U.S. Army Information Systems Engineering Command
Fort Huachuca, Arizona 85613-5300
Automated Information Systems
Long-Haul Transmission Systems
Updated, 26 Aug 98
Table of Contents
2. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DoD) AND INDUSTRY ARCHITECTURAL STANDARDS AND SYSTEMS
2.1 Department of Defense Standards
2.1.1 Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM)
2.1.2 Joint Technical Architecture (JTA)
2.1.3 Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) Master Plan
2.1.4 Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) Common Operating Environment (COE)
2.1.5 DoD Directives (DoDD) and DoD Instructions (DoDI)
2.1.6 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instructions (CJCSI)
2.1.7 Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)
2.2 Industry Architectural Standards
3. U.S. ARMY SYSTEMS DESIGN GUIDANCE
3.1 Office of the Director of Information Systems for Command,
Control, Communications, and Computers (ODISC4)
3.2 Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-Army)
3.3 U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (USACECOM)
3.3.1 U.S. Army Information Systems Engineering Command (USAISEC)
4. USAISEC GUIDANCE & ENGINEERING EXAMPLES
4.1 Satellite Systems
4.1.1 Military Satellite
188.8.131.52 Earth Terminal (ET)
184.108.40.206.1 Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) Earth Terminal Implementation Engineering and Test
220.127.116.11.2 DSCS Heavy Terminal (HT)/Medium Terminal (MT) Upgrade Implementation Engineering and Test
18.104.22.168.3 DSCS Digital Communication Satellite Systems (DCSS) Implementation Engineering and Test
22.214.171.124.4 DSCS Interconnect Facility Design and Implementation Engineering and Test
126.96.36.199.5 DSCS Facility Engineering
188.8.131.52.6 U.S. Army DSCS Engineering Resource Management System (USADERMS)
184.108.40.206.7 DSCS Integrated Digital Network Exchange (IDNX) Implementation Engineering and Test
220.127.116.11.8 Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR) Implementation Engineering and Interconnect Facility
4.1.2 Commercial Satellite (COMSAT)
18.104.22.168 TROJAN Communications
22.214.171.124 Intelligence/Electronic Warfare (IEW) Communications
126.96.36.199 Expanded Korean Improvement Program (EKIP) Communications
4.2 Terrestrial Systems
4.2.1 Terrestrial Systems (General)
4.2.2 Fiber Optic Systems
4.2.3 High Frequency (HF) Radio
4.2.4 Line of Sight (LOS) Radio
4.2.5 Ultra High Frequency (UHF)/Very High Frequency (VHF) Radio
4.2.6 Trunked Radio
4.2.7 Copper Cable (Coaxial, Twisted Pair)
4.2.8 Personal Communication Systems
4.3 Technical Control Systems
4.3.1 Minimum Essential Requirements
4.3.2 Baseline Architecture
4.3.3 Goal Architecture
4.3.4 Migration Strategy
188.8.131.52 Near-Term Evolution
184.108.40.206 Midterm (2001-2005)
220.127.116.11 Far-Term (2006-2010)
18.104.22.168 Emerging Technologies and Standards
4.4 System Design Guidance
4.4.1 Technical Control Systems (TCS) (General)
4.4.2 Baseband Systems and Protocols
4.4.3 Distribution Systems
4.4.4 Timing and Synchronization
4.4.5 Network and Systems Management (NSM)
4.4.6 Transmission Security
4.4.7 Power Distribution
4.5 Engineering Guidance
4.5.1 Transmission Security
4.5.2 The Multilevel Information Systems Security Initiative (MISSI)
4.5.3 Bulk Encryption Systems
4.6 End to End Long Haul Transmission System Engineering Considerations
4.6.1 End to End System Integration
1. Site Surveys
The purpose of this document is to provide technical guidance to System Engineers (SE) for engineering, integrating, and implementing federal, military, and commercial long-haul transmission systems for selected United States (U.S.) Army projects and installations. Also included are non-Power Projection Command, Control, Communications, and Computers Infrastructure (P2C4I) transmission systems at the installation level (trunked radio, cellular). The technical guidance in this document provides the basis to develop more detailed system design, engineering, and test plans for specific projects and installations. The underlying objective is to meet current information transfer requirements (voice, data, video) by providing long-haul and selected installation-level transmission systems and services sufficiently flexible to meet exponentially increasing communication requirements. The systems and services must be interoperable with installation-level information systems (sustaining base and tactical) and accommodate new technology advancements. This design guide is intended to be a living document and will be reviewed for applicability on a periodic basis to keep it current with changes to established architectures and significant advances in state-of-the-art design for Long-Haul Transmission Systems.
As stated in the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), a new technology paradigm based on the concept of open network computing is emerging. This concept is driven by advances in technology and a combination of growing interdependence and heightened competition among functional organizations. The design of Automated Information Systems (AIS) is increasingly dependent upon data communication and system platform operations in a distributed processing environment to satisfy users' requirements during peace, transition to war, and wartime. Standards are "the glue" that enables users to interoperate seamlessly across applications, platforms, and organizations. The standards are drawn from widely accepted commercial standards when they meet Department of Defense (DoD) and Army requirements. Where necessary for interoperability, profiles of commercial standards are used. Military standards are mandated only when suitable commercial standards are not available. The DoD Joint Technical Architecture (JTA) makes use of the open-systems architecture used by the Internet and the Defense Information Systems Network (DISN). This architecture and set of standards provide for communication interoperability between end systems that are on different communication subnetworks. This document will provide guidance to the SE in the design, engineering, integration, and implementation of long-haul transmission systems to support interoperability for end-to-end communications. It will ensure that federal, military, and commercial long-haul transmission systems are being utilized to provide an information infrastructure that is transparent to the warriors, but accessible to them anywhere. Provided below is a brief overview of the four design guides that are used to support Army Long-Haul Transmission Systems projects.
Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) systems. MILSATCOM systems consist of Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Satellites, Super High Frequency (SHF) Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) satellites, the Military Strategic and Tactical Relay (MILSTAR) satellite system, and Commercial Satellite Communications. The DSCS satisfies the majority of DoD medium and high data rate communications requirements.
Commercial Satellite (COMSAT) communication systems. The DoD promulgated new policy guidance for the use of Commercial Satellites. This policy was an outgrowth, in part, of the congressionally mandated Commercial Satellite Communications Initiative (CSCI) studies and the demonstrable benefits available from an increased use of commercial Satellite Communications (SATCOM) for military applications. Including Geosychronous, Medium, and Low Earth Orbits (GEO, MEO, LEO) satellite systems.
Terrestrial Systems. Supporting the U.S. Army worldwide mission, these systems include fiber optic (FO), high frequency (HF), microwave (mw) line of site (LOS), UHF, very high frequency (VHF), trunked radio, copper cable, and personal communication systems (PCS).
Technical Control/Bandwidth Management systems. The role of technical control systems (TCS) is constantly being challenged to meet the demands of the users whose bandwidth requirements are continually increasing for voice, data, and imaging systems. TCS have traditionally provided the users' interface to the transmission systems to meet the users' needs. Current telecommunications technology insertion has enhanced the network equipment with some of the interface capabilities of the traditional TCS, along with significant monitoring, testing, diagnostic, and reporting enhancements.
The Army developed this document to assist the engineer in the design and implementation of selected long-haul transmission systems to ensure they are scaleable, interoperable, secure, and in compliance with all applicable standards as well as the Joint Technical Architecture-Army (JTA-Army). The long-haul transmission goal architecture shown in figure1 must support the ability to structure a force rapidly and efficiently to meet any future contingency.
This document identifies the standards, profiles, and practices for information transfer required for interoperability between and among Standard Army Management Information Systems (STAMIS) and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems, supporting access for data, facsimile, video, imagery, voice, and multimedia systems. The standards for internetworking between different long-haul networks and subnetworks are also identified. Transmission media standards for satellite and terrestrial radio, fiber optic and copper cable, Government and commercial services, and technical controls are covered. Finally, emerging technologies that should be monitored for future use are identified. This document is intended to be a primary point of reference for the integration and synchronization of long-haul and selected installation transmission systems within the Army.
The following chapter provides a general reference for applicable DoD and industry standards, architectures, and systems that define the context for AIS long-haul transmission systems. A short summary paragraph is provided for each with the appropriate hot link uniform resource locator (URL) provided for additional detail if available. This chapter is primarily provided for reference and definition purposes.
The national military strategy relies on power projection by highly flexible, rapid response, tailored-force packages under joint task force (JTF) or combined task force (CTF) command. These force packages will support a spectrum of military and political responses to promote national interests worldwide. The national military strategy dictates that U.S. forces be structured to project power from Continental United States (CONUS) bases, sanctuary locations, and in-theater locations to an area of conflict anywhere in the world. The new warfighting context outlined in the National Military Strategy drives the evolution of a concept to guide all Services toward a global C4I "Infosphere" shown in figure 2. C4I for the warrior (C4IFTW) architecture is being designed to provide an information infrastructure that is transparent to the warriors but accessible to them wherever they are deployed. The warriors will be supported by integrated media services including voice, data, and video. Based on asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), and integrated services digital network (ISDN) technologies, the early deployment of tactical broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) transmission networks is critical.
Figure 2. Infosphere
Future JTF tactical communications must be flexible, modular, integrated, lightweight, and rapidly deployable. Strategic Defense Information Infrastructure (DII) and JTF connectivity shows the notional connectivity from the perspective of the interface between strategic and tactical environments. The DII interfaces with the JTF (see Figure 3) area at the DISN nodes. The DII is a seamless web of communication networks, computers, software, databases, applications, and other capabilities that meet the information processing and transport needs of DoD users in peacetime and in crisis, conflict, humanitarian support, and wartime roles. The Army must design, engineer, and implement its long-haul transmission systems to be in compliance with and ensure this seamless web.
The telecommunications network is undergoing unprecedented transformation. To meet the demands of the current technology insertion brought on by the users' demands for faster services and greater bandwidth, design standards and policies are being promulgated to meet the communication challenges of the future. The following subparagraphs provide the listed standards and policy documents and the responsible organizations at the DoD level to present their impact on long-haul transmission systems. The paragraphs will also provide the purpose of each document and discuss the actions required by the design guide to comply with the documents. The cited documents provide the design guidance for attaining the target architecture and must be reviewed and evaluated so that appropriate areas are applied.
The TAFIM applies to many DoD mission/domain areas and lists all adopted information technology standards that promote interoperability, portability, and scalability. The DoD JTA draws on the TAFIM, which provides general guidance and documents the processes and framework for defining the JTA and other technical architectures.
The JTA, Version 2.0, 26 May 1998, is the baseline for DoD systems design guidance. It identifies a common set of mandatory information technology standards and guidelines to be used in all new and upgraded systems across DoD. The scope of the JTA is focused on Command, Control, and Intelligence (C2I) systems (to include sustaining base systems, combat support information systems, and office automation systems); the communications and computers that directly support the C4I, and the interfaces of those systems with other key assets (e.g., weapon systems, sensors, models, and simulations) to support critical joint warfighter interoperability.
The JTA draws on the TAFIM, which provides general guidance and documents the processes and framework for defining the JTA and other technical architectures. The JTA necessarily includes requirements related to interoperability by identifying the minimum set of standards.
The standards and specifications identified in the JTA are entirely consistent with and support the DoD Standards and Acquisition Reform initiatives. The DoD standards policy recognizes the need for DoD to specify interface standards that are required for interoperability. The standards in the JTA are almost entirely performance-based interface standards.
The JTA is a forward-looking document, defining the standards used to build new and upgraded systems. The intent is to indicate migration direction. Existing systems are not expected to conform immediately to the JTA. When these systems are upgraded, the JTA will be used to transition the system toward a common interoperability goal. If legacy standards are needed to interface to existing systems they can be implemented with appropriate approval in addition to the mandated standard.
Figure 3. Strategic DII and JTF Connectivity.
The DII Master Plan is a tool to manage the evolution of the DII. The descriptive and analytical data for the DII will be available at several levels of detail.
The purposes of the DII Master Plan are to:
The DII COE details the technical and functional requirements for a COE for information support to the warfighter. It identifies classes of functions common to all or most application components.
The development of the DII COE stems from the Global Command and Control System (GCCS) COE effort and is perhaps the most significant and useful technical by-product of the GCCS development effort. As an outgrowth of this effort the Services have agreed to migrate their Command and Control (C2) systems to the DII COE (see Figure 4).
Figure 4. Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment.
The following DoDD promulgates policy for compatibility, interoperability, and integration of C3I systems used in the DoD. DoDD 4630.5, "Compatibility, Interoperability, and Integration of Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Systems".
The following DoDI implements the policy in DoDD 4630.5, it assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures to achieve compatibility and interoperability of a consolidated, DoD-wide, global C3I infrastructure.
DoDI 4630.8, "Procedures for Compatibility, Interoperability, and Integration of Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Systems".
2.1.6 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instructions (CJCSI)
The following CJCSI implements the policy established in DoDD 4630.5 and DoDI 4630.8, supports the C4IFTW initiative, and makes the Military Communications-Electronics Board (MCEB) the focal point for enforcement of the policy.
CJCSI 6212.01A, "Compatibility, Interoperability, and Integration of Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence Systems".
The DISA core mission includes DISN, GCCS, and the Defense Message System (DMS). The mission is "to plan, engineer, develop, test, manage programs, acquire, implement, operate, and maintain information systems for C4I and mission support under all conditions of peace and war". DISA is the DoD agency responsible for information technology. The area of concern for this guide is the DISN portion of the DISA mission.
The DISN is the DoD consolidated worldwide enterprise-level telecommunications infrastructure that provides the end-to-end information transfer network for supporting military operations, national defense C3I requirements, and corporate defense requirements. DISN is the communication transport piece of the DII, which is of a widely distributed, user-driven infrastructure into which the warfighter can gain access from any location for all required information. The DISN is structured to satisfy requirements that are evolving in response to changing military strategy, changing threat conditions, and advances in information and communications technology.
The DISN will provide the warfighter with a full range of Government-controlled and secure information transfer services for exchanging voice, video, data, and imagery to support warfighter requirements in the 21st Century.
The DISN as described in CJCSI 6211.02(3), dated 23 June 1993, Defense Information Systems Network and Connected Systems, includes point-to-point transmission, switched data services, video teleconferencing, etc. The CJCSI directs all Services/Agencies (S/A) to submit all long-haul communication requirements to DISA for provisioning on the DISN.
The goal of DISN architecture is to facilitate a graceful technological evolution from the use of networks and systems that are owned and operated by the DoD to the use of commodity services wherever possible. A possible source of these commodity services may be the Federal Telecommunications System-2000 (FTS-2000) and its replacement, the Post-FTS-2000 (PF2K), based upon service availability, satisfaction of operational and technical requirements, and cost.
DISN is the subset of the DII that primarily provides information transport services both within the DII and across DII boundaries. The DISN infrastructure encompasses the CONUS sustaining base segment, segments outside CONUS (OCONUS) in the European and Pacific theaters, a space segment, and a deployable capability. It spans strategic, space, and tactical arenas. The DISN provides seamless and interoperable information transport across strategic and tactical networks, JTF and CTF, as well as the telecommunication networks of non-defense departments and agencies.
The DISN strategy maximizes the use of commodity services, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and Government off-the-shelf (GOTS) technology, and international commercial standards to facilitate interoperability with the Military Services and Defense Agencies as well as with other agencies of the U.S. Government and its allies.
In implementing the first phase of the goal architecture, DISA will capitalize on the efforts and resources previously expended in establishing the DISN router networks and the DISN multiplexer network. The integrated worldwide telecommunications capability shown in figure 5 will support transmission of voice, data, imagery, and video at all security classification levels. The network will support flexible and rapid provisioning, be easily extended, and capable of easily accepting future technology insertions. It will also provide seamless interfaces to commercial networks as required to support increased traffic during surge and contingency conditions. The network will be capable of rapid restoral in order to minimize the necessity for independent/stand-alone operations.
Figure 5. DISA Network Integration.
The network will support the requirement for the exponential increase in bandwidth, especially in support of modeling, imagery, and video teleconferencing requirements.
The network will integrate satellite, airborne, and terrestrial-based (wire and wireless) transmission and switching systems (strategic and tactical) and provide for end-to-end visibility to support integrated management of the network and connected systems.
The DISA Transition Team has the responsibility to manage the transition of all DoD customers to the new DISN. The DISA goal is to transition or cut over all DoD customers with minimal impact to their operational effectiveness. To achieve this goal, extensive cut over planning and coordination with DoD customers is required. DISN will provide service to over 500 bases, posts, camps and stations across the continental United States. At each of those locations, a local area coordinator (LAC) will be assigned to provide coordination for cut over of facilities under their cognizance.
The LAC will provide critical technical information available only at the local level that will enable cutover activities to be planned and executed. They will also serve as the local point of contact (POC) for site survey visits and any other activities involving their location. The knowledge and assistance provided by LAC is a key ingredient in the successful transition to DISN.
A detailed listing of information transfer mandated standards and an Internet link to these standards is identified in Appendix B of the JTA. These standards are required for interoperability between and among systems, supporting access for data, facsimile, video, imagery, and multimedia systems. Also identified are the standards for internetworking between different subnetworks and transmission media standards for SONET and radio links. These standards promote seamless communications and information transfer interoperability for DoD systems.
This section provides a general reference for applicable DoD and industry standards, architectures, and systems that define the context for AIS Long-Haul Transmission Systems. A short summary paragraph is provided for each with the appropriate hot link URL provided for additional detail if available. This section is primarily provided for reference and definition purposes.
The ODISC4 was directed to develop and implement the JTA-Army by the Army Enterprise Implementation Plan. The purpose of a technical architecture is to insure that systems conform to a specified set of requirements.
The JTA-Army is the baseline for Army systems design guidance. It simplifies the DoD TAFIM in some ways by condensing the guidance, which is stated within the TAFIM in broad terms to encompass the entire DoD as an enterprise system, to Army-specific requirements. The JTA-Army defines a technical architecture as a minimal set of rules governing the arrangement, interaction, and interdependence of the parts or elements that together may be used to form an information system. Its purpose is to ensure that Army system development (and the migration of existing information systems) satisfies a specified set of requirements that lead to interoperability. The JTA-Army is compared with a building code. That is, it does not tell the engineer what to build or how to build; instead it delineates the standards that will have to be met to pass inspection before the system that is built can be used. Also, like building codes, the JTA-Army is a constantly evolving set of guidelines. As technologies and standards change, so will the JTA-Army. Based on a policy memorandum dated 29 June 1994, wherein the Secretary of Defense stated his commitment to "a new way of doing business" in DoD to include the use of open systems, the JTA-Army is heavily oriented toward the use of open systems standards.
USACECOM provides the architectural framework and systems engineering to insure joint interoperability and horizontal technology integration across the battlespace. USACECOM executes its mission throughout the life cycle of warfighting systems and platforms through an integrated process of technology generation and application, acquisition excellence and logistics power projection. For Army sites affected by these projects, typically USACECOM and the United States Army Signal Command (USASC) have requisite responsibilities in operating, engineering, designing, and implementation of these systems.
USAISEC has been assigned the lead engineering implementation element within USACECOM for insuring that, all AMC engineered products adhere to architectural standards and are synchronized, integrated, and interoperable. This responsibility includes the development and maintenance of USAISEC Technical Guides and associated checklists that serve as architectural standards. These guides are based, in part, upon the policies, standards, and guidance promulgated by the various levels of DoD organizations discussed above.
The top level system engineering process involves several steps including the following:
a. Concept exploration and definition
b. Demonstration and validation
c. Engineering and manufacturing development
d. Production and deployment
e. Operations and support
As discussed earlier, most long-haul transmission systems are part of the DISN program, which is designed, managed, and system engineered by DISA and falls under the JTA for design. The Army Long Haul Transmission projects that fall under this include DSCS, Worldwide Technical Control Improvement Program (WWTCIP), and Terrestrial Systems (DISN-E, DISM-PAC, DISN-CONUS), Washington Area Wideband System (WAWS), Extended Korean Improvement Plan (EKIP), and others. For Army sites affected by these projects, USACECOM, USAISEC, and USASC have different responsibilities in operating, engineering, designing, and implementing these systems. In addition, there are the DISA, DISN CONUS and OCONUS series of contract communication services that are available for long-haul communications at each Army post, camp, or station. Some typical systems are shown in figure 6 below. Two other Army transmission systems are also identified as applicable for engineering and implementation purposes in this guide: the TROJAN Communications Network and the Army Base Support Trunked Radio System (BSTRS).
Figure 6. Typical Systems
The following paragraphs identify a summary of available engineering, implementation, or testing tools, programs, databases, handbooks, spreadsheets, text books and other government or industry technical documentation typically used in the engineering process for applicable USAISEC responsibilities in the long-haul transmission systems and projects. The POC is identified where possible, with their Defense Switched Network (DSN) telephone numbers and e-mail addresses, along with World Wide Web URL, local server access, and references. The military standards (MIL-STD) identified are for reference purposes only and are not mandated (some of the major standards are shown in figure 7). This Long-Haul Transmission System Design Guide has been expanded to include four additional guides (Military Satellite, Commercial Satellite, Technical Control, and Terrestrial) to cover these areas properly.
Figure 7. Military Standards
Table 1 gives the USAISEC SE several information resources that are available when designing, developing, integrating, or installing Army AIS.
Table 1. Information Sources for USAISEC System Design Plan (SDP).
|Information Resources & Tools||System Design Plan Reference|
|ODISC4, USACECOM, DII
Technical requirements, and services, etc.
|DII COE/DISN||System concept - major elements and allocation.|
Standard Army Bill of Materials Network (SABN)
|System architecture, selection of
equipment. Equipment and DoD
standards, equipment standards,
system performance standards.
Demonstration and interface standards.
System installation plans.
System test plans.
Satellite communications is a major element of the transmission and switching segment of the DISN architecture. SATCOM, typical coverage is shown in figure 8, will support global wide area networks (WAN) of fixed and mobile terminals.
Figure 8. Satellite Communications Coverage
In the near term, high data rate trunks will be provided via conventional satellite transponders. In the far-term, payloads with space borne switches are a possibility. In the near, mid, and far-terms, SATCOM will be the primary medium for providing communications and connectivity to deployed and mobile elements worldwide. The DISN goal architecture utilizes B-ISDN as the predominant technology for the fixed environment and ATM in the deployed environment. Satellite links between fixed terminals must exhibit characteristics similar to fiber optic links. This includes very low error rates that are essential to support the ATM protocol. The end-to-end delay introduced by the satellite link will have an impact on the operation of the ATM network flow control mechanism. The ATM protocol establishes both a virtual path for cells from the originating access node to the receiving access node and a virtual circuit from user to user. SATCOM support will be essential to extend DISN services to the warfighter. The transmit and receive SATCOM terminals provide the interface between the terrestrial DISN network and the SATCOM links to the mobile/transportable terminals. A typical satellite footprint which is further described in the Tools section of this manual is shown in figure 9.
Figure 9. Satellite Footprint
The military SHF DSCS III satellite has a total allocated bandwidth of approximately 500 Megahertz (MHz) and typically uses 60 MHz transponders. Higher frequency bands for Government use have larger bandwidths available: 1 Gigahertz (GHz) bandwidth at 20 GHz downlink and 30 GHz uplink; 2 GHz bandwidth at 44 GHz uplink. Commercial satellites operate at C Band and KU Band where 800 MHz and 500 MHz of bandwidth respectively are available.
USAISEC responsibilities include interfacing and implementation engineering for the DSCS and MILSTAR systems; design and engineering of the interconnect facility (ICF) between the earth terminals (ET) and the technical control facility (TCF) or special users; and the design, engineering and implementation of the Army's TROJAN worldwide intelligence communications network, which includes using available military CSCI, Global Broadcasting System (GBS), DSCS satellite systems, and other commercial satellite systems. These systems are described in detail in the ISEC MILSATCOM Design Guide and summarized here.
The ET consist of the antenna (shown in figure 10), transmitting, receiving, and processing equipment necessary to establish the uplinks and downlinks with a satellite. The following is a list of current ET equipment.
Figure 10. Satellite Earth Terminal
a. AN/FSC-78/79, AN/GSC-39 (v)2 Heavy Terminal/Medium Terminal
b. AN/GSC 52 State-of-the-art Medium Terminal
c. AN/GSC-49 Jam Resistant Secure Communications
d. AN/TSC-85B/93 Tactical Terminals
e. AN/TSC/93A/100A Tactical Terminals
f. AN/TSC-143 Prototype Tactical Tri-band Terminal
The Defense Satellite Communications System Operations Center (DSCSOC), collocated with a selected dual-antenna ET, is typically used to monitor SATCOM and to control and maintain the satellite payload. The DSCSOC typically conducts the daily operations and control of the DSCS under the authority of the DISA area communications operations center (ACOC).
The USAISEC maintains the DSCS ET implementation engineering and test program which consists of standard drawings, U.S. Army DSCS Engineering Resource Management System (USADERMS), standard test plans, DSCS Satellite Look Angle Program, and the Satellite Link Budget Program.
The USAISEC maintains the DSCS HT/MT upgrade implementation engineering and test program which consists of standard drawings, USADERMS, database, standard test plan, and the Standard Automated Bill of Materials (BOM) Network (SABN).
The USAISEC maintains the DSCS DCSS implementation engineering and test program which consists of standard drawings, USADERMS, SABN, standard cable running list, and the engineering installation package (EIP).
The USAISEC maintains the DSCS ICF and implementation engineering and test program which consists of the Fiber Optic Engineering Handbook, standard drawings, Fiber Optic Link Budget Program, and Fiber Optic in Reference.
The USAISEC maintains the DSCS facility engineering program for both OCONUS and CONUS and consists of building codes, standard drawings, USADERMS, and civil and mechanical engineering text books and handbooks.
The USAISEC maintains the USADERMS program which consists of the Oracle database with a documentation shell for DSCS drawings, documents, and data management, system design plans (SDP), site drawings, EIPs, Standards, and Field Manuals (FM).
The USAISEC maintains the DSCS IDNX implementation engineering and test program which consists of USADERMS, SABN, standard drawings, Communication Interface Standards in Reference, and multiplexer plans.
The USAISEC maintains the MILSTAR implementation engineering and ICF design and consists of standard drawings, EIP, ICF Handbook, civil and mechanical engineering textbooks and guides.
USAISEC responsibilities in this area include the design, engineering, implementation, and testing of commercial communications services and interconnectivity; figure 11 is a representative example. These services include the use of commercial satellites. The predominant users of commercial satellite services are the DISN, TROJAN, GBS, EKIP, and other intelligence/electronic warfare (IEW) programs. Commercial satellites provide connectivity on a worldwide basis, which includes several U.S. domestic service providers and international satellite organizations. U.S. domestic service providers include General Electric (GE) American Communications, American Telephone and Telegraph Corporation (AT&T), and Hughes. International satellite service providers include INTELSAT, ORION, PanAmSat, and Columbia Communications. Commercial satellite services are obtained through the Government program, CSCI, and through separate Defense Information Technology Contracting Office (DITCO) contracts such as TROJAN.
Because the utilization of commercial satellite service is cost-driven, it is critical that requirements be examined to determine the correct architecture to minimize the cost and provide the greatest service capacity, considering the satellite link transmission parameters. The parameters to be optimized are satellite downlink beam coverage, ET performance in terms of uplink effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) and downlink antenna gain to noise temperature (G/T), satellite modem optimization in terms of coding rates, and encoder/encoder techniques. The ET G/T depends upon the antenna size and the receiver performance.
The three most commonly used satellite frequency bands are the C Band, KU Band, and Ka Band. C Band and KU Bands are the two most common frequency spectrums used by today's satellites. To help understand the relationship between antenna diameter and transmission frequency, it is important to note that there is an inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength. When frequency increases, wavelength decreases. As wavelength increases, larger antennas are necessary to gather the signal. Some of the Army worldwide communications networks using commercial satellites include TROJAN, GBS, EKIP, classified Intel programs, other C3, logistics support, and training. Further detailed and representative commercial systems are availavle through the hot links in each paragraph to the COMSAT Design Guide.
a. CSCI: The CSCI studies demonstrated the applicability of commercial SATCOM to a variety of C3I missions. The new policy guidance establishes the framework to integrate the department's efforts for implementing supported commercial capabilities, and requirements (see figure 12), and will guide the resulting commercial service investment strategy to ensure a cost-effective augmentation of military satellite capabilities by the DoD.
The CSCI Management Office (CMO) will assist the engineer in evaluating communications requirements and devise a cost-effective, end-to-end solution with the CSCI network. With concurrence and commitment to use the CSCI network, the CMO will:
a. Obtain the necessary transponder capacity.
b. Recommend the required ETs and oversee their installation.
c. Assist in obtaining Host Nation Approval (HNA) where required.
d. Monitor and manage the operational performance of the network.
e. Respond to any problems or additional needs.
Engineers should provide a detailed list of satellite requirements to the CMO to obtain its services. The CMO will perform an initial evaluation to determine whether CSCI is right, and if it is, the CMO will develop a preliminary solution for approval. The CMO will then develop a plan which commits reimbursing the CSCI program for all detailed engineering, acquisition, and operations cost. The CMO then commits the CSCI CMO to providing the agreed-upon equipment and services.
The CSCI Bandwidth Management Center interacts with satellite operators to provide direct control of transponders or circuits and ensure overall circuit quality and performance. They also support provisioning, overall network management, monitoring, control, and billing, as well as mission applications support tailored to the customer's requirements. The bandwidth management center can also provide remote monitoring and control of user's unmanned ETs (future capability). As the CSCI bandwidth manager monitor and control capabilities expand, bandwidth on demand will become feasible providing even more affordable satellite service. Currently there are two bandwidth managers, in Maryland (Master) and in Germany (European).
The CSCI program office will also conduct the systems engineering and design analysis to identify the type and quantities of fixed and transportable terminals (including very small aperture terminal (VSAT), hub, trunk, and gateway) that meet the customer's requirements, and ensure overall CSCI system network compatibility and interoperability. The CMO has access to contract vehicles to provide some specific terminal types. Other terminal types will be acquired under a developing contract vehicle.
As an option, the CSCI can negotiate HNA. Agreements are consummated with a host nation for landing rights, site operating licenses, and connection to other ground transmission media. Costs for these services may be one-time non-recurring, annual or monthly fees. They generally will vary, sometimes significantly, from country to country.
Figure 12. CSCI Supported Communications Requirements
b. GBS: The GBS system is being acquired by the GBS Joint Program Office (JPO) to augment MILSATCOM systems and provide a continuous, high-speed, broadcast of high-volume data to units in garrison, deployed, or on the move. This configuration includes Joint Staff direction and policies that allocate GBS resources (bandwidth, time slots, and satellite antennas, and transponders) among the Commanders in Chief (CINC). Based on these allocations, the CINC specifies the class of data products to be broadcast as well as their precedence and scheduling.
c. Interference Reduction Group (IRG) Standard Access: Specific procedures have been developed by the Satellite User's IRG and these procedures form the basic process for accessing all U.S. domestic transponders, in both C and KU Band.
d. Transponder Rates: Full transponders can be leased for 1-year time periods essentially worldwide. Bundled transponders (e.g., T-1 circuits) can be leased for any term of lease based on other users' bundled requirements. The recurring costs of transponders or circuits vary with requirements for bandwidth and power, frequency, and special features such as spot and hemispherical beams. The non-recurring costs include connection, setup, documentation, and calibration. There are several companies that sell or broker transponder time within CONUS as well as international transponder time. Transponder rates vary by time slots, and transponder usage, for example Prime Time and Non Prime. The average rate for a full transponder in Prime time is $940.00 per hour; Non Prime time is $840.00 per hour. For half transponder time the cost is $705.00 and $630.00 for Prime and Non Prime respectively.
e. Teleports: There are several full-service satellite telecommunications facilities, called Teleports, located throughout the U.S. The Teleports offer broadcast video, program audio, and voice transmission. Many Teleports maintain extensive microwave and fiber optic local area networks (LAN) to connect to and interconnect with local transmission services such as regional bell operating companies and other service providers. Many Teleport facilities provide studio productions, video conferencing, and state-of-the-art editing facilities. In a typical network, data or audio to be broadcast is sent to the Teleport using dedicated fiber optic lines, Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) technology, microwave, or dedicated phone lines. The data and digital audio signals will then be uplinked and broadcast from the satellite to receiver sites.
f. Personal Communication Systems (PCS): The U.S. government has issued six new sets of licenses for building mobile phone networks in the frequency range between 1850 and 1990 MHz (it is generally referred to as 1900). The country has been divided into a series of geographic areas known as Major Trading Areas (MTA) and Basic Trading Areas (BTA). Auctions for rights to use the first three blocks in the MTA & BTA have already been completed. Auctions for the last three licenses are going on right now.
g. Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Satellites: During the last few years, technological innovations in space communications have given rise to new orbits and totally new systems designs. MEO satellite networks have been proposed that will orbit at distances of about 8000 miles. Signals transmitted from a MEO satellite travel a shorter distance which translates to improved signal strength at the receiving end. This means that smaller, more lightweight receiving terminals can be used. Also, since the signal is traveling a shorter distance to and from the satellite, there is less transmission delay. A geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellite requires .25 seconds for a round trip. A MEO satellite requires less than .1 seconds to complete. Figure 12 shows the typical orbital paths. Worldwide communications to mobile users equipped with vehicle based terminals, are currently available through geostationary satellites operating at L Band by International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT). In order to satisfy a significantly larger market of hand-held terminals a number of satellite systems with global coverage have been proposed. They are all based on a fleet of satellites rotating around the earth in circular or elliptical orbits well below that of the geostationary satellites. The main benefit of non-geostationary orbit satellites is that a smaller distance between the terminal and satellite allows smaller and lower cost satellite transponders and antennas as well as smaller terminals.
h. Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites: LEO satellites are divided into three categories: little LEO, big LEO, and mega-LEO. LEO satellites orbit at a distance of only 500 to 1000 miles above the earth. This relatively short distance reduces transmission delay to only .05 seconds and further reduces the need for sensitive and bulky receiving equipment. Little LEO satellites operate in the 800 MHz range, big LEO satellites operate in the 2 GHz or above range, and mega-LEO satellites operate in the 20-30 GHz range.
Figure 13. Satellite Orbits
i. Modern Satellite Networks: Future satellites will no longer act as "bent pipes"; they will most likely incorporate inter satellite links, on board switching, data buffering and signal processing. The 1990s have been characterized by the trend of reaching the end user with direct to host (DTH) satellite services. Moreover mobile satellite systems (MSS) are expected to play a crucial role in providing global PCS. MSS use a pocket sized transceiver with a short, flexible antenna (or a desktop or vehicle mounted transceiver), and individual users send and receive wireless data messages. The sender's message goes to the nearest in-view satellite where it is linked to the local gateway for validation and optimal routing to the recipient. The message is then returned to the satellite and stored briefly (until the intended receiver is in view) before delivery to the recipient's transceiver unit. If necessary, gateway earth stations relay messages between satellites for faster delivery.
j. Seamless Integration of Satellite & Terrestrial Networks: The Wide Area Communications Server (WACS) allows customers to significantly improve network performance and reduce the cost of wide area network (WAN) data links. The WACS was developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for use in its Deep Space Information Network. With its data compression feature, the WACS can double or triple the effective link rate, thereby reducing the need for NASA to upgrade expensive leased lines. Even with satellite links operating at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-4, the WACS provides 70 to 80 percent throughput before compression.
USAISEC engineering tools for the TROJAN program include the following: Satellite Link Budget Program, Look Angle Program, commercial satellite database, EIP, test plans, facility criteria, and commercial carrier URLs.
USAISEC engineering tools for the IEW program include: CSCI, GBS, Tactical Exploitation of National Capability (TENCAP), satellite budget and angle programs and databases, DISN contracts, URLs, spreadsheets, databases, software programs, EIPs, test plans and templates.
USAISEC engineering tools for the EKIP program includes facility criteria, link budget and angle program and database, EIP and test plans.
USAISEC responsibilities in this area include requirements definition, design, systems engineering, and implementation engineering for the Army responsibilities in the DISN Program, DEB, WAWS, Hawaii Area Wideband System (HAWS), EKIP, KCIU, Modeling and Simulation, missile range upgrades (White Sands and Yuma), and strategic and base support radio upgrades (HF, VHF/UHF, BSTRS). The project or generic areas of expertise within this category follow with applicable design standards, references, and engineering tools.
Overall USAISEC system guidance and engineering is applicable to all Army sites. Listed below are some of the Military Standards (MIL-STD) that should be followed when designing or upgrading a new or existing system.
(1) MIL-STD-187-700, Interface Standard Interoperability and Performance Standards for the Defense Information System.
(2) MIL-STD-187-700A, Interface Standard Interoperability and Performance Standards for the Defense Information System.
(3) MIL-STD-188-105, Digital Tactical-Strategic Gateway.
(4) MIL-STD-188-110A, Data Modems, Interoperability and Performance Standards.
(5) MIL-STD-188-113, Interoperability and Performance Standards for
Analog-to-Digital Conversion Techniques.
(6) MIL-STD-188-114A, Electrical Characteristics of Digital Interface Circuits for Common Long-Haul and Tactical Technical Control Facilities.
Without debate, Fiber Optic (FO) technology has thrown a whole new light on the future of communications. These new superhighways of FO cable now ring most major posts, camps, and stations and provide terabits worth of bandwidth between most military installations. By the year 2000, FO will have become the predominant transmission medium. The advent of these fiber highways comes with concomitant technologies required to effectively utilize this seemingly limitless bandwidth. ATM, SONET, Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS), Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Distributed-Queue, Dual-Bus (DQDB), Ethernet, and token ring, are all protocols of information communications (i.e., data, image, audio, and video). They all have a common requirement: a very high bandwidth to accommodate the high speed required for these different network systems. The market demands of technologies such as DQDB, FDDI, and ATM, as well as services such as SMDS and B-ISDN, are driving the need for ultrahigh speed transport. SONET and WDM are the harbingers of this new technical wave. Figure 14 shows a single and dual homed SONET backbone. WDM provides multiple optical channels on a single filter.
The following documents are the minimum requirements for FO systems design, engineering, and implementation engineering and test, Optic Engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-118-INA.
4.2.3 High Frequency (HF) Radio
The recent resurgence of interest in HF radio is causing significant changes in HF radio operations primarily due to the automation of former labor and knowledge-intensive operations. Figure 15 shows a typical HF system configuration. The adaptive technology known as automatic link establishment (ALE) has revolutionized the field of HF radio communications by utilizing automated digital signal transmission techniques. HF radios with ALE controllers are not dependent on experienced operators to quickly determine the optimal frequencies for specific links. ALE controlled radios automatically scan preselected frequencies to determine the communications suitability of each, then store the information in a link quality analysis (LQA) table. There is now even an email standard in development over HF.
The Army information system managers are demanding higher levels of circuit performance (less outage, better quality), robustness, security, and survivability in the increasingly complex networks used to transport critical telephone, trunking, decentralized LAN, data, monitoring and control, imaging, and teleconferencing traffic. New high data rate (HDR) LOS wireless communications (see figure 16) and performance digital mw equipment with enhanced link designs are keeping pace by offering a wide variety of radio architectures with more routing flexibility, protection schemes, and diversity arrangements. See details of system design and engineering standards to be used when integrating a HDR LOS wireless communications system for Long Haul applications in the Terrestrial Systems Design Guide.
Figure 16. Line of Sight Radio
A resurgence of interest in UHF/VHF technology is occurring as communicators react to the equipment cost constraints inherent in the use of satellite and fiber optic communications systems. In the 1980s, microcomputers made it possible to put a real computer inside a two-way radio. The result was the development of cellular telephones and trunked radios. Both systems have a central computer which manages the system.
Trunked radio systems are those which share a small number of radio channels among a larger number of users. The physical channels are allocated as need to the users who are assigned logical channels. The users only hear units on the same logical channel. This allows more efficient use of the channel since most users do not need the channel one-hundred percent of the time.
The radio system requirements for the proposed UHF/VHF frequency system must be based on both existing and future use requirements. Projected requirements should accommodate new and emerging information system technologies.
The architectural goal of the UHF system is to provide adequate communication service to enable dominant maneuver and information superiority. The strategy is to sustain current UHF capability, deploy currently planned UHF, and decide in the 2003 to 2005 time frame on the preferred approach to provide netted mobile and hand-held voice, paging, and low-data-rate broadcast service. Three military approaches have been identified:
The UFO Satellite Program provides communications for airborne, ship, submarine, and ground forces. The UFO migration consists of expanding the utilization of LEO and MEO satellite constellations.
For long-haul user interface, various radio subsystems are available to connect into the long-haul trunk. Examples are ManPack LOS as operator input devices, local trunked nets interconnected through a central hub with interconnectivity into the long-haul backbone, and connectivity through on-orbit transponders.
For many different types of organizations, UHF/VHF technology is the answer to their two-way communication needs. UHF/VHF technology offers a variety of enhancements and benefits never before available. For example, with a digital system, voice quality can be significantly better across more of the coverage area with little degradation as the user moves farther from the repeater.
Mobile radios are available in a wide range of frequency bands; the choice of radio bands is determined mostly by frequency availability, cost, reliability, coverage distance, and type of services desire. As a rule, the lower frequencies provide a longer range service, but require larger antennas. Otherwise, many bands can be considered interchangeable.
Trunked radio is a technique which uses dynamic channel assignment to obtain efficient use of the frequency spectrum. The trunking technique is essentially linking a certain number of channels, typically 5 to 20 pairs, at the same site and automatically switching between them. The trunking technique achieves a greater efficiency (more users) than is possible on the same number of single channels. Trunking technology can provide radio users efficient, cost-effective, communications that meet the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) policy direction for movement to narrow-band communications. The technology is current with industry standards and is available from several manufacturers.
Copper cable is a relatively inexpensive, well-understood technology that is easy to install. It has been the cable of choice for the majority of network installations in the past. However, copper cable suffers from various electrical characteristics that impose transmission limits. For example, it is resistant to the flow of electrons, which limits its distance. It also radiates energy in the form of signals that can be monitored and is susceptible to external radiation that can distort transmission. However, current copper cable products support Ethernet transmission speeds up to 150 Mbps, with work continuing on technology that will boost twisted pair transmission rates above 500 Mbps.
Wireless telecommunications is considered to be one of the growth industries for the 90s. Wireless and mobile services entail a full range of essential communications media and services, using technological applications for sending and receiving voice, data, and graphics. Wireless data networks give users freedom to roam while allowing them to communicate to and from a portable computer or terminal. Several wireless data networks are available today:
a. Packet switched networks include Ardis, Mobitex, Coverage Plus, and Racotek.
b. Satellite-based networks include QUALCOMM, and IRIDIUM which provide full nationwide and worldwide coverage.
c. The cellular infrastructure provides effective data communication through its circuit-switched network. Through the use of a cellular modem and the appropriate networking software, data exchange and access can be accomplished. This is similar to land line dial-up service.
USAISEC responsibilities in this area include requirements definition, design, systems engineering, and implementation engineering for the Army responsibilities in timing and synchronization, matrix switch, transmission network and systems management (TNSM), TCF upgrades (batteries, uninterruptable power supplies (UPS), grounding, building), and transmission and network security. TCS provide the focal point for system control in long-haul and tactical communications systems. The following subparagraphs will provide more detailed design guidance for the engineer or person that will be designing TCS.
The TCS perform required functions through equipment and personnel. The TCS must be designed to provide the following minimum functions:
The current TCS is composed of a variety of existing and new equipment, personnel, facilities, and procedures. The following are the typical systems and components that are found in a technical control facility (TCF). These are provided as examples only and are not to be considered as the complete list of systems or equipment currently found in TCF.
a. Baseband Systems and Protocols
b. Distribution Systems
c. Timing and Synchronization
d. Network and Systems Management
e. Transmission Security
f. Power Distribution
Technical control facilities are typically equipped with primary and auxiliary (generator and battery float system) power systems and a power distribution system to accommodate its technical and non-technical requirements. Certain equipment items providing critical requirements may also be equipped with uninterruptable power supplies.
Figure 17 depicts the typical electrical configuration for a long haul TCF. Shortfalls in the baseline architecture emphasize that current network technologies are not able, nor sufficiently scaleable, to satisfy projected bandwidth requirements.
The Goal Architecture is being designed to provide the typical fixed user terminals that will include multimedia, multilevel security (MLS) workstations, sensors, studio-based TV facilities, data processing installations (DPI) with consolidated automatic data processing (ADP) resources, and wireless personal communications service (PCS) devices. Currently the protocols and standards most associated with these types of systems are B-ISDN and ATM services. B-ISDN and ATM offer opportunities for DoD to reduce the inventory of dissimilar networks and dedicated facilities and to provide advanced telecommunications services.
a. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
b. Bandwidth Management (BWM)
The TCS must continue to evolve to meet the requirements for a seamless network with the DISN while integrating the technologies of ATM, SONET, and B-ISDN. The DISN has become the driver for the design and is setting the pace for the transition to the goal architecture. Some of the key acquisition strategy objectives for the modernization to DISN that affect the TCS include:
The DISN strategy is characterized by a rapid migration to a B-ISDN/ATM technology infrastructure in both the fixed and deployed environments in the 1997-2005 time frame. An ATM/SONET infrastructure will be used in the transport segment for the fixed environment. Some of the baseline networks will use SONET. Multimedia terminals are introduced rapidly; however, provisions will be made for non-multimedia terminals to interoperate with them during the transition period. As soon as B-ISDN COTS products become available, the CPE, local, and wide area elements will be upgraded to B-ISDN.
Within the local area, many bases are currently upgrading their PBX/EO switch facilities from analog to digital technologies. Since most commercial vendors are now offering N-ISDN as a basic feature of their switches, increasing numbers of base facilities are able to support N-ISDN services for local users. This would facilitate leasing commercial N-ISDN services within CONUS. The level of N-ISDN implementation is a major issue in the near-term evolution. N-ISDN interfaces should be standardized according to Military Standard (MIL-STD) -188-194. Local switch ports should be configured to support conventional analog, digital, or N-ISDN interfaces in order to protect the large investment in current CPE. To provide N-ISDN services, the network side of the switch should be configured to support basic rate interface (BRI) and primary rate interface (PRI) lines as carrier costs for such services will continue to decline and their availability will grow through commercial services. Costs permitting, implementation of N-ISDN at the PBX/EO and central exchange (CENTREX) level should be carried out as demands at these local facilities dictate.
Throughout the near-term, LANs should continue to provide data communications within the local area. However, the multitude of different LAN technologies currently being procured should be reduced to only those technologies that support the DISN evolution. LAN configurations should conform to a limited family of high-speed technologies such as ATM. Consolidation of LAN technologies is a major DISN near-term evolution issue. In the near-term, the technologies of SONET and ATM cell switching should be specified and developed by the telecommunications community. DoD should deploy a test network of the state-of-the-art technology and to gain insight into new techniques. Establishing a successful test network to include SONET and ATM capabilities would provide the basis for acquiring services in the midterm and would provide the means to explore the applications and operational aspects of SONET/ATM.
DISN will be centered on the insertion of SONET and ATM technologies as part of DISN. SONET provides for a complete set of standard optical interfaces that will offer data rates up to 13.27 Gbps along with improved network management capabilities and improved flow control.
Voice services and low data rate service could still be supported by N-ISDN in CONUS only. Data services are projected to continue rapid growth as users demonstrate increased reliance on information stored in computer resources. User multimedia terminals and computing equipment will demand higher speed/capacity (greater than 2 Mbps) communications, which are not supportable by N-ISDN.
Imagery services will begin to dominate network traffic because of its inherently high capacity, rapid response requirements. For example, imagery to support real-time battlefield presentations, modeling, and simulation functions for exercises and training will demand high bandwidths. To satisfy these needs, high speed LANs, particularly ATM LANs and B-ISDN, will become part of the midterm DISN. An integrated network using SONET and ATM should be developed to carry voice, data, and imagery to achieve the needed performance, resource streamlining, and economies of scale.
Standards-based technologies and systems (ATM, SONET, and B-ISDN) will dominate in the far-term. The terrestrial transmission and switching evolution in this time frame will consist of extension and expansion of wideband services and facilities in both the fixed and deployed environments. With the reduction in cost of wideband facilities, fiber optics should extend to the desktop and 150 Mbps service will be readily available to the DoD user population. By the year 2005, most DoD users will have access to multimedia devices. The fixed wide area will consist exclusively of wideband (Mbps-Gbps) transmission and switching media. In the fixed local area, wideband facilities should dominate. The deployed wide area will consist of tactical ATM switches supported by fiber, satellite, and radio transmission facilities. The deployed local area will consist of ATM adapters to provide interfaces to both radio facilities and user terminal equipment.
The standards are contained in the JTA-Army as emerging network standards that are not yet part of the JTA-Army but are expected to be adopted in the near future. These emerging network standards are also expected to impact the design of TCS.
Wireless network standards - The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 Committee is developing standards for wireless services across three transmission media: spread-spectrum radio; narrowband radio; and infrared energy. Network Management Systems for Data Communications . Wavelength division multiplexing, Gigabit Ethernet, and IP switching are new technologies being considered for long haul transmission use.
The following subparagraphs provide engineering guidance and identify resources that should be considered during the design and engineering of TCS.
TCS provide the focal point for system control in long-haul and tactical communications systems. This design guide applies only to the long-haul communications system. The TCS serving as the system interconnect point will be capable of providing the proper physical and electrical conditioning to ensure proper interface among the various systems to be serviced. This will be accomplished in such a manner that the circuit parameters resulting from interconnection will conform to the established standards of the systems over which they travel. TCS will be interoperable with the following systems:
Interfacing methods will include, but not be limited to, the analog 3 kilohertz (kHz) voice bandwidth channel, analog multiplex groups and supergroups, and digital, voice, imagery, and video multiplex mission bit streams.
The following subparagraphs provide discussion on VF and digital interface and access requirements, multiplex techniques and systems, and interoperability requirements.
a. User Access
b. Transmission Access
c. Wideband Analog Access
d. High Speed Digital Access
e. Access Summary
All TCS facilities must employ distribution facilities as the means to terminate and distribute all outside plant and in-house tie-cables, units and strings of conditioning equipment, and internal operating equipment. The following types of distribution frames may be employed as appropriate.
The TCS must be provided with a timing standard system in accordance with EP 3-83, Defense Communications System (DCS) Network Synchronization Design Criteria. The timing system is required to provide low-level clocking signals at rates compatible with standard modulation and data signaling rates specified in MIL-STD-188-100 and MIL-STD-188-114. The timing system will be capable of accepting or providing network synchronization. The low-level (MIL-STD-188-114) timing will appear at the transmission access to provide a synchronizing clock to data equipment-timing input. MIL-STD-188-115 provides interoperability and performance standards for communications timing and synchronization subsystems. A typical configuration for the timing and synchronization subsystem consists of the station clock, clock distribution subsystem, and digital data buffer.
The AIS Design Guidance, Network and Systems Management provides additional guidance and should also be reviewed for appropriate TCS design guidance.
a. Functional Requirements
c. Migration Strategy
d. Integrated Management Concept
f. Circuit Maintenance and Quality Control
The design and engineering of TCS must be completed with transmission system and network security paramount in the planning. As a general rule, all Army systems must demonstrate that they meet the applicable profile described in both AR 380-19 and the DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Standard, DoD 5200.28-STD. Security requirements and engineering should be determined in the initial phases of design. The determination of security services to be used and the strength of the mechanisms providing the services are primary aspects of developing the specific security architectures to support specific domains. Section 6 of the JTA-Army is used after operational architectural decisions are made regarding the security services needed and the required strengths of protection of the mechanisms providing those services. Section 6.3 of the JTA-Army can also be used to assess the relevance of standards that can be met with evaluated commercial and government-provided components and protocols. The JTA-Army can be used as a tool to evaluate elements of the system architecture regarding operational security requirements, standards compliance, and interoperability with other systems. The AIS Design Guidance, Information Systems Security provides additional guidance and should also be reviewed for appropriate TCS design guidance.
a. Multilevel Information System Security Initiative (MISSI)
b. Bulk Encryption Systems
c. RED/BLACK Engineering Criteria
The TCS will provide primary and auxiliary power, in accordance with the applicable guidance and recommendations cited in MIL-HDBK-411. Direct current (DC) power must be provided in sufficient capacity to satisfy all DC power requirements for the equipment installed and to allow for future requirements. Supplies will be provided in the voltage necessary to support facility equipment and, whenever required, to support separate RED and BLACK systems (see NACSIM 5203 for RED/BLACK Engineering Criteria). The equipment comprising the critical technical load within the facility will be supplied with uninterruptable power. The uninterruptable power will be supplied from a battery float system contained within the facility. The capacities of this system must be sufficient to maintain the critical technical load in operation for at least 60 minutes for attended locations and eight hours for unattended locations.
The construction of the facility ground system will comply with the approved grounding, bonding, and shielding methods and techniques as described in MIL-STD-188-124 and MIL-HDBK-419.
The TCS will be designed to enable system control personnel to effectively exercise the responsibilities designated in DCAC 310-70-1. The ultimate goal is to create an efficient operational environment to optimize circuit quality, reliability, and restoration. For additional engineering guidance, contact: Technical Control Systems/Bandwidth Management USAISEC POC: Mr. T. Roberts, DSN: 879-3089, E-mail: [email protected]
The design and engineering of long-haul systems must be completed with transmission systems and network security paramount in the planning. As a general rule, all Army systems must demonstrate that they meet the applicable profile described in both AR 380-19 and the DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria Standard, DoD 5200.28-STD. Security requirements and engineering should be determined in the initial phases of design. The determination of security services to be used and the strength of the mechanisms providing the services are primary aspects of developing the specific security architectures to support specific domains. Section 6 of the JTA-Army is used after operational architectural decisions are made regarding the security services needed and the required strengths of protection of the mechanisms providing those services. Section 6 of the JTA-Army can also be used to assess the relevance of standards that can be met with evaluated commercial and government-provided components and protocols. The JTA-Army can be used as a tool to evaluate elements of the system architecture regarding operational security requirements, standards compliance, and interoperability with other systems. The AIS Design Guidance, Information Systems Security provides additional guidance and should also be reviewed for appropriate TCS design guidance.
MISSI is a network security initiative, under the leadership of the National Security Agency, providing a framework for the development and evolution of interoperable, complementary security products to provide flexible, modular security for networked information systems across the DII and the National Information Infrastructure (NII). The purpose of MISSI is to make available an evolving set of solutions that provide secure interoperability among a wide variety of missions that compose the DII. The MISSI approach is to work closely with customers to provide systems security engineering support to understand and meet the users' present and future needs. The MISSI security solutions (see the TCS DG for additional information) provide appropriate security, based on the threats to the customer's specific environment. Two products that are widely available are:
a. Secure Computing Products. These include highly trusted computer operating systems and application programs with features and assurances that support information sensitivity labels and prevent the deliberate or accidental release of information to unauthorized users. These capabilities enhance security in the local enclave.
b. Security Management Infrastructure (SMI) Products. These products support the security management of the network and perform services such as electronic key generation and distribution, issuing of user certificates, maintaining user directories, and revoking user privileges.
The following products have provided reliable protection and are still available for use in the current design of a TCS:
When integrating or engineering systems or circuits the SE should be aware of the overall requirements of the system; the end users, the types of equipment used and the desired long haul transmission media. Shown in figure A4 below, is a representative example of the different areas that need to be addressed. When determining dedicated user or common user requirements, the types of equipment, access, usage, sensitivity, and bandwidth need to be individually and collectively addressed. System architecture includes technical architecture, operational architecture and systems architecture. The technical architecture is the minimal set of rules governing the arrangement, interaction, and interdependence of the parts or elements whose purpose it to ensure that a conformant system satisfies a specified set of requirements. The technical architecture identifies the services, interfaces, standards and their relationships. It provides the technical guidelines for implementation of systems upon which engineering specifications are based. The operational architecture is a description of the operational elements, assigned tasks, and information flows required. It defines the type of information, the frequency of the exchange, and what tasks are supported by these information exchanges. The systems architecture defines the physical connection, (figure A5 shows IDNX connectivity), (figure A6 shows ATM connectivity), location, and identification of the key nodes, circuits, networks, etc., and allocates system and component performance parameters.
System engineering is the day-to-day part of system planning which is concerned with the provision of communications channels between users, to meet specified performance criteria. The scope of the engineering task will vary, depending upon the location of the interface between the user and the satellite link. However, it is assumed that it will include such terrestrial facilities as wire line modems. Even in systems where the user interface is at the baseband or a composite bit stream port, an understanding of the total user-to-user connection is critical to the proper operation of a network. An overall objective is to ensure that each circuit in the network provides the users with a channel suitable for the intended service. In systems where there is a total control of facilities, this may involve changes in equipment parameters such as terminal EIRP and G/T or channel bit rate so that satellite power and bandwidth can be balanced. Usually, several of these parameters will already have been determined and the task will be limited to providing access to multiplex ports and then ensuring that the composite bit stream is allotted a sufficient fraction of the terminal and satellite EIRP to obtain an adequate Eb/No at the receiver to meet performance objectives. Individual high speed carriers will be treated in the same way as a multiplexed data stream. Video and analog voice channels will be carried by FM modulated carriers and the concern will be to obtain adequate pre-detection C/N ratios or, for video, adequate C/T ratios. The performance of voice and video circuits is somewhat subjective, regardless of the transmission technique used (analog or digital). Performance recommendations are actually design goals, which by consensus will provide a good circuit. These performance objectives are applicable to networks with a satellite relay and terrestrial extensions and should be met in order for the network to deliver high-quality services. For digital transmission, minimum circuit performance objectives for various types of line conditioning equipment have been established. For digital transmissions, standards of 1 in 106 bit error rate for digital data and 1 in 105 bit error rate for digitized voice have been established. This would mean that any one portion of the circuit shown in figure A6 below could not exceed a bit error rate of 107 in order to obtain the desired bit error rate of 106.
Performance standards and interface criteria for DOD circuits are described in the MIL-STD-188 family of documents. Operational criteria are contained in DCAC 300-175-9. Refer to these documents, which are to voluminous to summarize in this design guide. POC for end to end long haul transmission system design and integration is Mr. R. C. Gustavson, DSN: 879-3008, E-mail: [email protected].
Appendix A: Common Tools and Examples
|AFSATCOM||Air Force Satellite Communications|
|AMC||Army Materiel Command|
|AOR||Atlantic Ocean Region|
|ATM||asynchronous transfer mode|
|ALE||automatic link establishment|
|AT&T||American Telephone and Telegraph Corporation|
|AUTODIN||Automated Digital Network|
|B-ISDN||broadband-integrated services digital network|
|BSTRS||Base Support Trunked Radio System|
|BER||bit error rate|
|BMC||Bandwidth Management Center|
|BM/TA||Backbone Message Transfer Agent|
|BOM||bill of materials|
|BTA||Basic Trading Areas|
|C2||Command and Control|
|C2I||Command, Control, and Intelligence|
|C3I||Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence|
|C4I||Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence|
|C4IFTW||C4I for the warrior|
|CINC||Commanders in Chief|
|CJCSI||Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instructions|
|CMO||CSCI Management Office|
|COE||Common Operating Environment|
|CONUS||Continental United States|
|CRXXI||Classroom Twenty One|
|CSCI||Commercial Satellite Communications Initiative|
|CSU||channel service unit|
|CTF||combined task force|
|DCCS||Digital Cross-Connect Systems|
|DCS||Defense Communications System|
|DCSIM||Deputy Chief of Staff, Information Management|
|DCSS||Digital Communications Satellite Subsystem|
|DDMMSS||Degree Minute Second|
|DEB||Digital European Backbone|
|DII||Defense Information Infrastructure|
|DISA||Defense Information Systems Agency|
|DISN||Defense Information Systems Network|
|DITCO||Defense Information Technology Contracting Office|
|DMS||defense message system|
|DMS||Document Management System|
|DMU||Digital Microwave Upgrade|
|DoD||Department of Defense|
|DoDD||Department of Defense Directives|
|DoDI||Department of Defense Instructions|
|DOIM||Director of Information Management|
|DSCS||Defense Satellite Communications System|
|DSCSOC||DSCS Operations Center|
|DSM||Development System Manager|
|DSN||Defense Switched Network|
|DSU||data service unit|
|DTH||Direct to Host|
|DTS||Diplomatic Telecommunications Service|
|EA-IM||Executive Agent for Information Management|
|EAM||emergency action message|
|EHF||extremely high frequency|
|EIP||engineering installation package|
|EIRP||effective isotropic radiated power|
|EKIP||Extended Korean Improvement Program|
|ETC||earth terminal complex|
|FDDI||Fiber Distributed Data Interface|
|FDM||frequency division multiplexer|
|FLTSATCOM||fleet satellite communications|
|FTS-2000||Federal Telecommunications System-2000|
|GBS||Global Broadcasting System|
|GCCS||Global Command and Control System|
|GEO||geosynchronous earth orbit|
|GMF||ground mobile forces|
|G/T||gain to noise temperature|
|HAWS||Hawaii Area Wideband System|
|HDR||High Data Rate|
|HNA||Host Nation Approval|
|HT/MT||heavy terminal/medium terminal|
|IBB||International Broadcasting Bureau|
|IDNX||integrated digital network exchange|
|IMTA||Intermediate Message Transfer Agent|
|INMARSAT||International Maritime Satellite|
|IOR||Indian Ocean Region|
|IRG||Interference Reduction Group|
|ITSDN||Integrated Tactical Strategic Data Network|
|ISDN||integrated services digital network|
|JCS||Joint Chiefs of Staff|
|JPO||Joint Program Office|
|JSOTF||Joint Special Operations Task Force|
|JTA||Joint Technical Architecture|
|JTA-Army||Joint Technical Architecture-Army|
|JTF||joint task force|
|JWICS||Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System|
|Kbps||kilobits per second|
|LAC||local area coordinator|
|LAN||local area network|
|LEO||low earth orbit|
|LOS||line of sight|
|LQA||link quality analysis|
|MARFOR||Marine Corps Component|
|Mbps||megabits per second|
|MCEB||Military Communications-Electronics Board|
|MEO||medium earth orbit|
|MIDAS||Multiplexer Integration and DCSS Automation System|
|MILSTAR||military strategic and tactical relay satellite|
|MILSATCOM||military satellite communications|
|MISSI||Multilevel Information Systems Security Initiative|
|MOA||Memorandum of Agreement|
|MOP||Memorandum of Policy|
|MSC||major subordinate commands|
|MSS||Mobile satellite system|
|MTA||Major Trading Area|
|NATO||North Atlantic Treaty Organization|
|NABS||NATO Air Base Terminals|
|NCA||National Command Authority|
|NICS||NATO Integrated Communications System|
|NII||National Information Infrastructure|
|NIPERNET||Non secure IP Routing Network|
|NOSC||Naval Ocean Systems Center|
|NSA||National Security Agency|
|NSM||network system management|
|NTIA||National Telecommunications and Information Administration|
|OCONUS||outside the Continental United States|
|ODISC4||Office of the Director of Information Systems for Command, Control, Communications, and Computers|
|OSD||Office of the Secretary of Defense|
|P2C4I||Power Projection C4 Infrastructure|
|PBX||private branch exchange|
|PCM||Project Concurrence Memorandum|
|PCM||pulse code modulation|
|PCS||personal communications system|
|PEO||Program Executive Officer|
|PICA||Primary Inventory Control Agency|
|POC||point of contact|
|PMD||Program Manager Directive|
|S&TCD||Space and Terrestrial Communications Directorate|
|SABN||Standard Army Bill of Materials Network|
|SCPC||Single Channel Per Carrier|
|SDP||Systems Design Plan|
|SHF||super high frequency|
|SICA||Secondary Inventory Control Agency|
|SIPERNET||Secure IP Routing Network|
|SMC||Space and Missile System Center|
|SMDS||Switched Multimegabit Data Service|
|SMI||Security Management Infrastructure|
|SONET||synchronous optical network|
|SRA||separate reporting activities|
|SRDM||subrate data multiplexer|
|STAMIS||Standard Army Management Information Systems|
|STEP||standard tactical entry point|
|TAFIM||Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management|
|TCF||technical control facility|
|TCP/IP||Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol|
|TCS||technical control system|
|TDM||time division multiplexer|
|TENCAP||Tactical Exploitation of National Capability|
|TIC||Technology Integration Center|
|TNSM||transmission network and systems management|
|TROJAN||worldwide secure communication system|
|UAV||unmanned aerial vehicle|
|UHF||ultra high frequency|
|UPS||uninterruptable power supply|
|URL||uniform resource locator|
|USACECOM||U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command|
|USADERMS||U.S. Army DSCS Engineering Resource Management System|
|USAISEC||U.S. Army Information Systems Engineering Command|
|USASC||U.S. Army Signal Command|
|VHF||very high frequency|
|VSAT||very small aperture terminal|
|VTC||Video tele conferencing|
|VTT||Video tele training|
|WACS||Wide Area Communications Server|
|WAN||wide area network|
|WAWS||Washington Area Wideband System|
|WDM||Wavelength Division Multiplexing|
|WHCA||White House Communications Agency|
|WWMCCS||Worldwide Military Command and Control System|
|WWTCIP||Worldwide Technical Control Improvement Program|