a. The Army Concept for Space provides a benchmark for the Army's
disciplined evolution to the future, using the Army's principle doctrinal publication, FM 1005,
Operations, and emerging concepts as the foundation for articulating required space capabilities. This
concept focuses on the employment of space system capabilities that will support the Army's strategic,
operational and tactical missions across the operational continuum in the near, mid, and farterm.
b. Space capabilities are essential to promote national security and to deter aggression. The world
geopolitical environment requires the Army to be capable of executing multiple missions, across the
operational continuum, in support of the national military strategy. To accomplish these missions, the
Army must project its power and influence from the Continental U.S. (CONUS), or other staging
areas, to support operations anywhere in the world. This requires the capability to conduct timely
worldwide reconnaissance and surveillance, to effectively communicate and disseminate information
among forces, to know the precise location of friendly and enemy force elements, and to deny the
enemy knowledge of friendly operations, capabilities or intentions. Integrating space capabilities into
Army operations offers a substantial increase in the Army's ability to satisfy requirements at the
strategic, operational and tactical levels of warfare or operations other than war.
c. The U.S. will face a broad spectrum of conflicts ranging from peacetime competition to global war.
The diversity of missions and the lethality of future battlefields requires the integration of capabilities
that will increase readiness, combat power and force survivability. The Army must be capable of
adapting to the demands of the situation. Employment of space systems will enhance the Army's
overall capabilities, lighten the force and improve the "toothtotail" ratio. The ability to see and
communicate, regardless of distance or theater maturity, enables Army forces to react faster than the
enemy and to execute their missions more effectively and efficiently. Assured access to space systems
is essential to Army operations. Satellites provide the means for enhancing command and control,
facilitating the maneuver of forces, reducing the commander's uncertainty, and improving fire support,
air defense, intelligence collection, and combat service support operations. The success of future
Army missions will be enhanced by further development and optimum integration of space operations
into land operations.
d. Realignment of international relationships and alliances, coupled with social, economic and
political changes will continue to create a period of uncertainty for the Army. The proliferation of
weapons and technology, to include missiles and access to satellite systems and their capabilities and
products, is increasing. International willingness to share or sell these capabilities and products is also
increasing. These trends will continue. In this environment, it will be common for Army forces to be
confronted by adversaries with high technology systems. The increased capabilities of regional powers
and the instability found in many nations will pose the most probable threats to U.S. security and
e. While the Soviet Union has collapsed, its space capabilities remain viable and are potentially the
greatest threat to U.S. interests in space. It is probable that former Soviet states will market "dualuse"
space systems, i.e., systems that have military significance and also have commercial/civil uses, to
obtain foreign currency and improve their economic position. Increasing numbers of nations will
exploit the use of space systems and related technologies to enhance their national interests. They will
develop, acquire or gain access to more sophisticated space systems and equipment, resulting in an
increase in national warfighting capabilities, including the expansion of antisatellite (ASAT)
capabilities. This could result in strategic or regional imbalance and instability, increasing the threats
to U.S. national interests. Operationally, this would lessen the advantage that deployed U.S. forces
have had with their access to space systems and spacebased products.
f. As space systems become more important to the success of military operations, they will become
highvalue targets and subject to both direct and indirect, e.g., intentional jamming of communications
satellites, attack. In the nearterm, attack of selected space systems or capabilities is extremely
difficult to accomplish. Future technologies may permit the attack of selected satellites in the mid
and farterm. This will require development of greater protection and survivability techniques for U.S.
satellites. Vulnerability may be eliminated or reduced by "hardening" individual satellites or through
redundancy, i.e., increased number of smaller satellites.
g. The Army routinely operates with other military services, national agencies or other nations to
protect U.S. national interests. Space systems enhance interoperability and facilitate coordination
during joint and combined operations, especially in immature theaters of operation. These theaters
may have little or no supporting civilian or military infrastructure. Spacebased systems provide the
capability required to operate in such an austere environment without the need to deploy and install
networks of ground terminals and relays. Satellites can provide worldwide responsiveness and
interoperability needed for communications and information exchange. Access to these assets by joint,
combined and interagency organizations facilitates coordination, standardization and understanding of
intent across the operational continuum.
a. Army doctrine, proposed revisions to doctrine, and emerging operational concepts emphasize the
requirement to seize the initiative when executing missions across the operational continuum. This
necessitates the rapid projection of influence to support operations short of war and the projection of
combat power in times of crisis. The major focus of Army space operations is to provide assured
global access to satellites. Globally responsive command and control and information distribution
systems are essential to the readiness, deployability, effectiveness and survivability of Army forces.
b. Space is an operational domain that the Army must exploit. Space capabilities are imperative for
the successful execution of the Army's strategic, operational and tactical missions. Space capabilities
significantly alter and enhance the nature of Army operations. Experience has demonstrated the
operational and tactical advantages of space systems. Responsive, large area coverage and direct
access to widely separated locations are vital to the planning and execution of Army operations. The
success of future operations and retention of a decisive advantage over potential adversaries will
depend on further research, development, integration and application of space capabilities.
c. The U.S. military strategy has changed as a result of fundamental changes in the political environment,
both abroad and at home. While the future Army continues to be a strategic force, the Army has become
smaller in size, with fewer forces based overseas. Subsequently, the Army must be more versatile,
providing an increased number of strategic options for the National Command Authority, to include the
protection of the U.S., its allies and deployed U.S. forces. The Army's roles in support of commandersinchief
(CINC) implementation of the national military strategy include:
Providing forces for forward
Maintaining combatready forces
for power projection.
Maintaining forces for
Participating in interagency operations
and providing support to civil authority.
Contributing to regional stability
through support to allies.
d. Space systems are vital for Army operations. Space capabilities are integral to the Army's strategic
roles and are important "force multipliers" for operational and tactical missions. Satellites in orbit are
forward deployed, mission ready and responsive to user requirements around the world. Space assets
can be used to acquire and distribute timely information that reduces the level of uncertainty about a
given situation or condition without revealing interest or intent. The worldwide presence of space
systems enhances stability by permitting the U.S. and its allies to see the area of operations and provides
early warning of activities adverse to U.S. interests. During combat, this would include information
about an adversary's readiness, force location and posture, direction of movement, and terrain/battlefield
visualization, thereby facilitating power projection and knowledgeable entry into a theater. These same
space systems provide information essential to security assistance, nation building, disaster relief and
humanitarian assistance operations. Satellites provide the means for assessing disasters, predicting crop
growth, and analyzing the development of a nation's infrastructure in support of non-combat operations.
a. The Army will become more involved with other services, national agencies and nations to protect
U.S. national interests. The ability of the Army to conduct a wide variety of operations under various
command and control relationships will be essential in future operations. The Army must be capable
of supporting non-combat operations as well as warfighting. The diversity of missions, coupled with
anticipated budget restrictions mandates the Army do more with less, i.e., use all available capabilities
to increase the operational effectiveness of the force without increasing the force structure. In response
to the commander's needs, space systems can provide near realtime information and data dissemination.
In the future, space systems will be able to fuse data and generate tactical decision aids based on the
mission, enemy situation, troops available, terrain and time (METTT).
b. Power projection is the cornerstone of the successful implementation of the national military strategy.
Space systems currently in orbit are highly reliable and can support the Army prior to and during
deployment. Satellites provide the initial communication, surveillance and weather system infrastructures
to support deployability. Satellites gather information and provide a means for rapid dissemination of
data to appropriate echelons of command. Space assets facilitate mission planning, enhance deployability
by reducing the amount and size of groundbased equipment that must be transported and ensure
knowledgeable entry into and exit from the area of operations.
c. Lethality is essential for the rapid defeat of an adversary. The ability of the commander to effectively
command and control forces, and to see the battlefield, regardless of size or maturity, permits Army forces
to react faster than the enemy. This quick reaction can be obtained by the application of spacerelated
capabilities. Nearrealtime communications and intelligence, precise positioning and location information
and environmental monitoring translate directly into increased weapon system performance and lethality
for Army forces.
d. The Army must be able to meet several threats to U.S. national interests simultaneously. This may
require expanding the size of the active Army by activating reserve components, creating new units and
mobilizing the industrial base. Accordingly, to support an expanding Army, space assets can be reallocated,
moved, leased or purchased, improving the operational effectiveness of the expanding force. The use of
civil and commercial systems, onorbit spares and a robust launch capability will increase the number of
space assets available to support Army users.
a. The Army Space Operations Concept describes the space capabilities the Army requires to support
its missions across the operational continuum in the near, mid and farterm. These capabilities will
evolve from the use of ground receivers in the nearterm, to direct, satellite to user, linkage in the farterm.
This evolution will permit tailoring of space capabilities, consistent with METTT, in support of all tactical
echelons. Tailoring includes reallocating or augmenting existing resources, e.g., configuring ground or
spacebased assets, or launching mission specific satellites to support Army requirements within the theater
of operation. The Army Space Operations Concept acknowledges that many of the unique capabilities provided
by space systems cannot be effectively provided to the Army by groundbased or airborne systems, during
either peacetime or wartime operations, and that actions are required now to ensure attainment of the near, mid,
and farterm capabilities addressed in this document. The figure below depicts the concept for the Army's
evolution of the use of space systems.
b. The strategy to integrate space into the Army may be summarized as follows:
These three phases occur concurrently, not sequentially. To gain the advantages in the mid and farterms,
appropriate actions must be initiated in the nearterm that will result in the desired outcome. Most U.S. space
systems were designed and justified to support strategic versus tactical requirements. These systems, however,
make valuable contributions to Army operations and, in times of crisis, have been tailored to satisfy Army
requirements and optimize force capabilities. The Army will continue to take full advantage of space systems
that will contribute to requirements solutions, regardless of the intent for which the system may have been
originally designed. This may continue to take the form of acquiring offthe shelf receivers and processors.
In the nearterm, acquire receivers
to take advantage, i.e., "leverage," currently deployed space system
In the midterm, acquire or
develop processors for more direct interface with space systems.
In the farterm, interface
with space systems that have been totally, or in part, designed to meet
specifically stated Army requirements.
c. In the nearterm, the Army:
Much of the Army's space support will be indirect. Existing systems link the space segment to a ground
segment that has specific capabilities and protocols, i.e., that require data to be received and processed
prior to further dissemination.
Uses existing space systems
Exploits new applications of existing
Plans for the use of programmed
systems and capabilities.
Participates with other services
or agencies in the development and operation of space systems.
d. Satellites augment terrestrial systems by providing the range extension necessary to support dispersed
operations and a means for tactical users to access the databases required to facilitate effective decisionmaking.
The information generated from available satellite systems provides Army commanders a view of the area
of operation. This view facilitates tailoring of forces and allocation of resources to accomplish assigned
objectives. Positioning and navigation data, some weather information, and communications capability will
be provided directly to selected users by space systems. Both combat and non-combat operations are
facilitated by space systems that provide communications, reconnaissance and surveillance, positioning and
navigation data, mapping, weather information, and target identification and acquisition. Some of the products
generated as a result of space capabilities may have application to a variety of areas not yet documented. The
Army will continue to acquire groundbased terminals to interface with space systems and their associated
processors to complement terrestrial systems in satisfying its requirements.
e. In the midterm, space applications will spread to new functional areas and Army operations will increasingly
depend on space capabilities. The Army will develop, deploy and operate small, lightweight, mobile
groundbased processors necessary to exploit the opportunities afforded by advancing space technology and
systems. The application of new space capabilities derived from systematic research offers greater force
enhancement and increases the ability to support Army forces conducting combat or non-combat operations.
In the midterm, mobile, groundbased processing terminals will be able to integrate, process and display
space derived weather, terrain, imagery and intelligence data with ground and airborne collection systems
to fuse data and generate products tailored to support the specific requirements of an Army force. This
capability will reduce analysis and processing time and improve decisionmaking and C2 throughout the Army.
a. During normal peacetime operations the Army must monitor world situations and prepare its units
for missions across the operational continuum. Space assets can cross international boundaries unobstructed
and perform two primary functions information gathering and information dissemination. The
information gained by the use of satellites may allow the U.S. to reach a political settlement in case of a
crisis or conflict without deploying Army forces. However, the information obtained by satellites
facilitates the development of predictive models, situation displays and simulations useful for planning
and training for any mission. Specifically, the Army employs space systems to detect the problem,
provide early warning, reduce the vulnerability of its forces and facilitate a knowledgeable entry into the
theater of operation. Predicated on the factors of METTT, Army forces are tailored, trained and equipped
to meet specific operational requirements.
b. Prior to deployment, satellite systems provide Army commanders with:
Communications to support responsive
command and control.
Intelligence and data to support
infrastructure analysis, mission planning, training and rehearsals.
Mapping and imagery to support
deployment and mission planning, terrain analysis and training.
Meteorology to support trafficability
analyses and route selection.
c. Continued enhancement of nearterm capabilities offers increasingly accessible and responsive
capabilities that increase the protection for the force. In the farterm, tailored space support speeds
the planning process at all echelons of command. Data from supporting systems will be processed,
collated and disseminated simultaneously, from space, to multiple users, thereby reducing the
proliferation, size and vulnerability of groundbased facilities.
Many of the decisions concerning what units will be deployed and when, will be based on information
gathered and disseminated by space systems. Based on this information, deploying units will be tailored
for combat or non-combat missions and sequenced into the area of operations. Space systems and
capabilities enhance deployability by facilitating a knowledgeable entry into the area of operations,
tracking movements and reducing the amount and size of equipment deployed. Satellites provide
communication connectivity, prior to deployment and enroute from the Continental U.S. (CONUS)
or forward staging areas to the destination, enhancing command and control. This connectivity and
the nearrealtime data provided by spacebased observation and environmental monitoring systems
enhance the flexibility and agility of Army forces. Once in theater, communications can be established
rapidly because the space infrastructure is already in place. Spacebased positioning and navigation systems
enhance command and control by enabling commanders to know the location of their forces. Using data
from the satellites, there are systems which can track critical assets throughout deployment by air or sea.
d. In the mid to farterm, command and control is further enhanced by:
Increased use of communications,
observation and imaging satellites compatible with other service and allied
Integration of space capabilities
with terrestrial systems to support deployment and battlefield
e. Whether in combat or non-combat operations, the force commander must establish conditions
conducive to effective operations. This is accomplished by isolating the enemy force or impediments to
stability, e.g., nontraditional threats, and seizing and maintaining the initiative. Helping develop economic
infrastructures, training and equipping indigenous security forces are representative of non-combat
operations that help create conditions to support decisive economic, political and informational programs.
In combat situations, friendly forces are positioned to facilitate decisive operations, shape the battlefield and
avoid enemy strengths. The timeliness of actions is critical to establish conditions for decisive operations
and to protect the force. This requires a current and accurate assessment of the situation in order to support
the allocation of resources.
f. Satellites provide sensor data or communications links to ground stations to enhance timely dissemination
of information to enable Army forces to detect and monitor critical events as they occur, influence the
decisionmaking process, enhance Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) and support total force
positioning. In the nearterm, observation, terrain sensing, weather, communication and positioning and
navigation satellites systems provide information that enhances the ability to position and track friendly forces
and resources, identify, detect and locate enemy forces and accurately display their disposition throughout
the depth of the theater. Multispectral imagery (MSI) from space has proven invaluable for mapping, geology,
agriculture, earth resources, oceanography and environmental monitoring. This data provides timely and
unique information to terrain analysts that can be integrated with other intelligence to support IPB for a more
complete picture of the battlefield. In the midterm, an increased number of mobile/transportable ground
processors provide a link from the space segment to Army tactical forces in the area of operation and manipulate
data to support specific informational requirements. In the farterm, satellites will provide onboard data
processing and disseminate information necessary for the operation of reconnaissancestrike systems.
g. Timeliness of information is essential to support the operational tempo required to shape the battlefield
and attain positional advantage. Near realtime information available from space systems permits Army forces
to observe enemy activities, facilitating rapid decisionmaking, coordination of fires, and maneuver. It enables
the force to avoid enemy strengths and exploit enemy weaknesses. Access to data from spacebased
observation platforms also limits the ability of the enemy to strike unexpectedly. In the near to midterm,
spacebased sensors provide early warning data that can be integrated directly with Army terrestrial weapon
systems and capabilities of other services to attack, separate, isolate and attrit enemy forces, making it difficult
for hostile forces to mass and making them vulnerable to decisive maneuver. The capability to detect
movement, i.e., aircraft and missile launch, and warn designated ground systems is essential for effective
strategic and tactical air and missile defense. Spacebased sensors provide information essential to the battle
damage assessment (BDA) process. In the farterm, force application using the extended range possible with
space systems, enables friendly forces to degrade, nullify or destroy enemy highvalue targets throughout the
area of operation.
h. Spacebased communication systems provide the global connectivity necessary to support the command
and control functions of planning, coordinating, directing and controlling. This capability is essential for the
realtime direction of operations at each echelon of command. These systems provide responsive, beyond
the line of sight (BLOS) communications throughout the battlefield and permit users to access large databases
necessary to support strategic, operational and tactical missions. Coupled with spacebased intelligence
support, tactical forces are afforded improved capabilities to coordinate fires, conduct operational maneuver
on both linear and more open, less structured battlefields, assess the effects of previous operations and
anticipate enemy actions. Mid to farterm capabilities, such as video conferences and graphics containing
integrated terrain and weather information, when transmitted with orders, will provide subordinate forces with
a clearer understanding of the commander's intent.
i. Successful operations require a proactive focus to anticipate situations, respond with greater ability and to
support an increased operational tempo. Timely and accurate information is necessary to plan and execute
operations to promote stability, deter conflict and defeat the warfighting capabilities of potential adversaries.
This will require reliable communications for realtime information that will ensure responsive command and
control, to protect the force, and to retain the positional or situational advantage attained by shaping the area
of operation. These capabilities are required to synchronize the application of resources at the critical places
and times, whether operating on a widely dispersed battlefield or in support of a nation assistance mission.
In the nearterm, satellites provide responsive communication nodes to support long distance, beyond lineofsight
strategic, operational and tactical command and control and for the transmittal of data for further processing and
dissemination to Army units. These satellites reduce not only the traditional problems of communications, but
also the size of the C3I support structure the commander must move. Technologies emerging in the midterm
will enable the design of mobile and transportable processing terminals that are capable of integrating and fusing
data from multiple sources. The result is decreased ground support required to access space capabilities. In
the farterm, advances in technology, the integration of space capabilities and spacebased processing will remove
critical C3 nodes and the amount of groundbased equipment from the battlefield, increasing the flexibility and
agility of the force.
j. Positioning and navigation satellites currently support fastpaced, efficient maneuver and the reduction
of fratricide by providing extremely accurate, three dimensional location data for continuous day and night
operations. Passive receivers convert signals from the satellites into timing, position and navigation data to
support Army forces worldwide. This capability enhances joint and combined operations by providing a
universal grid upon which all operations can be based. Positioning and navigation satellites facilitate the rapid
and accurate survey necessary for positioning and improving the performance of weapon systems, without
the use of traditional survey teams. In the midterm, spacebased positioning and navigation capabilities are
integrated with terrestrial systems to provide realtime information on the location of friendly and enemy
units, enhancing C2 and facilitating combat operations. Additionally, the integration of these capabilities with
weapon systems will facilitate the development of a true roving gun capability. In the farterm, spacebased
positioning and navigation capabilities, coupled with advanced technologies, can be integrated with terrestrial
weapon systems to improve performance and increase the autonomy of the host system.
k. Spacebased observation platforms provide information that updates conditions and situations and enable
the commander to sense change and influence future actions and activities. The exploitation of national and
other spacebased capabilities, in the nearterm, enables the force to see the battlefield, locate, track, identify
and target the enemy. A variety of space platforms link data to ground stations for processing and timely
information dissemination to Army forces. Midterm space observation systems are linked to mobile and
transportable terminals capable of fusing data from multiple sources. This capability enhances the Army's
Accurately assess the current
Adapt to the demands of the situation,
i.e., modify plans.
Act faster than the
Exploit opportunities and
Identify targets for fire support
Protect the Force
l. The use of "tailorable" sensors and spacebased processing, that fuses data from multiple sensors,
provides information tailored to specific needs and significantly reduces the need for deploying
groundbased processors in the farterm. Space capabilities protect the force and facilitate freedom
of movement and retention of the initiative. In the nearterm, spacebased communication systems
pass warning and other information to Army forces throughout the depth of the battlefield. This
information can be integrated directly with Army terrestrial weapon systems and capabilities of other
services to attack the enemy and to support tactical missile defense, thus protecting the force. In the
midterm, space control operations facilitate freedom of action in the area of operations as well as in
space. These operations include surveillance of space activities and systems and antisatellite operations
designed to ensure space support to Army forces. In the farterm, space control operations, when
directed, suppress and negate enemy space capabilities, permitting land forces tactical, operational
and strategic flexibility and preventing an adversary's satellites from monitoring ground operations.
The development of a force application capability from space will extend the power projection capability
of the force against surface targets. This capability will support deterrence and will permit the attack of
highvalue targets throughout the area of operations. Additionally, it will assist in protecting land forces
from attack by strategic and tactical aircraft and missiles and facilitate maneuver.
m. Reconstitution of the force is reliant on communication and the transfer of information. Responsive and
efficient actions to anticipate and respond to such requirements are facilitated by the range and data capability
of spacebased systems and their ability to collect information on all forces and the environment. Asset
visibility and movement tracking is essential for effective reconstitution operations. It enables combat
service support (CSS) units to tailor and adjust assets in response to the needs of the force. Using the
versatility of modern computers, communication satellites can be linked with spacebased position location
and navigation systems to provide the requisite asset visibility, decrease the length and size of the logistical
pipeline, and ensure realtime C2 of all CSS assets within the area of operation. Space capabilities also
support realtime battlefield damage assessment, casualty reporting, asset location, routing and tracking.
These capabilities facilitate unity of effort and economy of force.
Optimum Use of
n. The Army's space concept is to optimize the use of space capabilities to enhance operations. This
concept dictates that the unique advantages offered by space be integrated (i.e., "normalized") into Army
operations. This requires the institutionalization of space throughout the Army; incorporation into all
actions, activities, and units, and consideration of space support for any operation or exercise. Most of
the value added from space systems and capabilities should be transparent to the user and should
support the increased accuracy and lethality of future weapon systems and the increased mobility of
future forces, regardless of the nature of the battlefield. In times of peace, the same space system
capabilities should enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of Army forces training and conducting
non-combat operations, supporting stability and deterrence.
o. The ideas contained in the Army Space Concept must be integrated into existing and emerging Army doctrine.
Space technologies and their doctrinal applications must be reflected in new tactics, techniques and procedures
(TT&P) generated in response to Army requirements. The increasing use of space assets is a primary
consideration in the Army's ability to support the national security strategy and the precepts of the proposed
revisions to existing doctrine. These precepts require the Army to focus operations across the operational
continuum and to project its force in support of national interests. The unique capabilities of space systems
support current doctrinal implications and will have a significant impact on the execution of future doctrine.
The Army's increasing utilization of space systems capabilities and generated products will impact directly on
Army mission execution. This use and reliance on space systems to enhance ground force capabilities will
increase as the Army evolves to the future. The Army's operational doctrine must reflect this evolution.
p. Experience has shown that the Army must train as it will fight in order to gain success on the battlefield.
The ideas contained in the Army Space Operations Concept and emerging doctrinal applications of space
capabilities must be integrated into all aspects of the Army enlisted, officer and civilian institutional and unit
training programs, to include battle simulations. General space awareness training and education must be
developed for individuals and units, with system specific training where required. Individual soldiers and
units must be trained and intimately familiar with the weapons and other equipment with which they will
execute their missions. All segments of a space system must be available and accessible in order to provide
a realistic and dynamic training environment. The Army training programs must be reviewed and revised to
integrate a level of space training commensurate with mission expectations across the operational continuum.
Resources must be allocated to ensure space training is developed and integrated into existing training programs.
This includes training in system(s) employment to support joint and combined interoperability.
q. Future leaders must be able to integrate the capabilities of four operational domains land, air, sea and
space into operational plans as well as understand the threats from enemy space systems. Formal leader
development programs for space must be developed or expanded within the various training and education
programs throughout the Army. Army leaders, at all echelons, must understand the utility of space
capabilities in supporting Army missions. An effective space program requires leaders and soldiers who
can assess spacerelated technology, evaluate Army requirements, match space capabilities to Army
deficiencies, and effectively influence the design and development of space systems to satisfy validated
Army requirements. Leadership development programs must include a pertinent, meaningful, infusion of
space capability awareness. In this way leaders of today and tomorrow will develop an understanding and
appreciation for many benefits which accrue from existing and emerging space systems, and how the capabilities
will support warfighting missions.
r. The Army must establish an organizational structure for the effective and efficient development and
use of space capabilities within the Army. An organizational hierarchy, similar to any Army service branch,
is needed to delineate responsibilities for proponency, operations, materiel developments, funding and
prioritization. This includes establishing an organization structure for space development, and identifying
space positions within Tables of Organization and Equipment (TOE) to support Army requirements.
The Army must focus on achieving an organization for space best suited to increasing its role in acquisitions
and fully exploiting the potential application of space system capabilities into its operations. This structure
must have the flexibility and agility to support multiple Army missions and be compatible/interoperable with
other service and allied space organizations.
s. Materiel developments must focus on deployability and versatility to meet the challenges of an uncertain
future. The Army must develop and employ space systems that support and enhance terrestrial capabilities.
To meet future needs, the Army must actively participate with other services and national agencies in planning,
programming developing, operating, and managing space activities. Army requirements not met by national
programs and programs assigned to other services or agencies must be satisfied by capabilities developed and
fielded by the Army.
The Army has operational deficiencies that can be solved, in whole or in part, through the application of
spacerelated capabilities. In many cases, the life cycle costs of spacerelated solutions can be lower than
alternative, groundbased solutions. Advancements in technology will permit economy of scale and order of
magnitude increases in flexibility for ground support equipment. An example of this is embedding space
technologies into new generations of Army equipment. Integration of a GPS receiver and a tactical radio, so
that each time the radio is used it transmits its current location (encrypted for security) in the message, is an
example of embedding technology. The building of both ground and spacebased components capable of being
custom configured, integrated, or interchanged with other systems or to meet specific mission requirements will
increase force flexibility by reducing the number of different systems that must accompany a deployment.
t. To prepare for it's expanding role in the space arena, the Army requires high quality, dedicated and innovative
personnel with wideranging levels of space expertise. A combat arms soldier must know how to use the space
systems available. A communications specialist requires detailed knowledge of how to use spacebased
communications systems. Soldiers assigned to operating and controlling satellites require the greatest level of
knowledge of space and space systems.
A thorough knowledge of space capabilities and operations, and the ability to determine how, when and
where these capabilities can be applied in support of Army requirements will be necessary. Specific career
development and progression programs must be developed and implemented for officer, enlisted and civilian
personnel. These programs will assure attraction and retention of high quality personnel with the requisite level
of expertise for command, staff and operational billets that support the Army's effective exploitation of space.
Educational opportunities must be pursued to develop the requisite core of Army space expertise. The
capabilities of space systems will impact directly on the soldier's' ability to accomplish his mission. Awareness
of capabilities and contributions is critical to development of the "complete" soldier, and becomes more important
as the Army evolves to its future structure.
u. Space capabilities are imperative to the successful execution of future missions. Space is an operational
domain that future Army forces will exploit. As the Army moves from the near to farterm it will inevitably
become more involved in space operations. Space capabilities will significantly alter and enhance the nature of
Army operations. The use of spacebased systems will provide better warning, command and control, and
synchronization of ground force operations. Doctrine, training, organization design, leader development and
materiel must address the changes that result from the application of space systems, capabilities and technologies.