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The Russian Armed Forces were established on 7 May 1992, enabling the creation of VKS (Russian Space Forces) later that year on 10 August. Commander-in-Chief of the VKS is Col. Gen. Vladimir Ivanov, who was also CINC of the predecessor organization, Ministry of Defense Space Units (1982-1991), since 1989. The VKS is currently responsible for the operation of the Baikonur and Plesetsk Cosmodromes, the construction of the Svobodnyy Cosmodrome,the Mozhayskiy Military Space Engineering Academy, the Central Scientific Research Institute on Space Technology, and the Space Command, Control, and Tracking System (KIK),which includes the Main Center for Testing and Controlling Space Devices at Golitysno-2 near Moscow as well as other sites in the former Soviet Union. Portions of the KIK also support RKA's Flight Control Center (FCC or TsUP) at Kaliningrad near Moscow in conjunction with the Mir space station program. The former fleet of Space Event Support Ships operated by the former USSR Academy of Sciences has essentially been disbanded, although the Russian Ministry of Defense still operates some specialized range instrumentation ships capable of providing KIK services. In 1994, the VKS began testing a new mobile KIK unit and deploying new KIK sites to off set the loss of facilities outside the Russian Federation (References 70, 72-85).


70. Space Policy & Industry in CIS Countries, Vol. 1, Space Industries and Markets in Russia and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, Euroconsult, October 1993.

71. V.V. Alaverdov, et al, Zemlya i Vselennaya, September-October 1993, pp.3-11.

72. S. Yermak and V. Men'shikov, Aviatslya i Kosmonavilka, September-October 1993, pp. 2-3.

73. M. Chernyshov, Segodnya, 5 October 1994, p.9.

74. Ostankino Television, 9 October 1994.

75. D. Makrov, Argumenty i Fakty, April 1993.

76. Aviatslya i Kosmonavtika , April 1993, pp.6-7.

77. V. Baberdin, Vozdushnvy Transport, September 1993, p.6.

78.Russia Television, 1 August 1993.

79. M. Rebrov, Krasnaya Zvezda, 16 August 1995.

80. V.L. Ivanov, Osnovnyye Vekhi Kosmicheskoy Ery, 1993.

81. V. Makashin, Krasnaya Zvezda, 6 December 1994, p.1.

82. NTV, 22 and 23 July 1994.

83. F. Mishin, "Tracking and Data Acquisition Network", Man & Space, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1992, pp.41-43.

V. Baberdin, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 October 1993, p.2.

85. V. Baberdin, Krasnaya Zvezda, 21 April 1992, p.2 and 22 April 1992, p.2.

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