a. Space based sensors on satellites have the advantage of unrestricted access over battlefields
and areas that are otherwise difficult to gain access to for political or military reasons. Satellites
can be used to verify compliance with treaties, determine the deployment and status of land, sea
and air forces, and monitor activities in specific areas. If hostilities are initiated, space systems
can provide attack warning, targeting intelligence, technical intelligence on enemy capabilities,
and bomb damage assessment after strikes on the enemy. When information derived from space
based reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) sensors is merged with
information from other ground, sea and airborne systems, a more complete Intelligence
Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) is attained.
b. The United States has national satellite systems which are capable of performing worldwide
reconnaissance and surveillance. Many of the systems have been designed to support strategic
requirements. They are, however, capable of providing useful information to tactical
commanders if the information can be provided in a timely manner. Classified information on
the capabilities of the satellites is available in the Joint Tactical Exploitation of National
Systems (JTENS) manual available in many Special Security Offices (SSO).
c. Information concerning the control segment of national systems is available in the JTENS
c. Each of the military services has a Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP)
program. The Army TENCAP program is the responsibility of the Army Space Program Office
(ASPO), a field operating agency under the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans
(DCSOPS), Headquarters, Department of the Army.
The Army TENCAP program provides Army commands with prototype equipment which can
receive and process data provided by the national space systems. Initially, ground processing
terminals were developed for use at corps and echelons above corps (EAC) headquarters.
Technology and applications have evolved so that certain systems are now employed at division
level and below.
e. The Imagery Processing and Dissemination System (IPDS) provides a means to receive,
process, exploit and disseminate digital imagery intelligence (IMINT) data from national and
theater collection systems at Echelons Above Corps (EAC), corps, division, maneuver brigade
and special operations forces (SOF) levels. The IPDS consists of multiple operational groups
housed in modular 20 foot shelters. Some of the operational groups are:
A 20 foot quick reaction antenna (QRA) is provided for satellite communications. The 20 foot
shelters are moved by 5 ton tractor trucks. Power is provided by two power units. Each power
unit consists of two 200 kW generators with a 25 ton tractor truck. Commercial power can also
Soft copy Processor Group (SPG).
This provides computer software processing, exploitation and dissemination
of imagery data with on-line mass storage and off-line reference image
Hard copy Processor Group (HPG).
This provides a film print output of processed and exploited
Communications Processor Group (CPG).
This provides the patching, switching and interface functions necessary for
internal and external transfer of data, imagery and voice. Free text messages
can be exchanged with the EPDS for cueing and other purposes. The IPDS accesses
DSN circuits through the corps local area network to establish interfaces
with the EPDS, ETUT, TRAC, THMT and MITT.
National Input Segment (NIS). This
receives and routes low rate data and imagery from national
f. The Electronic Processing and Dissemination System (EPDS) receives and processes
electronic intelligence (ELINT) and other information to generate integrated products. The
EPDS consists of a single 30 foot van that incorporates communications, processing, and
analysis functions. The EPDS provides products to ETUTs and other terminals. The van can be
transported by a 5T tractor. Power is provided by 100 kW generators or commercial power.
f. The Enhanced Tactical User's Terminal (ETUT) provides products from EPDS and the IPDS
to specific tactical headquarters. The ETUT consists of a single 20 foot trailer with three
operator positions for digitizing images, data processing, imagery management,
communications and collection management. The trailer can be transported by a 5T tractor.
g. The Tactical High Mobility Terminal (THMT) can receive and transmit imagery,
intelligence data and messages. It can also establish and maintain a correlated intelligence data
base. ELINT and IMINT data as provided by the EPDS, ETUT or other intelligence systems
can be analyzed or displayed on any of its two external operator positions or its one internal
workstation. The THMT has most of the capabilities of the ETUT but in a more mobile
configuration. The THMT is mounted in a single S250 shelter usually mounted on a 5T long
bed truck. Two THMTs are mounted on trailing arm drive vehicles to enhance their
deployability. The THMT can be transported on C130 cargo aircraft. A 30 kw generator
h. The Mobile Integrated Tactical Terminal (MITT) is designed to support corps, divisions,
brigades and special operations forces. The general capabilities are similar to the THMT. The
MITT can receive and transmit intelligence messages and data, including imagery over
landline, AUTODIN or UHF communications links.. The MITT has two operator terminals.
One is always operated remotely and the other can be operated from within the shelter or from a
remote position. The MITT can interface with the ETUT, EPDS, IPDS and THMT through
landline, AUTODIN (via MSE) or UHF data link. The communications equipment, processors,
displays and printers are mounted in a standard shelter which is carried by a heavy duty
HMMWV with a 15 kW generator mounted on a trailer. A second HMMWV is a support
(SID) and Tactical
(TRAP) - Improved
h. The FASTI is a limited capability version of the MITT intended for corps, divisions,
brigades and armored cavalry regiments not scheduled to receive a THMT or MITT. The
FASTI receives, correlates, enhances, integrates, stores and disseminates ELINT products,
IMINT reports and secondary imagery. The FASTI consists of seven manportable cases with a
total weight of about 1,400 pounds. There is one Sun/UNIX workstation and includes a
communications system processor, a grayscale image printer, a SUCCESS radio, a dedicated
modem for imagery, a STUIII and cyrptologic equipment. The FASTI can interface with
ETUT, EPDS, IPDS, MITT and THMT through landline, DSN, Mobile Subscriber Equipment
(MSE) and UHF satellites. A generator or commercial power is required to power the
i. The ETRAC receives and processes imagery from national and theater synthetic aperture
radar (SAR) sensor systems. The ETRAC is also the baseline as DoD's Common Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) Processor. The ETRAC can be deployed on a single C-130 cargo
aircraft. When paired with the IPDS, the ETRAC provides a full range of theater and national
imagery sensor inputs.
j. The Synthesized UHF Computer Controlled Equipment SubSystem (SUCCESS) radio is
a special UHF Satellite communications transceiver. It is capable of simultaneously receiving on
three channels and transmitting on one channel. The SUCCESS radio has the ability to receive
and transmit using the Tactical Receive Equipment (TRE), the Tactical Data Information
Exchange System B (TAXISB) and Secondary Imagery Dissemination System (SIDS)
k. The Special Purpose Integrated Remote Intelligence Terminal (SPIRIT) I/II terminal are
designed to operate within the TROJAN communications network. The TROJAN
communications network is a worldwide satellite communications network designed for the
dissemination of intelligence data. The SPIRIT I/II terminals receive, process and transmit up
to 14 channels of medium capacity multiplexed voice and data circuits over commercial C/Ku
band communications satellites and SHF (Xband) military communications satellites. The
SPIRIT I/II is mounted in an S250 communications shelter carried on a HMMWV. A trailer
carries a 2.4 meter satellite antenna. A second HMMWV carries maintenance and mission
a. The Defense Support Program (DSP) was initially a space based surveillance systems to
detect the launch of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) and Submarine Launched
Ballistic Missiles (SLBM). The program expanded later to include the detection of certain other
types of ballistic missiles after they were launched.
b. The DSP satellites (DSP) are launched into a geostationary orbit from which the sensors on
the satellite monitor the Earth below for the launch of ballistic missiles. Generally, there are
two DSP satellites positioned to observe the western hemisphere and one to observe the eastern
The principal sensor subsystem is the Infrared (IR) Telescope. Infrared energy given off by hot
sources on the Earth is detected by an array of photoelectric cells located in the IR Telescope.
Sensor data is transmitted to control segment ground stations for processing.
The DSP satellites also carry RADEC sensors capable of detecting and quantifying nuclear
explosions on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere and in near Earth space. Newer DSP
satellites have a laser crosslink so that data from one DSP satellite can be relayed through
another. This helps to reduce reliance on overseas ground stations.
c. The DSP satellites are operated and controlled by the Air Force Space Command. The
Ground Data System consists of Satellite Readout Stations, Data Reduction Centers, a Data
Distribution Center and the Ground Communications Network. There is one Overseas Ground
Station which supports the eastern hemisphere DSP satellite and one CONUS Ground Station
which supports the two western hemisphere DSP satellites. The Satellite Readout Stations
function as tracking stations, receive and transmit TT&C to the DSP satellites within view,
receive mission and relay the data to the Data Reduction Center. The Data Reduction Centers
extract significant mission data and perform data processing in support of the satellites. The
Data Reduction Centers relay data to the Data Distribution Center located at the CONUS
ground station. The Data Reduction Center also converts high speed data to 150 baud teletype
for output to selected users. The Ground Communications Network provides all required
communications between segments of the control segment and the user segment.
d. Data from the DSP satellites are centrally processed and a warning is transmitted to users.
The warning information consists of an assessment of the time and place of launch, the type
missile launched and an estimated course of the missile. The principal recipients of this
warning are the National Command Authority, U.S. Space Command, North American
Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), Air Combat Command, and unified and specified
CINCs around the world. Army forces receive the warning information from the unified and
e. To provide the warning information to the unified and specified CINCs, the Tactical Event
Reporting System (TERS) was developed. TERS provides theater commanders with missile
launch warning data within two to four minutes of launch. This warning can be used to alert
friendly forces and defensive weapons such as Air Defense and Tactical Ballistic Missile
Use in Desert
f. During Operation DESERT STORM, a DSP satellite was able to detect the launch of Iraqi
SCUD ballistic rockets toward Saudi Arabia and Israel. The satellite sensor data was
transmitted to a CONUS processing station. Computers analyzed the data to determine when a
launch occurred. If the operator confirmed the computer analysis, a launch detection alert was
issued. This alert message was relayed over satellite communications to the headquarters in
Saudi Arabia. The alert message provided early warning to military and civilian personnel in
the target area and provided cueing information to the Patriot missile batteries providing point
defense. This procedure was an expedient system that was designed for this purpose, but had
only been demonstrated in Europe prior to Operation DESERT SHIELD.
a. NDDS sensors are used to detect, quantify and locate any surface or atmospheric nuclear
weapons explosion. This provides a means of monitoring compliance with the Limited Test
Ban Treaty (1963), the Nuclear Weapons NonProliferation Treaty (1968) and the Threshold
Test Ban Treaty (1990). Nuclear Detonation Detection System (NDDS) sensors on satellites in
space can perform their mission without permission and without violating borders or airspace.
b. NDDS sensors are carried on Block II Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and on
Defense Support Program (DSP) satellites. These sensors are capable of detecting, locating and
reporting atmospheric nuclear detonations on a global, near real time basis. NDDS sensors are
self contained packages that are not related to the main payload of the satellites. Sensors on the
DSP satellites provide continuous surveillance over a very large area but their position in
geostationary orbit can make geolocation more difficult. A sensor on a GPS satellite is much
closer to the Earth but is not able to keep a specific area in view at all times. The solution is to
have the sensors mounted on all Block II GPS satellites. This not only provides for complete
global coverage, but also allows more than one sensor to detect a nuclear explosion, thus
enhancing geolocation accuracy and quantification. The NDDS sensors can detect visible light,
xrays and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation given off by a nuclear explosion. Geolocation
accuracy is approximately 1.5 km.
c. The NDDS sensors are controlled by the controllers of the host satellite.
d. The user segment consists of selected national and strategic level agencies or commands.
Data is provided to operational and tactical commands by message from the selected user
agencies or commands.