be performed with ACM and MEGP personnel on board provided the mission is a designated training flight and an instructor or evaluator pilot is in command. Touch-and-go landings are not authorized with passengers (except ACMs and MEGPs) onboard.

9.8.2. C-12 stop-and-go procedures: Wind restrictions for touch-and-go landings apply. In addition, the minimum runway from point of brake
release must at least equal to or greater than accelerate-stop or 4,500 feet, whichever is greater. This distance will be determined by reference to known landmarks such as runway markers, intersections, etc. Stop the airplane with reverse thrust and minimum braking. Set takeoff power prior to brake release. Rolling takeoff may be made provided all conditions are met. Leave landing gear extended as required for brake cooling on subsequent stop-and-go patterns.

9.9. Training Restrictions(not applicable for UH-1). Comply with table 9-1.

9.10. Not used

9.11. Simulated Instrument Flight. The use of a hood or other artificial vision-restricting device is not authorized for any phase of flight. Simulated instrument flight may be flown and logged without use of such a device.

9.12. Category II Instrument Landing System (ILS) Training. Flight training and evaluation may be conducted at any ILS facility where signal output is accurate and stable enough to acheive the desired training. The following are weather and runway requirements:

9.12.1. Actual Weather. No lower than 200-foot ceiling and 1/2-mile visibilty (RVR 24/730 meters) day or night.

9.12.2. Crosswind Component. Limitation as prescribed by aircraft flight manual, 15 knots or as authorized by the maximum takeoff and landing crosswind component table of the specific aircraft, whichever is lower.

9.12.3. Runway Length. At least computed landing distance (brakes and speed brakes for spoilers only) plus 2,000 feet.

Table 9-1. Training Maneuver Restrictions (not applicable for UH-1).
Altitude Restriction
Other Restriction

Actual engine shutdown or prop feathering

5,000-foot AGL (min) IP upgrade only, except for 45 AS C-12 initial students
Any simulated emergency (except C-21 engine failure)
On takeoff
On approach
C-21 engine failure

Initiate above 500-foot AGL
Initiate above 500-foot AGL
Initiate above 1,000-foot AGL in clean configuration
Low approaches with personnel and equipment on runway Initiate at or above 500-foot AGL
Instrument missed approach Initiate at or above minimums for the approach flown
Simulated single engine missed approach or go around Initiate at or above 300-foot AGL
Planned VFR go-arounds with simulated emergencies
other than engine-out
Initiate at or above 100-foot AGL
No-Flap Landing
C-135, CT-43

Low approach only
Full stop only

9.12.4. Decision Height (DH). When category II DH is not published, DH will be based on height above touchdown of 100 feet.

9.13. Helicopter Maneuver Standards:

9.13.1. Maneuver standards are provided to supplement flight manuals. Procedures are intended for use on all missions, but may not reflect the optimum performance required for some operational situations. Deviations from this guide may be made, if required, to accomplish mission objectives.

9.13.2. Emergency procedures training is designed to develop aircrew proficiency, reaction time, planning, and judgement in preparation for actual emergencies. Accomplish all simulated emergency maneuvers according to the flight publication and this chapter.

9.13.3. Simulated Emergency Restrictions and Procedures: Prohibited Maneuvers. The following maneuvers will not be accomplished in the aircraft:

Actual engine shutdown
Blade stall and power settling
Dual fuel control failures
Dual hydraulic system failures.
Slide takeoff.
Forced Landing training. Special Restrictions. Accomplish emergency procedures involving engines, engine fuel systems, flight controls, or hydraulic systems only:

During daylight visual meteorological conditions.
Prior to official sunset and after official sunrise.
During training, currency, and evaluation flights.
When passengers are not aboard.
When an instructor or flight examiner pilot is designated on flight orders under "crew position" as IP or EP and occupies a pilot seat with a set of controls. IP candidates may perform or supervise simulated emergencies during initial evaluations under the supervision of a flight-examiner pilot not in a pilot seat if the other pilot at the controls is AC-qualified. Policy for Practice Autorotations: Due to the risk associated with this maneuver, carefully consider wind, density altitude, aircraft gross weight, and individual pilot proficiency prior to training or currency. Fly each approach as if a landing may be required. If a malfunction occurs, the aircraft is then in a position to execute a safe landing. The initial autorotation for training and currency will be a straight-ahead autorotation accomplished by the instructor to evaluate aircraft performance (during evaluations, the pilot being evaluated may perform this autorotation). Instructor pilots will terminate the maneuver and initiate a power recovery at the first indication of abnormally high or low rotor RPM, excessive sink rate, low airspeed, ineffective flare, or at any time an inadvertent touchdown might occur. Autorotations will be accomplished to a runway, taxiway, or approved slide area, if possible. When such an area is not available, a smooth level area is to be selected, and the instructor or flight examiner will ensure it is free of obstructions prior to commencing training. All practice autorotations will be terminated with a power recovery. Power recovery autorotations require the aircraft to be aligned within 45 degrees of the wind direction when winds exceed 10 knots. Below 10 knots, aircraft heading will be within 90 degrees of the wind. A wind indicator must be close enough to the recovery point to provide readily discernable, accurate wind direction. Minimum entry altitude is 800-foot AGL for 180-degree turning autorotations; 500-foot AGL for all others. Minimum airspeed prior to the flare is 60 knots. For 180-degree turning autorotations, the aircraft must be wings level, have a minimum of 60 knots indicated air speed (KIAS), rotor revolutions per minute (RPM) within limits, normal rate of descent, and be aligned with landing or recovery heading at no lower than 150-foot AGL. If any of these conditions are not met, initiate a power recovery immediately. The wings level requirement does not prohibit minor heading corrections on final. Do not practice power recovery autorations exceeding 180 degrees when recovery will be below 500 feet. Simulated Single-Engine Emergencies. The following procedures apply:

Single-engine approaches and landings must be practiced to a hard surface landing area or slide area.
Initiation of practice single-engine emergencies will not be lower than 150 feet AGL, 55 KIAS, or in a hover.

NOTE: Practice single-engine emergencies may be initiated below the above listed altitude as long as torque available is limited on both engines versus reducing torque available on the simulated failed engine. Instructors must use caution when simulating single-engine emergencies at low altitudes and airspeeds. Conduct "boost OFF" under the following limitations:

Maneuvers will be initiated on the ground or in straight and level flight at a minimum altitude of 500 feet and at a minimum airspeed of 70 KIAS.
Approaches to a hover or landing will be made to a hard surface landing area or slide area.
If any control difficulties are encountered while the system is off, the instructor or flight examiner will take control of the aircraft and restore the system as appropriate.

9.13.4. General Procedures: Takeoffs and landings will be made using a constant heading or ground track into the wind or alignment with the runway. Crosswind correction will be accomplished by using the wing-low method on takeoff until a climb is established and during the final portion of approach. At other times, the crab method may be used. Maneuvers will be flown with emphasis on precise altitude, airspeed, and aircraft control.

9.13.5. Specific Procedures: 100 percent Nf will be used for all maneuvers. Entry altitude for all approaches will be 300 feet AGL unless specified otherwise in this instruction. A 3- to 5-foot skid height will be used for all hovering maneuvers. Landing and searchlights will be on for all night takeoffs and after turning final for night approaches unless safety, weather, excessive glare or aircraft operational procedures dictate otherwise. Takeoff to a Hover. According to flight manual. Taxiing. 5 knots maximum ground speed. Sideward or Backward Flight:

Constant heading and ground speed
5 knots maximum ground speed 360-Degree Hovering Turns:

Constant rate of turn
15 knots maximum wind velocity for training Crosswind Takeoff and Landing:

Heading 90 degrees from wind direction.
15 knots maximum wind velocity for training, except when taxiing to or from parking area on initial departure and termination. Normal Takeoff and Climbs:

Hover power plus 10 percent
70 KIAS for climb
To initiate the takeoff from the ground, increase collective smoothly as for takeoff to a hover. As the aircraft leaves the ground, accelerate forward at hover altitude passing translational lift, then continue the takeoff. Marginal Power Takeoff:

Simulated maximum power will be hover power.
50-foot simulated obstacle.
Initiate the takeoff by smoothly applying forward cyclic. As the aircraft accelerates, it may tend to settle, especially with light or calm winds. (If necessary, compromise the maneuver by adding power to avoid ground contact.) Parallel the ground at 3-5 feet until translational lift is attained. After passing through translational lift, initiate a climb (without decelerating below translational lift speed) to clear the 50-foot simulated obstacle. Continue to accelerate (without descending) to 50 KIAS. At 50 KIAS, the maneuver is terminated and a normal climb (power and airspeed) will be established. Maximum Performance Takeoff:

Simulated maximum power available. Hover plus 10-15 percent.
100-foot simulated obstacle.
Smoothly increase power to the required setting. After the aircraft has left the ground and is passing through normal hover altitude, establish a slightly nose-low attitude. Maintain attitude until passing 100-foot AGL, then smoothly lower the nose without descending and in crease the airspeed to 70 KIAS. When this speed is attained, adjust power and attitude to maintain a normal climb. Traffic Pattern. If a rectangular traffic pattern is flown, fly the downwind leg at 500 feet AGL and 90 KIAS. During the turn to base, descend to 300 feet AGL and slow the aircraft to 70 KIAS. The before-landing checklist will be accomplished prior to turning final. (Pattern altitudes specified above may be adjusted to comply with local traffic control rules.) Other pattern types may be flown as the situation warrants; however, caution must be excercised to avoid excessive bank angles and descent rates or low airspeeds. The point of rollout on final should allow a controlled, straight approach without a need for aggrevated flares, abrupt control movements, or large collective imputs. Normal or Shallow Approach. (According to flight manual.) Steep Approach. (According to flight manual.) Approach to Touchdown. Initiate and fly the desired approach angle. As hover altitude is approached, continue the descent and angle while slowing the ground speed and vertical velocity to have a landing attitude, at or near zero ground speed, upon touchdown. Cushion the touchdown with collective and continue to fly the aircraft fully onto the ground. Slide Landing. (According to flight manual.) Manual Fuel Operations. Entry will be at a minimum of 300-foot AGL and 70 KIAS, or in a hover when single-engine hover capability is available, or while on the ground. Ensure collective setting is below maximum single-engine torque available prior to retarding the throttle to flight idle. Positively identify and place the corresponding fuel governor switch to manual position. Increase the throt tle to maintain torque approximately 5-10 percent below the governed engine. To return to automatic fuel mode, use the same procedure as for entering manual fuel. Simulated Single-Engine Flight and Landing:

Prior to the approach, complete a single-engine power available check. For subsequent approaches using the same engine, the power available check may be simulated.
For training, if any unsafe condition exists when below 150-foot AGL or 55 KIAS, use both engines for the go-around.
If any unsafe condition exists, both engines will be used for the go-around. Unusual Attitude Training. Instructors simulating unusual attitudes for training will not exceed 30 degrees of bank, a 20-degree nose high attitude, or a 10-degree nose low attitude. This training should be kept to a minimum. Unusual attitude training will not be initiated below 1,000-foot AGL. Emergency Procedures. Actual and practice emergency procedures are accomplished according to applicable flight manuals unless specified otherwise in this chapter.

9.14. Unaided Night Unprepared Area Operations (UH-1):

9.14.1. The minimum size of the landing area must be at least two rotor diameters.

9.14.2. The terrain within 3 NMs of the site will not exceed 200 feet above the site elevation.

NOTE: This requirement may be satisfied by restricting the approach and departure route to directions which will avoid terrain exceeding the above criteria.

9.14.3. Prior to Full Darkness. A visual survey of the site will be made to check for obstacles, general site condition, and wind. This survey may be accomplished by other crews flying during the day or by ground party and will be accomplished within 24 hours of landing. During the visual survey the flight crew or ground party will position the lights to outline the landing site. See local UH-1 operating instructions (OI) for landing site light patterns. Prior to making the first approach, determine wind direction. Forecast winds may be used when direction cannot be otherwise determined. Do not leave flight altitude until the location of the LZ has been positively identified.

Chapter 10


10.1. General:

10.1.1. The applicable operations group and HQ USEUCOM Flight Operations will publish local or unique unit operating procedures as a supplement to this chapter, commencing with paragraph 10.2. The title of this paragraph will indicate the unit concerned (for example, "375th Operations Group OG Local Operating Procedures").

10.1.2. Send two copies of the supplement to headquarters standardization.

Chapter 11


11.1. General:

11.1.1. This chapter consolidates unique navigation procedures. Use navigation forms prescribed by this instruction or approved MAJCOM substitute on all flights.

11.1.2. Submit navigation forms, records, charts, fuel logs, etc., to the navigation section after mission completion and dispose according to AFR 4-20, volume 2, Disposition of Air Force Records--Records Disposition.

11.2. Mission Planning:

11.2.1. The navigator who prepares or accepts the flight plan will remain on duty at the navigator's station during departure and will brief the relieving navigator. The navigator ensures all required fuel computations are accurate and complete, and will ensure ramp fuel load is compatible with mission requirements.

11.2.3. Complete AMC Form 25, Flight Plan and Records, or approved MAJCOM substitute for each flight. Provide the communication systems operator with a copy of the flight plan for en route information on all category I routes. exception: AF Form 70 may be used on category II routes when flight time is 2 hours or less.

11.3. Flight Charts. Use a chart to show flight progress on all category I routes. Show the following:

Navigator's name and rank.
Coordinated universal date in the vicinity of departure or coast-out point and mission number.
The flight plan course. Reporting points, with proper names, will be labeled.
Plot fixes or positions. Show time of each fix or position. Fixes or positions may be numbered.

11.3.5. Put the AMC Form 26B, Position Label, in the vicinity of the appropriate fix. Number labels progressively. The number on the fix or position arrow will correspond to the number on the position label.

11.3.6. When aircraft is directed by headings, record time and heading assumed at each alteration in "remarks" on the navigator's log. Alter headings may be individually plotted or averaged to obtain dead reaconing positions.

11.3.7. Chart Usage. Reuse flight charts (on same mission) when plotting accuracy of fixes or position determination is not affected. Use a separate chart for each mission. Multiple legs on the same chart are permissible. Strip charts approximately 6 inches either side of track. Retain these charts with the navigator's logs to allow evaluation and replotting of the mission.

11.4. Navigator Procedures:

11.4.1. The navigator monitors the primary command radio unless directed to do otherwise.

11.4.2. Airborne radar monitor of takeoffs and landings. Immediately after takeoff and at the beginning of des-cent, the navigator crosschecks available flight instruments with the airborne radar presentation to ensure aircraft remains clear of obstructions. Monitor radar on all takeoffs to safe altitude and during all descents to landing.

11.4.3. Navigator Flight Following. Use a terrain chart to monitor the aircraft position during all departures and arrivals. The terrain chart should be an ONC or larger scale chart.

11.4.4. When using INS as the primary means of navigation, use all available NAVAID to monitor INS performance and ensure compliance with course and ETA tolerance. On airways, INS may be coupled to the autopilot provided the applicable airway NAVAIDs are selected and monitored on the other horizontal situation indicator (HSI) and bearing distance heading indicators (BDHI).
11.4.5. Compute deviation for each compass system. Do this deviation check as soon as practicable after initial level- off or coast-out. Determine the heading check by celestial observation, or by comparison to an inertially derived heading. exception: A deviation check is not required on category II routes, or on flights transiting category I routes of 2 hours or less, when both of the following conditions hold true: The aircraft is equipped with two or more separate compass systems (the standby compass is not considered a system for this requirement). The difference between systems does not exceed 2 degrees.

11.4.6. NAVAID data will contain actual readings plus all corrections. Computer positions (latitude, longitude, or along track or cross track) are required for each fix.

11.4.7. General Fixing Requirements: With both INSs operating, coast-out fix will be obtained on entering category I portion of a mission leg, and all available NAVAIDs will be used to resolve and validate INS accuracy. Use all available NAVAIDs to monitor INS accuracy during the period 15 to 30 minutes prior to ADIZ penetration or 40 minutes to 1 hour prior to coast-in, whichever comes first. Log and plot intermediate INS positions on the chart within 10 minutes after passing a way-point. Interval between logged and plotted INS positions will not exceed 1 hour and 20 minutes. Normal pacing should be one fix or position approximately every hour with an intermediate logged INS position every 30 minutes. Over category I route when one or more INSs become inoperative, there is a 10-NM difference between INSs, or the AC or navigator suspect an INS discrepancy, use all available NAVAIDs to determine the aircraft position.

11.4.8. An Equal Time Point (ETP) will be completed on all category I routes over 3 hours. The ETP should be computed using suitable airfields along or near the flight plan course. Selected en route airfields will be noted in the margin of AMC Form 25, compute first and second half wind factors using average TAS and GS to mid point between selected airfields. An ETP is not required if suitable airfields along the route of flight are loaded in the TACAN waypoint data of the INS and documented.

11.5. Flight Records:

11.5.1. AMC Form 25: Description (Front Side). The flight plan and record portion of the AMC Form 25, or other theater approved form, may be used for manual flight and fuel planning. A CFP may be placed in the flight plan section in lieu of manual flight planning. Complete heading and planning blocks. Use the "remarks" section to record pertinent information related to the flight plan section, diversion airfields, and clearances. Complete the "block" information section. The "wind factor data" section is optional. Description (Back Side). This portion of the AMC Form 25 is used by navigators to record pertinent fix and NAVAID data.

11.5.2. AMC Form 26B. For each flight over a category I route, complete AMC Forms 26B with the AMC Form 25. Record sufficient data neces sary to evaluate or reconstruct the mission. Position Label (AMC Form 26B) Procedures:

Position labels will be used to record flight progress.
When using navigation computers to provide heading information to the autopilot for maintaining course, the OUT portion of the label need only show HSI and ETA information.
Place the label securely on the chart being used, near its referenced position, in a manner that will not preclude free use of the chart for possible diversions or reconstruction of the mission.

11.5.3. AMC Form 95, Fuel Management Log. Complete AMC Form 95 or other approved theater form for fuel management portion of AMC Form 25 for each flight over a category I route when the flight plan time between suitable en route airfields within 50 NMs of the route of flight exceeds 5 hours or when directed by the AC. Make entries at intervals coinciding with entries on the AMC Form 139, C-25/C-135/C-137 Mission History. The pilot in control of the aircraft will review and initial the fuel management log after each entry. Entries may be discontinued at the discretion of the AC.

11.5.4. AMC Form 488, INS Flight Plan and Log. This form or other theater-approved form may be used in lieu of AMC Form 25 for manual flight and fuel planning. The fuel planning section is the same as AMC Form 25.

11.6. Celestial Fixing:

11.6.1. Precompute using AMC Form 25, celestial computation data section.

11.6.2. Record value for rhumb line and coriolis correction (coriolis only for grid operations or when the aircraft is being directed by the navigational computer to fly a great circle course) in the celestial computation data section.

11.6.3. A method of converting Line of Positions (LOPs) to a common time is to move the assumed position. This method is recommended for shots 4 minutes apart computed to give all three bodies (when using three stars) each a single assumed position. However, it is not limited to that type of computation.

11.6.4. When using Polaris in a multiple star fix, it may be more convenient to use the intercept method, in which the correction of precession nutation is the same for Polaris as for the other bodies. This allows the Polaris intercept to be plotted from the same adjusted assumed position as the other bodies.

11.7. Grid Navigation:

11.7.1. Grid procedures may be used when flying north of 70 degrees north latitude (except Alaska) and south of 60 degrees south latitude or where the convergence of meridians or magnetic variation changes preclude the use of true and magnetic direction references. If both INSs are operating, set the compasses to the computed grid heading, in order to have a current grid heading available should the INSs fail. As long as the INSs are operative, the gyro log on AMC Form 25 need not be used. Should both INSs fail, the aircraft will be directed by grid heading until exiting the grid area.

11.7.2. En route requirements with INSs inoperative: Complete the grid entry and exit section of AMC Form 25 prior to heading reference changes. When entering grid operation, apply convergence to the true heading. Establish the aircraft on computed true heading references. When exiting grid, apply the convergence to the grid heading to obtain the true heading. Then apply variation to obtain magnetic headings to the flight plan to verify the accuracy of the courses measured and conver-sion data used. This will ensure the validity of initial entry headings and provide precise target headings for exit. Check aircraft's grid heading each 30 minutes during the first hour after grid entry. Thereafter, heading checks are required every hour. Determine precession information for gyros after each heading check. Reset compass systems after each heading check when precession is greater than 1 degree. Remove precession by use of false latitude when precession is more than one degree. To determine false latitude correction, enter the false latitude graph with desired latitude setting and observed hourly precession rate. Desired latitude will be the proposed mid-latitude to the next observation, not to exceed the actual aircraft latitude by 2 degrees at any given time. Do not reset gyros unnecessarily. When precession is 1 degree or less, do not apply false latitude or reset the gyros since the error may be in the observation. If grid heading can't be determined at the regular time interval by celestial, use the previous precession information to determine heading changes. Use the "grid log" section of the AMC Form 25 with AMC Form 26B. "IN" section of AMC Form 26B will contain grid heading and grid winds. Grid headings will be determined by celestial observation. Use the false latitude correction graph on the back of the AMC Form 25.

Chapter 12


12.1. General. This chapter outlines additional procedures for flight engineers (FE) and flight mechanics (FM) not in aircraft flight manuals or other technical orders.

12.2. Responsibilities. The first FE or FM is responsible for the condition of the aircraft, keeps the AC informed at all time of changes in the aircraft status, and acts as enlisted aircrew coordinator. FEs and FMs will supervise or perform aircraft servicing and maintenance at en route stations (for C-20 and CT-43 according to CLS agreement). UH-1 FEs will brief all passengers and hand out the AMC Form 505, H-1 Passenger Emergency Information Card, or approved briefing guides.

12.3. Authority to Clear Red X. When authorized by the CLS agreement, FEs and FMs are authorized to clear red X write-ups on all systems of the aircraft on which they are qualified. UH-1 FEs are authorized to clear only the red X write-ups specified in the maintenance letter of agreement established by the chief of maintenance and unit DOV. The letter will specify which individuals are qualified to clear red Xs.

12.4. Refueling and Defueling. All qualified FEs and FMs are authorized (for C-20 and CT-43 according to CLS agreement) to refuel and defuel their aircraft.

12.5. Concurrent Servicing Operations. Concurrent servicing is authorized according to TO 00-25-172. FMs and crew chiefs must be qualified as chief servicing supervisor (CSS) according to AMCI 21-101, Maintenance Management Policy, or theater directives.

12.6. AFTO Form 76, C-135 Aircraft Structural Assessment Data. C-135 FEs will complete AFTO Form 76 outlined in TO 1C-135A-101. Leave completed forms in the AFTO Form 781 binder. C-135 FEs will also complete an inflight data card. Compute 3-engine data prior to takeoff. When actual temperature deviation is not known, use the standard temperature +10 degrees C. Complete the entire inflight data card as soon as possible after reaching initial cruise altitude and after each step climb. Recompute the data once each hour until the 3-engine altitude is equal to or higher than actual cruise altitude. Thereafter, recompute as required. Calculations are based on the actual aircraft gross weight at each cruise segment.

12.7. AMC Form 139, C-25/C-135/C-137 Mission History. Complete this or other theater approved form for all missions exceeding 5 hours. Procedures for form completion will be unit-developed.

12.8. Mission Flight Planning and Weight and Balance Documentation (UH-1). Units publish this information in chapter 10.

12.9. Not used

Chapter 13


13.1. General. This chapter outlines procedures for inflight passenger service specialists (IPSS) not in the aircraft flight manuals or elsewhere in this instruction.

13.2. Responsibilities. Primary responsibilities of the IPSS are to act as cabin representative of the AC, provide cabin service, instruct passengers in using emergency equipment when required, and direct and control passengers under emergency conditions. On multi-IPSS crews, the first IPSS acts as IPSS supervisor and assigns specific duties and responsibilities to each IPSS.

13.3. Not used

13.4. Premission Duties:

13.4.1. Contact the AC or navigator for draft itinerary times and any information already received concerning cabin service requirements. Anticipate meal requirements from the itinerary and draft menu items that could be provided as suggestions.

13.4.2. Call or visit the mission contact officer to determine requirements.

13.5. Preflight Duties. The first IPSS will conduct an IPSS briefing to assign IPSS positions and duties.

13.5.1. Perform applicable preflight checklists. Check to see that AMC Form 365, Passenger Briefing Card, or applicable passenger information cards are properly distributed.

13.5.2. Prepare meals as required.

13.5.3. Pick up or prepare passenger manifests as appropriate. Turn in any required border clearance forms.

13.5.4. Coordinate baggage loading. If loading space-available passengers at a non-United States military facility, perform antihijacking inspections as directed by the AC.

13.5.5. Coordinate passenger boarding.

13.5.6. Before takeoff, brief passengers as directed by the AC.

13.6. Passenger Handling. Observe these general rules:

Coordinate with the AC before answering questions about the mission.
Do not unduly alarm passengers by relaying details of abnormal conditions not readily discernible by passengers.
Keep the AC informed of all passenger problems, unusual requests, etc.

13.7. Border Clearance. Public Health, Customs, Immigration, and Agriculture require certain forms for border clearance. The IPSS is the custodian for these and other forms that are required. Ensure required forms are aboard the aircraft prior to takeoff. Distribute forms to passengers and crew for completion prior to landing. Deliver these forms to the proper persons at en route and terminating stations.

13.8. En Route and Postflight Duties. Monitor the passenger cabin. Assure passenger safety and comfort.

Prepare and serve meals, snacks, and beverages as required.
Distribute magazines, blankets, pillows, and other comfort items as needed.
Be attentive to passenger needs.
Prior to arrival, complete border clearance forms as required.
Assist passengers deplaning.
Unload baggage and assist in transfer to passengers' transport.
Inspect passenger cabin for personal items. If passenger baggage or personal items are inadvertently left behind, inform the AC who will immediately take positive action to have the item delivered to the passenger.
Clean passenger cabin, lavatories, and galley areas. Vacuum carpets, if required.
Arrange or procure food and beverages required for subsequent mission legs.

13.9. Not used

13.10. MEGP Procedures. Manifest MEGP personnel on DD Form 2131, Passenger Manifest. Give the AC one copy and retain sufficient copies for border clearance requirements .

13.11 through 13.13. Not used

13.14. AMC Form 409, Mission Planning Worksheet:

This form or other theater-approved form is designed to assist the IPSS in organizing passenger service requirements. The reverse of the form is a checklist to help inventory mission supplies.
Record details received from the contact officer on the front of the form. Use the reverse as a premission or preflight check-off list.
The unit may overprint local requirements on the reverse of the form.

13.15. AMC Form 410, Mission Expense Record:

13.15.1. AMC Form 410 or other theater-approved form is used to record all expenses related to passenger services. Units may develop local procedures for form completion.

13.15.2. Complete AMC Form 410 in four copies. Turn in the original and third copy to the fund custodian when the account is settled. Give the on-board contact the second copy. Turn in the fourth copy to the IPSS NCOIC. Ensure the on-board escort officer understands all entries. The AC and first IPSS must sign. If an escort officer is not aboard, indicate in the applicable signature block "not on board." All items in the "billing data" block must be completed unless a cash settlement is made. If fund money is used, attach receipts for all expenditures to fund accountant's copy of AMC Form 410.

exception: If a cash settlement is made, give all receipts to the on-board escort officer.

If unable to get a receipt from a vendor, prepare an itemized list of purchases. Sign and date this list.
Total receipts must equal the amount shown as "total passenger expense" less the cost of liquor miniatures. No purchase for personal use, crew meals, or other missions may appear on the passenger AMC Form 410. Obtain separate receipts or subtract applicable items. Passenger AMC Form 410 has a 5 percent surcharge added on bills totalling over $50. Attach a copy of the passenger manifest indicating passengers on board for each mission leg to the AMC Form 409 for all accounts to be billed.
Chapter 14


14.1. General. This chapter outlines CSO procedures for not covered elsewhere.

14.2. Responsibilities. The CSO is responsible for inspecting, operating, and maintaining all communications-electronic equipment aboard the aircraft while on a mission.

Assure communications resources are available.
Monitor and safeguard all classified material. Only communications systems operators are authorized access to the aircraft safe.
Distribute message traffic aboard the aircraft. Communications systems operators will not courier classified message traffic received during ground operations. If messages are received when the addressee is away from the aircraft, notify the addressee or representative when message is or will be available for pickup.

14.3. Premission Procedures:
Coordinate with the user's communications agency to determine mission communication requirements.
Determine spare communication and electronic equipment requirements and arrange procurement.
Determine crypto kit requirements (including communication codes and authenticators).
Notify unit current operations of all special communication system support requirements. They will coordinate availability with applicable agencies. Include the Andrews AFB aeronautical station as an addressee on mission itinerary messages when special communication support is required. If the user has already coordinated required support, say so in the message.

14.4. Preflight Procedures. Accomplish according to directives.

14.5. Inflight Procedures:

14.5.1. Assure primary and secondary HF voice circuits are available:

Maintain continuous phone patch capability.
Transmit departure and arrival reports and other command and control communications.
Transmit HF oceanic position reports. Coordinate oceanic clearance when UHF or VHF contact is not possible.
Relay DV messages as required.
Record all ATC clearances.
Monitor capsule broadcasts at appropriate time for respective operating area as noted in FLIP.

14.5.2. Arrange passenger phone patch service.

14.5.3. Receive and distribute message traffic. Assure classified messages are stamped with applicable markings.

14.5.4. Maintain radio logs for all missions:

Initiate a log for each mission leg.
If it is operationally impossible to maintain a complete log, document all notifications of early or late arrivals, unusual occurrences, and other items that you feel could require future reference.

14.6. Postflight Procedures:

After passengers have deplaned, inspect passenger compartments for classified material.
Secure all classified materials and equipment. Put all classified waste in a burn bag marked with the highest classification, handling instructions, and mission number.

14.7. Postmission Procedures:

Turn in crypto kits.
Debrief applicable agencies.
Chapter 15


Section A--General Information

15.1. Mission:

15.1.1. The primary function of OSA for AE is transport of ill or injured DoD members and their dependents for single patient transfers requiring little or no medical support. These AE missions may be directed at any time. OSA aircraft will only be used with the concurrence of the appropriate theater medical validating authority.

15.1.2. Opportune AE Missions. Opportune airlift is preferred to launching a special airlift aircraft. The appropriate AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) and airlift agency (EXAMPLE: TACC) should direct the move. Use of opportune airlift is considered an unscheduled AE mission, and managed or reported in the same manner as any other AE mission, to include the change of the mission number when patients are onboard. As a minimum, the MCD and CMT on these missions will both be qualified C-9, C-17, C-130, or C-141 crewmembers.

15.1.3. AE personnel will utilize the procedures in applicable 41-series Air Force instructions and handbooks in conjunction with this publication to accomplish the AE mission.

15.2. Definitions. (See attachment 1.)

15.3. Deviations and Waivers. Waiver requests to this chapter must be processed through AMC Command and Control channels, and first approved by HQ AMC/SG and then appropriate director of operations (DO). For overseas operations, waivers will be processed through theater command and control channels and first approved by the medical validating authority and then the appropriate DO.

15.4. Aeromedical Evacuation Forms. Forms required will be according to AFJP 41-313, and applicable Air Force 41-series instructions or handbooks.

15.5. Not used

Section B--Aeromedical Evacuation C2

15.6. Operational Control and Reporting of Aeromedical Forces:

15.6.1. AMC headquarters is responsible for the overall management of AE service. The AC is responsible for ensuring the safety of the flight and aeromedical crew, and all patients and passengers. The MCD or senior AECM is responsible for providing medical care to the patients. In matters concerning flight safety, decisions of operations personnel are final; in matters of patient care, decisions of aeromedical crew are final.

15.6.2. OPCON of aeromedical evacuation missions is the same as for other airlift missions.

15.6.3. The AMC Command Surgeon (HQ AMC/SG) is responsible for providing standards and procedures concerning the treatment of patients inflight, and for approval of medical equipment used on AE missions.

15.6.4. AECMs will integrate with the flight crew. The MCD or senior AECM will advise the AC when a patient's condition or use of medical equipment may affect aircraft operations.

15.6.5. If available, the AEOO is responsible for supervising flightline execution of aeromedical evacuation missions. The MCD or senior AECM is directly responsible for the safety and medical well-being of patients on the aircraft and coordinates enplaning and deplaning procedures with the AEOO and supporting agencies.

15.7. Aircraft Commander Responsibilities:

Assist the MCD or senior AECM in obtaining patient support requirements based on local availability.
Brief the aeromedical crew on the mission, flight plan, flight profile, and current threat (if applicable)
Maintain cabin altitude at the level requested by the AECC (GPMRC/TPMRC)/MCD/senior AECM.
Coordinate with the MCD or senior AECM to determine if any flight restrictions are necessary due to patient conditions and if passengers or cargo may be carried.
Coordinate with the MCD or senior AECM to ensure mission required equipment is available/installed as necessary.
Advise the AECMs of intentions to start engines, taxi, itinerary changes, in-flight difficulties, etc.
Brief the MCD or senior AECM on additional responsibilities of the flight crew.
Ensures patients and passengers are briefed concerning emergency egress, cabin safety, and visits to the flight crew compartment.
Transmit medical movement coordination messages as requested by the MCD or senior AECM.
Coordinate crash and rescue unit requirements when transiting airfields that are unfamiliar with AE requirements. Crash and rescue will stand by according to AFPD 32-20, Fire Protection, and TO 00-125-72, Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Ground/Bonding.

15.8. Flight Crew Responsibilities:

Assist the AE crew with aircraft systems.
Provide AECMs with a walk around of the aircraft and brief AECMs on emergency egress.
Coordinate an emergency evacuation plan with the MCD or senior AECM.
Operate aircraft systems, i.e. doors, ramps, emergency exits, etc.
Assist the aeromedical crew as necessary, providing such assistance does not interfere with primary duties.
Keep the aircraft as clean as possible.
Operate galley and prepare food and beverages for food service provided to patients by AECMs (if applicable).
Configure aircraft for AE operations.
Complete preflight and emergency briefings.
Control of the passengers is the responsibility of the flight crew.

15.9. Aeromedical Crew Responsibilities:

Primarily responsible for patient activities.
Assist flight crew with aircraft AE configuration.
Install and remove medical equipment and supplies.
Assist flight crew with observation and care of passengers when it doesn't interfere with primary duties.
The MCD or senior AECM will coordinate with the AC for integration of the flight and aeromedical crew for continuing missions in which no crew changes take place including en route transportation, dining, billeting, etc.
Control of patients rests with the MCD or senior AECM.

15.10. Patient Death Inflight. When a death or suspected death of a patient occurs in-flight, the planned itinerary will not be interrupted if the next scheduled stop is a military airfield. If the next stop is a civilian or foreign military airfield, that stop will be overflown (mission requirements allowing). Coordination with command and control channels is essential. Specific guidelines are in applicable 41-XXX series Air Force publications.

Section C--Aeromedical Crew Complement and Management

15.11. Aeromedical Crew Complement:

15.11.1. Aircrew Qualification. AECMs must be fully qualified on the C-9, C-17, C-130, or C-141 aircraft, and are authorized to log primary flight time while performing duties on operational AE missions. Prior to being utilized as an aeromedical crew member on OSA aircraft, AECMs must receive a briefing in the following areas; emergency egress, oxygen and electrical system capability as it relates to patient or emergency use, and an aircraft walk around by a qualified crewmember prior to takeoff. The pilot or copilot is responsible for emergency egress and cabin safety.

15.11.2. Crew Complement. A basic AE crew consists of two FNs and three AETs. An alert crew consists of one FN, or one AET, or a combination which includes one of each. The crew complement can be adjusted by group or squadron senior nurse executive. The group or squadron senior nurse executive is the final authority for increasing or decreasing the number of aeromedical crewmembers assigned to an AE mission. Augmentation of the basic AE crew is authorized based on patient or mission requirements. Physicians, nurses, medical technicians, or other personnel designated as medical attendants to specific patients does not extend crew duty time. Basic crews will not be augmented after crew duty has started.

15.11.3. The appropriate AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) will notify the CCC or flying organization operations officer of the AE crew complement for each AE mission on OSA aircraft.

15.12. Aeromedical Crew Management. AECMs will be managed like other aircrew members. (See chapter 3.)

15.13. Not used

Section D--Aeromedical Aircrew Procedures

15.14. Checklists:

15.14.1. General. This MCI and AFI 11-215 set policy and provide guidance for standardization of contents and maintenance of flight crew checklists. Maintain checklistsd according to AFI 11-215/AMC Supplement 1.

15.14.2. Applicability. This MCI applies to all AECMs assigned to AMC and AMC-gained air ANG and USAFR units. It also applies to theater-assigned AECMs performing AE duties on the C-12/21 aircraft.

15.14.3. During all aircraft operations, AECMs will use the guidance contained in their abbreviated checklists.

15.14.4. Only HQ AMC/SG approved inserts and briefings pertaining to crew positions will be kept in the abbreviated flight crew checklist binders.

15.14.5. Information in the AECM checklists will not be changed except by published revisions or changes.

Section E--Aeromedical Airlift Operations

15.15. General:

15.15.1. Determining Factors. Consider the following factors when transporting patients on OSA aircraft; patient's diagnosis, condition, equipment, oxygen requirements, in-flight time, in-flight patient care requirements, and the number of medical personnel required. Emphasis must always be on providing quality and appropriate care while minimizing potential risks during transport.

15.15.2. Patient Load Planning Factors. AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) determines size and composition of patient load on AE missions. AE mission planning factors will be according to applicable 41-series Air Force publications.

15.15.3. Patient Preparation. A flight surgeon, if available, will determine the patient's suitability for aeromedical evacuation on the C-12 and C-21 aircraft. Medical authorities requesting the patient's evacuation must be informed of the in-flight physical stress on the patient. If the MCD or senior AECM determines the patient's medical condition is beyond the capability of the aeromedical crew or aircraft, contact the theater AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) for further guidance. The MCD or senior AECM, in coordination with the appropriate theater medical validating authority, may refuse to accept any patient whose medical condition is beyond their capability. The MCD or senior AECM will advise the AC when a patient's condition or use of medical equipment may affect aircraft operation.

15.15.4. Equipment for AE Missions. Prior to use onboard AE missions, medical equipment must be tested and deemed air worthy, and then approved for use by HQ AMC/SG. For those unique patient moves requiring equipment that has not met the above criteria, contact GPMRC for approval prior to use onboard the aircraft (applies to that specific mission only). AECMs are responsible for all medical supplies and equipment.

15.15.5. Aircraft Security. See chapter 7.

15.16. En Route Diversions:

15.16.1. The MCD or senior AECM is the medical authority onboard all AE missions and has the responsibility to determine what is beneficial or detrimental to the patients. If a physician is onboard, as an attendant, he or she will make decisions involving that specific patient's care and may be consulted for advice as appropriate. Specific guidelines are in applicable 41-series Air Force instructions and handbooks.

15.16.2. Should a diversion become necessary due to a change in patient's condition, the AC will make every effort to comply with the requests of the MCD or senior AECM. Establish communications with the responsible CCC, which, in turn, will relay the information to the appropriate AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC).

15.16.3. Should an en route diversion become necessary for reasons other than change in patient's condition, the AC will coordinate with the MCD or senior AECM before deciding the point of landing. Welfare of the patients is a prime consideration in all such decisions; however, safety is the final determinant. The AC notifies the responsible CCC of diversion and requests appropriate medical agencies be notified.

15.16.4. Normally, patients on the mission will be advised of changes in itinerary and reasons for the diversion.

15.16.5. If the MCD or senior AECM determines the diversion will be detrimental to a patient, or the AC determines the diversion to be unsafe, the CCC will be advised and guidance requested.

15.17. Ground Handling:

15.17.1. Engines should be shut down during enplaning and deplaning of patients.

15.17.2. Park aircraft so that doors and ramps used for enplaning and deplaning are upwind or on the windward side of the aircraft if possible. Remaining exits may be closed, but will not be locked.

15.18. Refueling Operations:

15.18.1. When possible, the aircraft should be refueled prior to enplaning patients. Servicing will be according to AFPD 32-20 and TO 00-125-72.

15.18.2. Concurrent servicing (if required) may be accomplished with patients onboard provided:

Loading ramps or stairs are in place for immediate use and exits are opened for egress.
Aircraft is thoroughly ventilated.
An AECM will remain onboard at all times.

15.18.3. If cabin lights, lavatories, electrical power to operate medical equipment, and aircraft interphone are operating prior to refueling, then they may continue to operate during servicing operations.

15.18.4. Patients and passengers will not enter or exit the aircraft during servicing. Crewmembers may enter the aircraft in the performance of duties. A member of the flight crew must be onboard at all times.

15.19. Aircraft Pressurization:

15.19.1. Normally, altitude restrictions are passed from the AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) to C2 channels for flight planning purposes. The MCD or senior AECM will advise the pilot of any new cabin altitude or rate of cabin altitude change restrictions during the preflight briefing update.

15.19.2. Emergency oxygen for AECMs and patients must be provided.

15.19.3. Therapeutic oxygen is not available on the aircraft and must be brought onboard for patient use.

15.20. Aircraft Configuration:

15.20.1. The AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) MCD or senior AECM determines the size and composition of the patient load onboard AE missions. Load planning will be according to theater guidelines for the C-12 and C-21 aircraft.

15.20.2. On dedicated AE missions, configure the aircraft during preflight.

15.20.3. On C-12 and C-21 aircraft there are provisions for two litter patients.

15.20.4. Patients not normally transported on OSA aircraft:

Patients on a Stryker turning frame. The Stryker "A" frame can be carried, but is not recommended due to the difficulty in onloading or offloading on some OSA aircraft.
Any patient with a high potential for seizure activity, combativeness, or requiring constant suctioning.
Unstable cardiac patients, cardiac patients requiring a cardiac monitor, patients with a recent history of chest pains or requiring intravenous therapy en route.
Respiratory problems requiring large amounts of therapeutic oxygen, ventilator support, or frequent suctioning.
Patients with contagious illness.
High risk neonates without special medical supervision from a neonatal team.

15.21. Passengers and Cargo:

15.21.1. With the concurrence of the MCD or senior AECM, the AC will ensure maximum aircraft utilization for passengers and cargo. Passenger restrictions based on patient considerations will be identified when seats are released. At stations with an AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC), the AEOO or AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) will advise the appropriate CCC on the number of seats available for passengers.

15.21.2. If space is released, decision of whether passengers or cargo will be carried will be made by the air terminal operations center (ATOC).

15.21.3. Cargo and passengers may be carried with patients unless a clear detriment to the health and well-being of the patient can be demonstrated. Considering the need for maximum utilization of the aircraft, decision will be made by the MCD or senior AECM. Conflicts will be referred to the respective AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) for a decision.

15.22. Crash Coverage and Fire Protection:

15.22.1. Aircraft carrying patients will be provided crash and fire protection according to AFPD 32-20. Stand-by is not necessary during normal operations. The aircrew will coordinate crash and fire protection requirements when transiting airfields where they are unfamiliar with aeromedical evacuation requirements. At non-AMC bases and civilian airfields, the AC will request coverage, as necessary.

15.22.2. When this service is unavailable due to austere conditions, forward operations, or hostile environments, request personnel at the onload or offload airfield provide crash coverage and fire protection (as required).

15.23. AE Call Sign and Use Of Priority Clearance:

15.23.1. For AE missions, use the call sign "E" followed by the 5-digit aircraft number or mission designator as required by FLIP (EXAMPLE: E 12345, ATC will call you "evac" or "air evac"). When the AE portion of the mission is completed, normal call signs will then be used.

15.23.2. The AE "priority" will be used only when carrying a sick or seriously injured patient who requires urgent medical attention. The patient need not be classified "urgent." AE priority will only be used for that portion of the flight requiring expedited handling. Pilots should request priority handling if AE missions are experiencing long delays during takeoff or landing phases, that will affect a patient's condition.

15.23.3. Paragraph 15.23.2 does not allow use of this priority status simply to avoid ATC delays, make block and departure times, or avoid inconveniences. ATC agencies do not question the motive when an AE priority is declared. Use this status judiciously.

15.24. Not used

15.25. Load Message:

At military bases, the flight crew will pass inbound load messages to proper command and control personnel. At civilian airfields, ground control will be notified.
The MCD or senior AECM will complete an appropriate "AE mission offload message" according to applicable 41-series Air Force instructions and handbooks.

15.26. Change In Patient Status. Change in patient status will be managed according to applicable 41-series Air Force instructions and handbooks.

15.27 and 15.28. Not used

Chapter 16


16.1. General. This chapter outlines duties and responsibilities of aircraft crew chiefs assigned to accompany their aircraft on missions. Crew chiefs will fly with their aircraft when directed. The crew chief is on flying status according to AFI 11-402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Ratings and Badges, and listed on the flight authorization as an integral member of the aircrew.

16.2. Responsibilities. The crew chief is the primary aircraft mechanic and assists flight engineers in maintaining mission-ready aircraft status. The crew chief will:

16.2.1. Monitor aircraft servicing at all stations. Assist as needed.

16.2.2. Accomplish preflight, thru-flight, and postflight inspections as required. Assist flight engineers during preflight as needed.

16.2.3. Manage the aircraft's en route mission support kit (MSK). Maintain the MSK log and ensure defective parts and parts are properly documented.

16.2.4. Perform en route and inflight maintenance as required.

16.2.5. Assist during aircraft block-out and block-in.

16.2.6. Maintain AFTO Forms 781 series. Coordinate maintenance discrepancies entered in AFTO 781A.

16.2.7. Be responsible for the jet fuel identaplate.

16.2.8. When only one flight engineer is required, the AC may designate a crew chief to perform scanner duties.

16.3. Briefings. The crew chief will attend the AC's premission aircrew briefing.

16.3.1. Assure the required fuel load is aboard. Arrange aircraft towing when required. Assure required aerospace ground equipment is available. Check and connect air cart and external power. Assist in placing boarding steps and ramps in position. Accomplish appropriate checklists. Plug engines and secure aircraft.

16.3.2. Monitor all maintenance being performed at en route stations. If supply support is required from home station, obtain the applicable part number, page number, and index number from the appropriate technical order. Coordinate before ordering the needed part.

16.3.3. Attend the aircrew maintenance debriefing.

Chapter 19


MAJCOMs will publish command-specific operating guidelines as a supplement to this chapter. The title of the supplement will indicate the command concerned (for example, "PACAF Specific Guidance") and paragraph numbering will correspond to the basic instruction numbering system in all applicable chapters. Comply with chapter 1, paragraph 1.5.

Director of Operations, AMC

Director of Operations, ACC

Director of Operations, AETC

Director of Operations, AFMC

Director of Operations, AFSPC

Director of Operations, PACAF

M. P. DOOLEY, Colonel, USAF
Director of Operations, USAFE

Director, ANG


Section A--References

TO 00-125-72, Ground Servicing of Aircraft and Static Ground/Bonding
AFI 10-707, Spectrum Interference Resolution Program
AFI 11-2, Flight Rules and Procedures
AFJI 11-204, Operational Procedures for Aircraft Carrying Hazardous Materials
AFI 11-206, General Flight Rules
AFMAN 11-217, Instrument Flying
AFI 11-218, Aircraft Operation and Movement on the Ground
AFI 11-401, Flight Management
AFI 11-402, Aviation and Parachutist Service, Aeronautical Ratings and Badges
AMCI 21-101, Maintenance Management Policy
AFI 23-202, Buying Petroleum Products, and Other Supplies and Services Off Station.
AFMAN 24-204 , Preparing Hazardous Material for Military Air Shipment
AFPD 24-4, Customs and Border Clearance
AFI 24-401, Customs--Europe
AFI 24-402, Customs--Pacific
AFI 24-403, Customs--Southern
AFI 24-404, Customs--Domestic
AFI 24-405, Department of Defense Foreign Clearance Guide
AFI 31-209, The Air Force Resource Protection Program
AFI 31-401, Managing the Information Security Program
AFI 32-2001, The Fire Protection Operations and Fire Prevention Program
AFI 36-2903, Dress and Personal Appearance of Air Force Personnel
AFMAN 37-139, Disposition of Air Force Records - Records Disposition Schedule
AFPD 41-3, Worldwide Aeromedical Evacuation
AFI 41-302, Aeromedical Evacuation Operations and Management
AMCP 55-17, C-135A/B Fuel Planning Manual (per PACAF request)
AMCR 76-1, Volume I, Chapter 16, Border Clearance
AFI 91-202, The US Air Force Mishap Prevention Program
AFI 91-204, Investigating and Reporting US Air Force Mishaps
DoDR 4515.13, Air Transportation Eligibility
DoDR 5030.49, Customs Inspection
ACP 160 US Supp-1
NORAD Regulation 55-67
USAFER 60-17

Section B--Abbreviations and Acronyms

ACM Additional crewmembers
ADIZ Air defense identification zone
AEOO Aeromedical Evacuation Operations Officer
AET Aeromedical Evacuation Technician
ATC Air Traffic Control
BDHI Bearing Distance Heading Indicator
CC Commander
CCC Command and Control Centers
CDR Crash Data Recorder
CDT Crew Duty Time
CLS Contract Logistics Support
CONUS Continental United States
CRM Crew Resource Management
CSO Concurrent Servicing Operations
CSS Chief Servicing Supervisor
CVR Cockpit voice recorder
DOV Deputy Commander of Operations Standardization and Evaluation
DR Dead Reckon
DV Distinguished Visitors
ERO Engines Running Offload and Onload
ETP Equal Time Point
FCF Functional Check Flights
FCG Foreign Clearance Guide (AFI 24-405)
FCIF Flight Crew Information File
FDR Flight Data Recorder
FE Flight Engineer
FLIP Flight Information Publications
FM Flight Mechanic
FN Flight Nurse
FSAS Fuel Savings Advisory System
GS Ground Speed
HAA Height Above Airport
HAT Height Above Touchdown
HATR Hazardous Air Traffic Report
HSI Horizontal Situation Indicator
IFF SIF Information, Friend or Foe; Selective Identification Feature
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
ILS Instrument Landing System
INS Inertial Navigation System
IPSS Inflight Passenger Service Specialist
LOP Line of Position
MEGP Mission Essential Ground Personnel
MMO Mobility Mission Observer
MSC Medical Service Corps
MSK Mission Support Kit
MTF Medical Treatment Facilities
NAVAID Navigational aids
NOAA United States Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
OCR Office of Collateral Responsibility
OG Operations Group
OGE Out-of-Ground Effect
OPR Office of Primary Responsibility
OSA Operational Support Airlift
OSE Operational Site Evaluation
PDO Publishing Distribution Office
POL Petroleum Oil and Lubricants
RA Radio Altimeter
TACC Tanker Airlift Control Center
TAS True Airspeed
USEUCOM United States European Command

Section C--Definitions

Aeromedical Evacuation (AE)--Movement of patients under medical supervision between MTFs by air transportation.

Aeromedical Evacuation Coordination Center (AECC)--A medical element established to operate in conjunction with CCC. The AECC (GPMRC or TPMRC) coordinates overall medical requirements with airlift capabilities, and monitors patient movement.

Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmember (AECM)--Qualified flight nurse (FN) and aeromedical evacuation technician (AET) performing AE duties.

Aeromedical Evacuation Operations Officer (AEOO)--An MSC officer or medical administrative specialist or technician (AFSC 4A0X1) assigned to the AE system to perform duties outlined in AFPD 41-3, AFJI 41-301, other applicable 41-series Air Force instructions and handbooks, and this MCI.

Aeromedical Readiness Mission (ARM)--Training missions using simulated patients to prepare for wartime or contingency movement of patients.

Charge Medical Technician (CMT)--An AET responsible for ensuring completion of enlisted aeromedical crew duties.

Global Patient Movement Requirements Center (GPMRC)--Responsible for coordinating all patient movement once mission arrives at the CONUS reception aerial port, ensuring patients are continued to final destinations as appropriate, and notifying receiving MTFs of aircraft arrival time as well as types and numbers of patients to be offloaded.

Medical Crew Director (MCD)--An FN responsible for supervision of patient-care and aeromedical crew assigned to AE missions. On missions where an FN is not onboard, the senior AET will function as the MCD.

Theater Patient Movement Requirements Center (TPMRC)--Responsible for coordination and requirements for patient movement from communication zone (COMMZ) to CONUS.