Department of the Army TRADOC Pamphlet 525-60
Headquarters, United States Army
Training and Doctrine Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-5000

1 November 1994

Military Operations

Summary. This concept serves as the basis for developing doctrine, training, leader development, organizations, and materiel changes focused on soldiers (DTLOMS) requirements and solutions for operations enhanced through the use of space capabilities. It provides the framework to normalize the use of space in land force operations.

Applicability. This concept applies to all U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) installations and activities that develop DTLOM requirements.

Suggested improvements. The proponent of this concept is the Deputy Chief of Staff for Combat Developments. Send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) through channels to the Commander, TRADOC, ATTN: ATCD-BP, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-5000. Suggested improvements may also be submitted using DA Form 1045 (Army Ideas for Excellence Program (AIEP) Proposal).

Paragraph Page

Chapter 1
Purpose 1-1 1
References 1-2 2
Explanation of abbreviations and terms 1-3 2

Chapter 2
Why The Concept Is Needed 2-1 2
Threat 2-2 4
Joint, Multinational, Coalition, Interagency
Forces 2-3 4

Chapter 3
General 3-1 4
Required Capabilities 3-2 6
Paragraph Page

Chapter 4
General 4-1 10
Doctrine 4-2 11
Training 4-3 11
Leader Development 4-4 11
Organization 4-5 11
Materiel 4-6 12
Soldiers 4-7 12

Chapter 5

Glossary 13

Chapter 1


1-1. Purpose. This concept describes space capabilities the Army should exploit and integrate into its land force operations in support of our National Military Strategy (NMS) across the range of military operations. It uses emerging concepts and doctrine as the foundation for informing, educating, and stimulating thinking about how best to apply

the potential of space capabilities to enhance integrated combat, combat support, and combat service support operations. It also articulates what space capabilities need to be integrated into the existing and future Army Battle Command System (ABCS). Space capabilities represent the capacity of satellites, ground terminals and processors, to meet specific land force requirements. Although not space systems, high altitude flying platforms (vehicles that fly near the space boundary with active and passive sensors and communication equipment that can support the satellite role) and surrogate satellites also produce similar capabilities as space systems. The information from space systems provides our national leaders with flexible deterrent and warfighting options, thus, improving the Army's force-projection capability. Space capabilities will equally address doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldier (DTLOMS) impacts to give focus for an Army space investment strategy.

1-2. References.

a JCS Pub 3-14, Joint Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TT&P) For Space Operations (To be published).

b. CJCS Memorandum of Policy on M1LSATCOM (MOP 37), 19 February 1992.

c. TRADOC Pam 525-5 (Force X~ Operations), 1 August 1994.

d. FM 100-5 (Operations), June 1993.

e. FM 100-6 (Information Operations)(To be published).

f. C4I For The Warrior Concept, 12 June 1993.

g. Information Operations Concept (To be published)

h. Force Projection Army Command and Control Evolution, Concept and Action Plan, May 1993.

i. Army Enterprise Strategy, The Vision, 20 July 1993.

j. Air Force Doctrine Directive 4, Space Operations Doctrine (To be published).

k. USSPACECOM, Space Support To The Warfighter (U), 25 May 1993.

1-3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms. Abbreviations and special terms used in this concept are explained in the glossary.

Chapter 2


2-1. Why The Concept Is Needed.

a. The conduct of Army operations on future battlefields is no longer limited to the traditional strategic, operational and tactical dimensions of land, sea, and air. Space now extends the boundaries, adds a new dimension, and enhances the warfighting capabilities of U.S. forces within those dimensions. Technology has progressed to the point that capabilities, reliable and responsive to the needs of Army commanders and forces, can be projected to and from space. Space capabilities, therefore, represent a logical extension of the battlefield. Space capabilities have been a part of the force structure for the past four decades, and the Army is increasingly appreciating their contribution to land force operations. The Army has used space capabilities enough in war (e.g., Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm) and in operations other than war (OOTW) (e.g., Operation Restore Hope) to appreciate its value. The Army intends to use space capabilities more in the future as it increasingly recognizes the value of exploiting these space capabilities' benefits.

b. The Army needs to use space capabilities to enhance execution of its doctrine. The unique capabilities derived from space systems enhance the Army's warfighting ability to achieve land force dominance at each level of war- strategic, operational, and tactical. At these levels of war, the specific intent for the use of space systems can be viewed in terms of: glow projection (look for indicators) at the strategic level; theater projection (focus limited) at the operational level; and ground projection (full application of resources to a particular event or region) at the tactical level. Future land force operations will be regional in nature, possibly in strange areas, on short notice, with joint, combined or coalition forces, and in concert with other agencies of government. In addition, the Army will likely be a smaller force with more and varied missions, all in the midst of increasing uncertainty. Only space systems can provide global, continuous and near-continuous coverage and connectivity to allow the Army to execute its mission effectively. They are particularly important where the operational area lacks the infrastructure to support Army operations and where the U.S. has limited or no forward presence. Space capabilities apply across the full range of military operations, which include operations other than war. In the post-Cold war era, the Army's effective use of space capabilities is as critical to global operations as land, sea, and air capabilities have been in the past.

(1) Strategic Level. At the strategic level of war (global projection), space capabilities are used primarily to reduce the National Command Authorities' (NCA) uncertainties and support the combatant commander's requirements to execute our national security policy. Space systems provide missile launch detection, navigation, weather, communications and intelligence tip-offs that help strategic planners and decision makers design theater campaigns, define limits, and assess risks. Additionally, planners and decision makers are able to choose courses of action for using the other elements of our national power and resolve-political, diplomatic, economic, and information-to secure national and strategic objectives.

(2) Operational Level. At the operational level of war (theater projection), in addition to those capabilities listed above, space systems provide enemy force size, location, and movements; improved battle command; greater situation awareness; and remote sensing to the theater/joint task force (TF) commander, functional component commander and theater/campaign planners. These capabilities most directly augment and influence decisions during the planning, execution, and support of major land campaigns.

(3) Tactical Level. At the tactical level (ground projection), space systems provide real-time and near-realtime support to the combat, combat support, and combat service support forces that execute battles and engagements on a non-linear battlefield (i.e., close, deep, and rear operations). During combat, space systems provide: realtime position and navigation (POS/NAV) data (with accuracy unavailable from terrestrial sources); near-realtime surveillance and warning of enemy locations, activities and strength; current and projected weather information; terrain and hydrographic information, as well as other conditions of the battle space; and both internal and external communications to enhance the synchronization of close, deep, and rear operations. Seeing deep is crucial to our ability to disrupt the enemy's tempo and effectiveness of his follow-on operations. Space systems provide targeting information needed to support deep operations. Space systems can provide a more robust battle management command, control, communication, computers, and intelligence (BMC4I) architecture in conduct of theater/tactical missile defense (TMD) at the tactical level, as well as at the operational and strategic levels. Additionally, they provide an opportunity to reduce the need for man-in-the loop by streamlining the sensor-to-shooter linkage process.

c. The Army must achieve our land-based national security objectives through its influence both in peacetime and wartime. To do this, our forces must have the ability to win the information war (to see and hear first and gain critical information); dominate the maneuver battle; project and sustain the force; conduct precision strike; protect the force; and, ultimately win decisively while incurring minimal casualties. This goal requires a force possessing lethality, mobility, agility, versatility, and knowledge greater than its future adversaries. This force must also have increased survivability against current and future threat weapons and munitions (including weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and non-lethal information war tactics and techniques), and the capability to anticipate and meet sustainment requirements under the most adverse conditions. Innovative approaches to modernization are being implemented to field high-payoff technologies to give the Army these capabilities. Applying these technologies in land force operations will give our force an overmatching capability for establishing and maintaining land force dominance.

d. In terms of unrestricted broadcast space systems, that is, those whose function is position and navigation, weather reporting, remote sensing, early warning, surveillance, etc., the Army can normalize the use of these capabilities and acquire assured access by developing and fielding the required doctrine, training, and materiel at the appropriate echelons. The ground based terminals that will receive the data broadcast from the satellite platform can be integrated into the appropriate battlefield operating systems (BOS). For the space systems that have very strict and special access policies and procedures (e.g., communications relay and intelligence collection systems controlled by agencies outside the Department of Army), the old concept that these are national assets and access will be provided as required based on a determination at the national level is no longer adequate if the Army is to normalize the exploitation potential of these systems. All combat capabilities are national assets which must be allocated. Before the Army can project a combat force, lift and combat sustainment capabilities must be allocated. The same holds true for communications and intelligence satellite capabilities. Before the Army can become dependent on and incorporate the exploitation of these capabilities into the doctrine, tactics, materiel acquisition, and force structure of the Army, the Army must have the assurance that these capabilities will be available for training and operational activities at any level. Assured access to space systems is the Army's most important space requirement.

e. The future success of Army operations will increasingly depend upon successful exploitation and integration of acquired space capabilities. This includes the application of existing and emerging technological capabilities provided by space systems and crossover technology from research and development efforts in other disciplines. The Army will actively participate with other services and national agencies in planning, programming, development, management, and tasking of space assets to meet its future needs. Most U.S. space systems were originally designed and justified to support strategic purposes versus tactical requirements. These systems, however, make a valuable contribution to land force operations and, in times of crisis, should be tailored to satisfy Army requirements for enhanced force capabilities and for assured high priority access during peak crisis periods. This can be accomplished through proper management, flexibility and planning of existing capabilities. The Army must fully exploit the data provided from strategic design systems, and look for new ways of using that data for tactical application, hence, new technologies applied across ground forces. This has to be done regardless of the intent for which these space systems may have been originally designed.

2-2. Threat.

a. Realignment of international relationships and alliances, coupled with social, economic, and political changes will continue to create a period of uncertainty for the Army. The proliferation of weapons (especially weapons of mass destruction) and information-age technology, to include the threat from non-WMD hostile precision strike missiles, is increasing. In this environment, the adversaries that confront Army forces will commonly have access to the latest high technology systems, increasing their capability to create challenges of unprecedented complexity, diversity, and scope. The increased capabilities of regional powers and the instability found in many nations pose the most probable threats to U.S. security and national interests.

b. While the probability of engagement in general war, such as World Wars I and II, may now be lower than in the past, we find ourselves more frequently engaged in limited war as was conducted during Operation Just Cause and in operations other than war, such as Operation Restore Hope. in many parts of the world. This trend will continue. Although the likelihood of encountering large amounts of sophisticated weaponry may be less in such operations, the threat to U.S. forces can still be formidable, depending on the morale and tenacity of the forces involved.

c. The space systems belonging to the former Soviet Union remain viable and are potentially still the greatest threat to U.S. interests in space. Additionally, increasing numbers of nations and non-nation states actors, operating outside Western convention, will exploit the availability of space systems and other high technology to enhance their national interests. They will develop, acquire or gain access to more sophisticated technology and space systems, increasing their ability to direct information operations against U.S. land force operations, possibly including the expansion of space control capabilities, such as co-orbital anti-satellite (ASAT) capabilities, direct ascent, ground attack sabotage, electronic warfare (EW), directed energy, and nuclear detonation to deny/disrupt the U.S. and its allies use of space systems. This could result in strategic or regional imbalance and instability, increasing the threats to U.S. national interests.

d. As space capabilities become more important to the success of military operations in the future, the terrestrial and space segments will become high-value targets and subject to direct and indirect attack. This will require development of greater protection and survivability

techniques for these systems. Vulnerability may be eliminated or reduced by interference rejection concepts, such as "hardening" individual satellite communications (SATCOM) links, or through redundancy. Also, making ground terminals and systems lighter and more mobile can be an effective and reliable tool to the battlefield commander and his soldiers.

e. The emergence of Information Warfare (IW) as a viable discipline to leverage commercially available technology to overtly and covertly diminish, deceive, or destroy space-dependent information links, is yet another contemporary and futuristic factor to be considered. Increased attention to foreign IW threats by the U.S. intelligence community will also serve to provide early warning regarding technological advances by potential adversaries to deny, degrade or destroy space software critical to assured communications.

2-3. Joint, Multinational, Coalition, or Interagency Forces.

The changes in the world situation, the new strategic security environment, and the Army's role as a force- projection Army, will cause the Army to become more involved with other services, national and international agencies, and other nations to protect U.S. national interests. The ability of the Army to conduct operations other than war, as well as warfighting under the command and control of different agencies, will be essential in the future. Joint, multinational research, design, development, and training will provide worldwide interoperability between the Army, other services and other nations. Access to information provided through space systems by joint, combined, coalition, United Nations and interagency organizations will facilitate improved coordination, standardization and understanding of each commander's intent and concept of operations resulting in successful accomplishment of our national war objectives or peacetime goals.

Chapter 3


3-1. General.

a. The Army Space Concept. The Army space concept is to use space systems and capabilities to enhance the Army's ability to execute force-projection operations doctrine as stated in FM 100-5, as well as emerging doctrine per TRADOC Pamphlet 525-5.

b. Space Mission Areas. This concept describes the space capabilities the Army needs to support its missions across the full range of military operations in the near-, mid- and far-term. These capabilities will evolve from the Army aggressively exploiting current commercial, civilian, and national space assets in the near-term, to establishing Army requirements for future space capabilities and influencing the design and acquisition of these capabilities in the far-term. This evolution will permit tailoring of space capabilities, consistent with mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, and time available (METT-T), in support of all tactical echelons. Space systems should be multi-capable ( i.e., high frequency, jam resistant, and secure) to support Army unique requirements within the theater of operation. This concept acknowledges the fact that many of the unique capabilities provided by space systems cannot be effectively provided to the Army by landbased or airborne systems, during either peacetime or wartime. However, there are actions ongoing to ensure attainment of these near-, mid- and far-term capabilities. Space systems play a greater role in our new national military strategy than at any time in our history. Properly employed, they allow us to effectively monitor global activities on a near-continuous basis, to determine and verify crisis situations; provide intelligence of enemy activities and strength; give early indications and warning of crises; ensure dissemination of targeting and planning data; remove uncertainties about the weather, location, and synchronization of forces; facilitate effective battle command worldwide and provide asset visibility on a global scale. These capabilities are employed across four military space mission areas.

(1) Force Enhancement. Force enhancements defined as any operation conducted from space with the objective of enhancing, enabling, or supporting terrestrial operations in peacetime, conflict and war. It includes, but is not limited to capabilities such as communications, position and navigation, weather and remote sensing, reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, missile launch detection and warning support at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war. Commercial, civil, and national space systems may augment U.S. military space systems that provide force enhancement, particularly if military capabilities are lost.

(2) Force Application. Force application is conducted primarily from or through space with the intent to destroy surface and subsurface targets for the purpose of ballistic missile defense (BMD) or power projection. The capabilities within this mission area must be consistent with treaty obligations and national policy. With the spread of ballistic missile technology, both national and theater, posing a threat to our national security, improved defenses against these weapons, both passive and/or active, require development.

(3) Space Control. Space control operations ensure freedom of action in space for friendly forces while limiting or denying enemy freedom of action. These missions include naval, air, land, and space operations that disrupt, deny and destroy an adversary's capability to use space systems. A space-based defensive, global, precision strike capability and battle management command, control and communications systems designed to defeat the adversary will be crucial to space control missions in the future.

(4) Space Support. Space support involves launching and deploying space systems and vehicles; maintaining telemetry, tracking, and commanding (TT&C) of space systems; recovering spacecraft; providing logistics support for space, ground control and launch elements; providing surge launch capabilities to replace loss of space assets; and, acquisition.

c. Evolution of Space Support To Land Forces. The strategy to integrate the combat multiplying effects of space capabilities into the Army must be flexible and responsive enough to support Army forces engaged in multiple operations, crises or simultaneous regional conflicts. To achieve such a capability the Army must exploit the civil, commercial and national space systems and the associated infrastructure in three phases. In the near-term or quick fix phase (POM years), the Army promotes leveraging currently deployed space systems and capabilities. In the mid-term phase (POM plus 10 years), the Army promotes developing and/or acquiring processors with a more direct interface with space systems. In the far-term or objective phase (beyond the mid-term period), the Army promotes influencing the design of space systems to ensure Army specific requirements are being addressed early in the design phase of national and joint systems.

(1) Existing communications, earth remote sensing, weather, mapping, multispectral imagery, position and navigation, target identification and acquisition and early warning from space have far reaching effects on the future triumphs of any nation that exploits these capabilities in pursuit of their national interests, in war or in operations other than war. In the near-term, the Army can benefit from:

(a) Exploiting the high-payoff space capabilities demonstrated in the Battle Laboratories' Advanced Warfighting Experiments (AWE) and Army Space Command's (ARSPACE) Army Space Exploitation Demonstration Program (ASEDP).

(b) Long-term leases/purchased-service agreements between Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)/Defense Commercial Communications Office (DECCO) and commercial/civilian satellite organizations.

(c) Procuring/leasing commercial ground terminals for deploying forces with validated requirements.

(d) Investigating the potential for modifying military satellite command (MILSATCOM) terminals to be multi-capable.

(e) Participating with members of the space community in addressing connectivity requirements and common data communication protocols on existing and programmed space systems to ensure interoperability.

(f) Developing procedures to bring Tactical Exploitation of National Capabilities (TENCAP) out of the compartmented arena.

(g) Establish seamless operation plans with ARSPACE and USSPACE by developing detailed Annex N. Specifically address space control protection needs for each area of interests, and the space systems that support the warfighter.

(2) In the mid-term, space applications will spread to new functional areas and Army operations will increasingly depend on space capabilities. The Army will develop, deploy and operate lightweight, user friendly, reliable, configurable, interoperable, mobile ground-based command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) assets necessary to exploit the opportunities afforded by advancing space technology and systems. The application of new space capabilities derived from research and development efforts offers greater force enhancement and increases the ability to support land forces conducting combat or non-combat operations. In the midterm, mobile, ground-based processing terminals will be able to integrate, process and display space derived weather, terrain, imagery, warning and intelligence data with ground and airborne collection systems to fuse data and generate products tailored to support the specific requirements of the land force. Additionally, ground-based sensors collecting data (seismic, weather, acoustics, etc.) that are being controlled by instructions from satellites can be used. These capabilities will reduce analysis and processing time and improve decision-making and battle command throughout the Army. These ground-processing terminals enhance the deployment of forces and improve the Army's ability to:

(a) Project forces globally while minimizing strategic lift requirements.

(b) Integrate space capabilities into ground operations.

(c) Expand opportunities to exploit other space capabilities.

(3) In the far-term, space systems will be capable of providing land forces with a direct downlink capability that enables warfighters to interface with supporting satellites and receive finished products without a man-in-the-loop. The Army's future warfighting requirements will require space systems that are multi-capable (i.e., mission configurable, capable of being tailored) to support very specific needs of the various organizational elements that make up the total force package. Global, space-based command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) and integrated surveillance and weapon systems will be tailored to satisfy requirements from the sustaining base to the foxhole and return, enhancing the Army's overall operational responsiveness, effectiveness and lethality. Tailoring of hardware and software to accept only commander's critical information requirements (CCIR) becomes essential in this phase due to the massive amounts of information that will be processed and available to the warfighter from these space systems.

3-2. Required Capabilities.

a. Force Projection.

(1) The Army's keystone doctrine FM 100 5, Operations, defines the battlefield conditions in which our forces must be capable of responding to, now and in the future. It reflects the lessons learned from recent experiences and incorporates their insights into doctrine for the full dimensions of the battlefield in a force-projection environment. Thus, any action the nation must take to protect its interests or to participate in joint, combined, coalition, interagency and/or multinational actions arising from treaties or other agreements, must depend upon force projection.

(2) Force-projection operations pose a great challenge for Army leaders. Early critical decisions, set against a backdrop of uncertainty and friction, will be required at every level-strategic, operational, and tactical -in war and in operations other than war. The commander and the force will routinely be required to plan and execute multiple, concurrent activities. Parallel planning must be done at multiple echelons. Decisions made early will begin to set conditions for successful mission accomplishment. The leader must arrive on the battlefield with a seasoned understanding of the principles of war, tenets of Army operations, and battlefield dynamics.

(3) The information required to support each stage of force-projection operations-mobilization, predeployment activities, deployment, entry operations, operations, war termination and post conflict operations, redeployment, and demobilization is a vital ingredient of our force-projection Army. The functions and tasks associated with each stage generate an enormous requirement for a variety of information, depending on the type of military missions. Information must be quickly obtained, processed, and provided to those who need it without fear of compromise. To plan and execute the entire range of military operations faster than the enemy can react requires the command and control (C2) and intelligence data from various information environments. This demands the latest and most powerful information collecting, processing, and disseminating systems, with enabling software. Communications systems must provide the means to move information around the battlefield and computers with versatile software must support assessment of enemy capabilities and intentions, support the evaluation of friendly capabilities, and support the collection and dissemination of plans and orders.

(4) Space systems offer a wide range of C4I capabilities that will, when properly employed, reduce uncertainties and friction. Deploying forces will depend heavily on force enhancement and logistical support enhanced by space systems throughout all stages of force projection operations whether in war or in operations other than war.

b. Mobilization and Predeployment. These two stages include activating reserve component organizations, assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel. Forces are then tailored according to the mission the combatant commander specifies based on the factors of METT-T. Before deploying, commanders must have a current and complete picture of the terrain, threats, targets, and potential problems that might be encountered across the full range of military operations. Critical communications capacity for split-based operations, particularly for medical, intelligence, and logistics operations, are essential during continental United States (CONUS) based marshaling, strategic movements, and operational deployments. The near-continuous, global presence of military, civil, commercial and national space systems allows the information gathering and information dissemination functions of those systems to be performed virtually unobstructed. The information gained from these satellites may allow the U.S. to reach a political settlement in case of a crisis or conflict without deploying Army forces. The information obtained from satellites also facilitates the development of predictive models, situation displays and simulations useful for mission analysis, planning and force preparation. Specifically, the Army employs space systems to detect problems, provide early warning, monitor the situation, reduce the vulnerability of its forces and facilitate a knowledgeable entry into the theater of operation. Before deployment, space systems provide the combatant commanders with:

(1) Global indications and warnings of potentially dangerous situations (e.g., massing of forces at the border) and hostile actions.

(2) Global situation awareness of evolving political, economic, environmental, diplomatic, and military events that could trigger a crisis or erupt into war.

(3) Mapping and imagery to support deployment and mission planning, rehearsal, terrain analysis and training.

(4) Meteorology and other environmental monitoring to support analysis of the battle space, including trafficability analyses and route selection.

(5) Logistical capabilities (e.g., split-based logistics, intransit visibility (ITV), total asset visibility (TAV), and global transportation network (GTN)) throughout the distribution system, track movement and arrival of critical assets in real time.

(6) Range extension of command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) architecture from the sustaining base to the theater of operation.

(7) Information for employing operations security and conducting deception operations.

Continued enhancement of near-term capabilities offers increasingly accessible and responsive capabilities that enhance the protection for the force. In the far-term, tailored space support speeds the planning process at all echelons of command. Data from supporting systems will be processed, collated and disseminated simultaneously, from space, to multiple users, thereby reducing the proliferation, size and vulnerability of ground-based facilities.

c. Deployment. Space systems enhance deployability by facilitating a knowledgeable entry into the area of responsibility (AOR) while tracking movements of personnel and equipment. During this stage, space systems provide a global surveillance capability that warn deploying forces of potential threats; contribute real-time and near real-time intelligence and environmental support; enable enroute mission planning and rehearsal; assist predictive capability to conduct forcible entry operations; facilitate split-based operations to lessen strategic lift requirements for combat support and combat service support elements; and, ensure pinpoint enroute navigation to staging and lodgment areas. Many of the decisions concerning what units will be deployed and when, will be based on information gathered and disseminated by these space systems. This information will contribute to tailoring deploying units for combat or non-combat missions and establishing deployment sequencing into the theater of operations. Communications satellites provide global connectivity before deployment and enroute from CONUS or forward staging areas to the destination, enhancing battle command. This connectivity and the near-real-time data provided by space-based observation and remote sensing systems enhance the flexibility and agility of U.S. forces. Once in theater, communications can be expanded rapidly if satellites are already on-orbit (i.e., has a footprint large enough to include the area of operation). Satellites can also be maneuvered into position to support a deploying force, however, this capability will depend on the specific characteristics of the satellite.

In the mid-term to far-term, battle command is enhanced by:

(1) Increased use of communications, observation and imaging satellites compatible with other military, civil, commercial. and national systems.

(2) Smaller, lightweight, reliable, configurable and interoperable ground-based terminals.

(3) Horizontal and vertical integration of embedded space technology with terrestrial systems.

d. Entry Operations. The doctrine of our force projection Army demands a rapidly deployable, highly survivable and lethal force, trained and equipped to conduct a full range of contingencies in war and in operations other than war. The early entry force must be prepared for simultaneous deployment and employment into an opposed or unopposed situation. The degree to which the early entry force commander will depend on national, joint, military and commercial space-based systems, depends on the situation. At a minimum, the early entry force will need real-time, interoperable joint, combined, coalition and interagency communications tailored for rapid deployment, capable of linking strategic through tactical levels of communications. Deploying early entry units also need split-based communications, intelligence and logistics capabilities. The communications systems to support this type operation must have the capability of supporting multiple, continuous intelligence links to the deployed force home station, Major Army Command (MACOM), and national intelligence agencies. Multispectral imagery (MSI), accurate weather, and current intelligence will assist in the complete intelligence preparation of the battlefield. These capabilities also provide information to help protect the early entry force from enemy small arms, mines, direct fire, biological/chemical attack and contamination, artillery, theater/tactical ballistic missiles (TBM), air attack, terrorism, and, possibly, an unfriendly populace.

e. Operations. During this stage all the battlefield dynamics battle space, battle command, early entry lethality and survivability, simultaneous attack in depth, and combat service support effectively integrated to project force and achieve land force dominance in war and in operations other than war. All the commander's decisions are based on the availability of sufficient information and a clear picture of the enemy and friendly battle space. The forces must possess command, control, communications, computer, and intelligence capabilities that enable them to rapidly gain control of the situation, protect the force, and achieve decisive victory. The adversary's possession of these same capabilities, in addition to weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological systems, advanced sensors and intelligence gathering capabilities, ballistic missiles, viable naval and air forces, and sophisticated special operations forces, could challenge our forces ability to gain victory swiftly and with minimal casualties. Additionally, the effects of a formidable environment can add to the friendly force's difficulties in achieving decisive victory. These possible conditions demand that our forces have the capabilities to counter such threats. Enhancements to land force operations gained by applying space capabilities are crucial to positioning the forces; shaping the battlefield; acquiring targets; synchronizing logistics; avoiding the enemy strengths; and protecting the force.

(1) In the near-term, a variety of military, commercial, civil, and national satellites provide links to ground terminals and receivers for timely and accurate dissemination of information and intelligence.

(a) Space-based communication systems provide the global connectivity necessary to support the battle command functions of planning, coordinating, directing, visualizing the battle space, leading and controlling. This capability is essential for the real-time direction of operations at each echelon of command. These systems provide beyond the line of sight (BLOS) communications throughout the battle space and permit users' access to large databases necessary to support strategic, operational and tactical battle command. Coupled with space-based intelligence support, tactical forces are afforded improved capabilities to coordinate fires; conduct operational maneuver on both linear and more open, less structured battlefields; assess the effects of previous operations; and, anticipate enemy actions. These satellites reduce not only the traditional problems of communications (i.e., survivability, low data rate capacity, line-of-sight restrictions, electronic countermeasures [jamming], and range), but also the size of the command, control, communications. computers. and intelligence (C4I) support structure the commander must move. Space-based communications systems pass early warning and other information to Army forces throughout the depth of the battle space. This information can be fused and integrated directly with Army terrestrial weapons system and those of other services to attack the enemy and to support theater missile defense, thus protecting the force and critical assets.

(b) Position and navigation satellites currently support fast-paced, efficient maneuver and the reduction of fratricide by providing extremely accurate, three-dimensional location capability, velocity determination, and time reference for continuous day and night operations in all types of weather. Passive receivers convert these signals to support land forces (both friendly and adversary) worldwide. Position and navigation systems are extremely valuable in terrain where physical land marks are sparse or local magnetic variation may not be reliable. When used with the latest terrain information (such as would be provided by remote sensing satellites), the ground commander can move with certainty, knowing where the forces are and where they were going. This capability enhances pint and combined operations by providing a universal grid upon which all operations can be based. Position and navigation satellites facilitate the rapid and accurate survey necessary for positioning and improving the performance of weapons systems, without the use of traditional survey teams. Also, position and navigation systems can be embedded to provide electronic tracking of materiel and forces in support of operations.

(c) Surveillance, warning, and remote sensing satellites allow commanders to observe areas of operation and other areas of interest; provide detection and warning of enemy missile launches; and, to understand and react to the effects of weather and terrain in tactical, operational' and strategic operations. Multispectral imagery (MSI) and hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from space has proven invaluable for mapping, geology, agriculture, earth resources, oceanography and environmental monitoring. MSI data from an area that has been imaged, processed, and disseminated provides timely and unique information to terrain analysts. This data can be integrated with other intelligence to support intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) for a complete picture of the battle space. Warning sensors provide near-real time data that can be integrated directly with Army terrestrial weapon systems and those of other services to attack, separate, isolate and wear down enemy forces, making it difficult for hostile forces to mass, thus making them vulnerable to decisive maneuver. The capability to detect movement ( i.e., aircraft in afterburner and missile launch, and warn designated ground systems) are essential for effective strategic and tactical air and missile defense. Space-based sensors provide information essential to the battle damage assessment (BDA) process also.

(2) Technologies emerging in the mid-term will enable the design of smaller, lighter, reliable, configurable, interoperable, mobile and transportable processing terminals capable of integrating and fusing data from multiple sources. This capability enhances the Army's ability to accurately assess the current situation; adapt to the demands of the situation; anticipate enemy actions; react faster than the enemy; exploit opportunities and vulnerabilities; and identify targets. The use of tailorable sensors and space-based processing, that fuses data from multiple sensors, provides information that can be tailored to specific needs of the force and significantly reduces the need for deploying large ground-based processors in the far-term. Mid-term technologies also will permit a sensor-to-shooter linkage that will allow targeting data to be passed directly from a space asset to the seeker-head of smart munitions. Space-based position location and navigation capabilities are integrated with terrestrial systems to provide real-time information on the location of friendly and enemy units, enhancing battle command and facilitating rapid combat operations. Additionally, digitized capabilities such as electronic dissemination of voice, data, and imagery, video teleconferencing with electronic graphics containing integrated terrain and weather information, when transmitted with orders, will provide subordinate forces with a more rapid and clearer understanding of the commander's intent. All these capabilities combined will provide commanders with an integrated, accurate, timely and dependable battle command system.

(3) In the far-term, advances in technology; the integration of space capabilities; and, space-based processing will enhance critical command, control, and communications nodes and reduce the amount of ground based processing equipment from the battle space. Satellite on-board data processing and information dissemination capabilities are crucial for the operation of precision strike systems needed to shape the battle space. Position and navigation capabilities, coupled with advanced technologies, can be integrated with terrestrial weapon systems to improve performance and increase the autonomy of the host system. Reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) platforms can provide nuclear, biological, and chemical detection information that updates conditions and situations and enable the commander to sense change and influence future actions and activities. The development of a force application capability will extend the power projection capability of the force against surface and aerial targets. Tactical and theater missile defenses (1~) against enemy rockets, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and remotely piloted vehicles RPVs) are required. Using the extended range possible with space systems, enables friendly forces to degrade, nullify or destroy enemy high-value targets throughout the area of operation.

f. War Termination and Post Conflict Operations. Once combat operations are brought to an end, there is a transition period of post-conflict. The focus of this stage of the operation is on restoring order, minimizing confusion following combat, reestablishing host nation infrastructure, preparing forces for redeployment, and providing continuing presence. The information required at every level of command places a continuing demand for command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) to provide support capabilities for prisoner control, refugee handling, mine field detection and clearing and unexploded ordnance destruction, health service support, humanitarian and civil assistance, force readiness, and threat assessments.

g. Redeployment, and Reconstitution. Readiness to deploy to areas other than home station on short notice and force protection is as critical in this stage as is in any other. Commanders must contend with the same challenges of mission, enemy, terrain, troops available - time (METT-T). Reliance on split-based communications linkages and the transfer of information is just as crucial. Responsive and efficient actions to anticipate and respond to such requirements are facilitated by the range and data transfer capability of space systems and their ability to collect information on all forces and the environment. Improved logistics management processes (i.e., total asset visibility (TAV), objective supply capability, and a more rapid, responsive, and reliable movement management through a global transportation network (GTN)), are essential for force sustainment, reconstitution, and predictive logistics analysis. These capabilities will enable the commander to tailor, redirect, and adjust logistics resources in response to the dynamic needs of the operational forces. Proactive technology insertion relative to the exploitation of modern computers, data scanners, and active and passive data chips, linked to satellite communications, and position and navigation aids will provide the required asset visibility to decrease the length and size of the logistical pipeline; and ensure real-time battle command of all combat service support assets within the theater of operation. Space capabilities also support satellite assisted maintenance and telemedicine procedures, real-time battlefield damage assessment, casualty reporting, asset location, routing, and tracking. These capabilities facilitate rebuilding unit integrity and accounting for soldiers and equipment.

h. Demobilization. During this stage, units, individuals, and materiel return to their premobilization status. The information requirements that existed during mobilization and predeployment resume. Command, control, communications, computers and intelligence systems provide information on the status of forces and materiel, information regarding the sustaining bases, information needed to coordinate politico-military support and security assistance. Throughout all of the force projection stages, the need for assured communications is paramount.

i. Operations Other Than War.

(1) The thrust of this concept thus far has focused primarily on space capabilities in support of combat operations. However, these described capabilities are just as important in operations other than war (OOTW). Peacekeeping (i.e., nation assistance, disaster relief and humanitarian aid) and conflict (the use of limited force to secure strategic objectives and restore peace) are types of peace operations included under the umbrella of operations other than war. These activities are designed to promote regional stability, maintain or achieve democratic end states, retain U.S. influence and access abroad, provide security and protect U.S. interests and support domestic civil authorities. These missions will demand innovative application of the power of armed forces into the 21st century. Such employment of forces may minimize the need for combat operations by defusing crises and nurturing peaceful resolution of contentious issues. However, operations other than war will not always have peaceful results. The probability of engagement in operations other than war continues to be high in many parts of the world.

(2) The employment of space systems and capabilities will be integrated by the combatant commander, normally joint, combined, and/or coalition, into the activities that support specific plans to achieve regional and national objectives. Communications infrastructure will be emplaced to overcome the limited or non-existent infrastructure in many potential areas of operation. This communications infrastructure will provide emergency command, control, communications, and computers (C4) in-theater and globally, to support medical, administrative, and logistic needs in the field. Mapping, meteorology, and position and navigation from space assets provide products for poorly mapped and poorly trafficable terrain, which will probably be the norm for most areas of operation. RISTA platforms provide indispensable collection, monitoring and detection capabilities that provide situation awareness, especially crucial for insurgency and counter-insurgency, combating terrorism, counter-drug and peacekeeping operations.

Chapter 4


4-1. General. The unique capabilities of space systems will drive change in doctrine, training, personnel skills, equipment, and organizational requirements. The Army's increasing use of space systems, capabilities and generated products is due to a changing strategic environment; lessons learned from recent experiences; and, emergence of information-age technology. The speed at which information technology is advancing demands that the Army's modernization program keep pace if the land force is to be a viable element of national power in the 21st century. The Army must do all that it can to shorten the timelines for implementing changes to doctrine, training, leader development, organization, and materiel focused on support to the soldier (DTLOMS), in response to rapidly advancing information technology.

4-2. Doctrine. The ideas and technologies contained in this concept should direct the development of land force space support doctrine and must also be incorporated into other existing and emerging land force doctrine. Additionally, space technologies and their doctrinal applications must be reflected in new tactics, techniques and procedures (TT&P) generated in response to Army requirements. The increasing demand for the use of space systems is a primary consideration in the Army's ability to support the national security strategy. The precepts of emerging doctrine require the Army to focus on a much broader range of missions while adapting to the changing nature of how it will fight.

4-3. Training. Experience has shown that the Army must train as it will fight to gain success on the future battlefield. The ideas contained in this concept reflect the requirements of a force-projection Army and the introduction of technological advances in space systems. The wide variety of combat operations and operations other than war expected in full-dimensional operations and the use of new space technologies to enhance unit capabilities in support of these operations should be addressed in the unit training plan. This concept and emerging doctrine should be integrated into all aspects of the Army enlisted, officer and civilian institutional and unit training programs. Training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS) should be designed and used to replicate the capabilities provided by space systems. Simulations (constructive, virtual and live) offer unique opportunities to integrate training with space training. General space awareness training and education should be developed for individuals and units, with system specific training where required. Individual soldiers and units should be trained and intimately familiar with the equipment and effects of space in the execution of their missions. Brigade or higher units should have a trained staff officer, Skill 3Y, assigned so that units can have continuous space training and residential expertise. Where costs are not prohibitive, all segments of a space system should be made available and accessible to provide a realistic and dynamic training environment. Army training programs should be reviewed and revised to integrate a level of space training commensurate with mission expectations across the full range of military operations. Resources should be allocated to ensure space training is developed and integrated into existing training programs. Individual training programs and programs of instruction may be required. This includes training in system(s) employment to support joint and combined interoperability. This may include training in foreign languages of both potential adversary and ally in order to make the utility of space training more realistic.

4-4. Leader Development. Future Army leaders must be able to fully exploit the opportunities that space technologies provide. The extensive participation of other services, allied, civil, national, and commercial organizations require leaders educated within these organizations to enhance interoperability. The skill of these future leaders will enable them to integrate the capabilities of land, air, sea and space into operational plans as well as understand the threats from enemy space systems. Formal leader development programs for space should be developed or expanded within the different training and education programs throughout the Army. Army leaders, at all echelons, should understand the utility of space capabilities and the limitations in supporting Army missions. Effective exploitation of space capabilities requires leaders and soldiers who can assess space related technologies, evaluate Army requirements, and match space capabilities to Army deficiencies. They must be able to effectively influence the design and development of space capabilities to satisfy validated Army requirements. Leadership development programs should include a pertinent, meaningful, infusion of space capability awareness. In these ways, leaders of today and tomorrow will develop an understanding and appreciation for the many benefits that accrue from existing and emerging space systems, and how their capabilities will support their warfighting missions.

4-5. Organization. The use of existing and emerging space technology in future Army operations will be imperative as the Army continues to downsize. The capabilities of space systems enable commanders and staffs at lower organizational levels to perform functions in a joint, combined, coalition, and/or interagency environment; in split-based configurations; with increased situation awareness and clarity; and faster. Existing Army organizations will use space capabilities as they become normalized into land force operations. First, it must develop and then execute an investment strategy to exploit space. Clearly defined roles and functions must be assigned to properly dispose of responsibilities for proponency, operations, materiel developments, funding and prioritization. This is necessary to avoid redundancies, reduce inefficiencies and ineffectiveness. This includes establishing an organization structure for space development, and identifying space positions within Tables of Organization and Equipment (TOE), Modified Tables of Organization and Equipment (MTOE), and Tables of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) to support Army requirements at all echelons of command.

4-6. Materiel.

a The strategy for exploiting space systems implies extensive efforts on the part of combat and materiel developers to leverage technologies that are horizontally integrated into weapon systems and platforms. Materiel developments must focus on the warfighter (deployability, lethality, survivability, versatility, and sustainability) to meet the challenges of an uncertain future. The Army should develop required capabilities from space systems which support and enhance force-projection operations. To meet its future needs, the Army should articulate its specific requirements with a joint perspective.

b. The Army should identify and validate warfighting deficiencies that can be better solved, in whole or in part, through the application of space systems and capabilities. In some cases, the life cycle costs of space related solutions can be attractively lower than alternative, terrestrial-based solutions. Advancements in technology will permit economy of scale and order of magnitude increases in flexibility for ground support equipment. An example of this is embedding space technologies into new generations of Army equipment. The building of both ground and space-based components capable of being custom configured, integrated, or interchanged with other systems or to meet specific mission requirements will increase force flexibility by reducing the number of different systems that must accompany a deployment.

c. The emphasis of the science and technology (S & T) process must be on directing new and emerging technologies and concepts toward viable systems for the mid-term and long-term goal. The S & T review process within TRADOC must contribute to ensure research and development is focused to address the operational capability requirement (OCR) across the spectrum of Army operations as well as interservice and joint operations. Additionally, viable existing, non-developmental items (NDI) and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology needs to be identified through the S&T review process, and made available now to the warfighters. We must ensure that our national strategy directs the development of necessary technology and not allow technology to direct overall strategy. The importance of the Army's assured access to space assets cannot be overemphasized. The proliferation of advanced technology as well as WMD has greatly increased threat force capabilities to use them against U.S. forces and our allies. The infusion and proliferation of advanced technologies will continue. The Army must have assured access to space assets to ensure land force dominance in the face of proliferation.

4-7. Soldiers. One of the major implications for future soldiers is that they will be faced with a wide variety of challenges in preparing for and executing full dimensional operations. To prepare for its expanding role in the space medium, the Army requires high quality, dedicated and innovative personnel with wide-ranging space expertise. A thorough knowledge of space capabilities and operations, and the ability to determine how, when and where these capabilities can be applied in support of Army requirements will be necessary. Specific career development and progression programs must be developed and implemented for officer, enlisted and civilian personnel. These programs will assure attraction and retention of high quality personnel with the requisite level of expertise for command, staff and operational billets that support the Army's effective exploitation of space. Educational opportunities must be pursued to develop the requisite core of Army space expertise. The capabilities of space-based systems will directly affect the soldier's ability to accomplish his mission. Awareness of capabilities and contributions is critical to development of the "complete" soldier, and becomes more important as the Army evolves into the 21st century.

Chapter 5


The Army's space concept is to use space to enhance execution of its doctrine. The Army needs space capabilities to enable it to do its job effectively in the new force-projection environment. The normalization of the use of space in land force operations provides commanders with an enhanced capability to exploit force-projection operations across the full range of military operations. Combining near-continuous, global coverage, real-time and near-real time capabilities for communications, position and navigation, surveillance, remote sensing, warning, and target acquisition, allows commanders to anticipate enemy actions, strike at vulnerable points faster than the enemy can react, win the information war, and achieve land force dominance. Additionally, these same capabilities allow the commanders to have success in operations other than war. As the Army moves into the 21st century, it is imperative that it exploit the advanced technologies proliferating in this Information Age. The Army must define its role, identify its requirements, plan strategies for its involvement in space, and participate more in the joint, combined, civil, and commercial environments to fully exploit space. The Army's most important space requirement is assured access at times when there will likely be competing claimants for these systems. For our future success, doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldiers (DTLOMS), must address the application of space systems, capabilities and technologies.

Section I

ABCS Army Battle Command System
AOR area of responsibility
ARSPACE Army Space Command
ASAT anti-satellite
ASEDP Army Space Exploitation Demonstration
ASI additional skill identifier
AWE Advanced Warfighting Experiment
BDA battle damage assessment
BLOS beyond line of sight
BMC4I Battle Management Command, Control,
Communications, Computers and
BMD ballistic missile defense
BOS battlefield operation systems
C2 command and control
C3I command, control, communications, and
C4 command, control, communications, and
C4I command, control, communications,
computers, and intelligence
CCIR commanders critical information
CINC Commander in Chief
CJCS Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff
CONUS continental United States
COTS commercial off the shelf
DECCO Defense Commercial Communications
MSA Defense Information Systems Agency
DoD Department of Defense
DTLOMS doctrine, training, leader development,
organizations, materiel, and soldiers
EW electronic warfare
FM field manual
GTN global transportation network
HSI hyperspectral imagery
HQ headquarters
1PB intelligence preparation of the battlefield
IO information operations
1R infrared
ITV intransit visibility
IW information warfare
JCS Joint Chief of Staff
ITF Joint Task Force

MACOM major Army command

METT-T mission, enemy, troops, terrain and weather, and time available

MILSATCOM military satellite communications
MSI multispectral imagery
MTOE modified table of organization and
NCA National Command Authority
NDI non-developmental item
NMS National Military Strategy
OCR operational capability requirement
OOTW operations other than war
POM program objective memorandum
POS/NAV position and navigation
RISTA reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance
and target acquisition
RPV remotely piloted vehicle
SATCOM satellite communications
S&T science and technology
TADSS training aids, devices, simulators, and
TAV total asset visibility
TBM theater/tactical ballistic missile
TDA table of distribution and allowances
TENCAP Tactical Exploitation of National
TMD theater/tactical missile defense
TOE table of organization and equipment
TRADOC U.S. Army Training and Doctrine
TT&C telemetry, tracking and commanding
TT&P tactics, techniques, and procedures
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
USSPACECOM U.S. Space Command
WMD weapons of mass destruction

Section II



Any weapon designed to destroy satellites.

Assured access

The single most important requirement. This results in the requirement that the Army be allocated, by the Commander in Chief (CINC), the set of satellite resources necessary to form communications links or networks when needed throughout the strategic, operational, and tactical areas of operations.

Assured communications

The certainty of priority electronic transmission capability when needed throughout the strategic, operational, and tactical areas of operations.

Battle dynamic

Future American military operations will be characterized by change in five major interrelated areas known as battle dynamics: battle command, battle space, depth and simultaneous attack, early entry, and combat service support


A communications channel from a satellite to an earth station.


A satellites footprint is that area on the Earth's surface within the field of view of the satellites transmitters or sensors.

Force projection

The movement of military forces from CONUS or a theater in response to requirements for war or operations other than war. Force projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces, to redeployment of forces, to redeployment to CONUS or home theater, to subsequent demobilization.

Full dimensional operations

The application of all capabilities available to an Army commander to accomplish his mission decisively and at least cost across the full range of possible operations.

Global transportation network

A command and control information system to facilitate the mission of global transportation management.


Similar to multispectral except that the number of spectral bands or subdivisions within a spectrum is much greater, with consequently much narrower bandwidths. Hyperspectral imagery data permits more precise analysis of imagery than multispectral.


This term is used to describe the subdividing of a spectrum. For example, the spectrum of emitted or reflected light energy may be subdivided into a number of smaller bandwidths, including far infrared, far ultraviolet, and others in between. These smaller bandwidths may be combined with or subtracted from each other in various ways to form images useful for terrain or target analysts.

National systems

A term used generically to refer to any asset used by the collection organizations of the United States, especially space-based systems.

Operations other than war

Military activities during peacetime and conflict that do not

necessarily involve armed clashes between two organized forces.

Principles of war

The principles of Objective, Offensive, Mass, Economy of Force, Maneuver, Unity of Command, Security, Surprise, and Simplicity which provide general guidance for the conduct of war at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.


The manned or unmanned components of target acquisition or intelligence systems which detect, and may indicate, and/or record objects and activities.

Sensor to shooter linkage

The mechanism(s) by which data gained by sensors is processed to identify targets and the targets are passed to a weapon system for engagement.

Situational awareness The ability to have accurate knowledge of your own and other friendly element locations and activities, as welt as that of the enemy, neutral and noncombatant elements.

Space system

An organization made up of equipment, some of which is in space, and people whose purpose is to perform specific tasks -with the equipment. Space systems are almost universally made up of three principal subsystems, or segments: space segment (satellite), the user segment (equipment and persons used to exploit the satellite's products), and control segment (equipment and persons dedicated to maintaining the satellite).

Split based

The ability to conduct operations (such as logistics and intelligence management functions) so that only those functions absolutely necessary are deployed, allowing some management functions to be accomplished in near-real-time through connectivity to a forward deployed unit from CONUS or other theater.

Surrogate satellite

A combination of long range endurance unmanned aerial communications vehicles and communications pallets mounted on existing manned aircraft to give corps and division commanders organic range extension.


Capability of performing surgery by utilizing electronically transmitted instructions to a robotic or professional medical person performing surgical procedures at remoted forward battlefield positions.

Tenets of Army operations

The fundamental tenets (initiative, agility, depth, synchronization, and versatility) of Army operations that describe the characteristics of successful operations.

Total asset visibility

The immediate availability of data pertaining to the location of materiel in storage or in transit from the provider to the requester.




Major General

Chief of Staff


Colonel, GS

Deputy Chief of Staff

for Information Management


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