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CZ-1D Space Launch Vehicle

To satisfy the need for launching small satellites into LEO, the PRC developed the CZ-1D launch vehicle. The CZ-1D design consists of a 2-stage vehicle with the first stage burning UDMH and nitric acid whereas the second stage utilizes UDMH and nitrogen tetroxide. The payload capacity of the CZ-1D is 900 kg to LEO and 300 kg to a sun-synchronous orbit (References 159-161, 191-192).

LM-1D (China)

Background Information
First Launch:
Flight Rate:
2-3 per year
Launch Site:
Jiuquan Space Launch Center, China
900 kg to LEO


  • Chinese rocket program started in the late 1950s
  • Evolved from Chinese surface-to-surface series IRBMs
  • CZ-1D is enhanced version of the CZ-1


    Three-stage liquid fueled vehicle (including PAM-D upper stage)
  • Stage 1 consists of one YF-2A motor with four thrust chambers motors burning UDMH/N2O4
  • Stage 2 uses one YF-3 motor with two thrust chambers motors burning UDMH/N2O4


28.2 meters
Launch Weight:
79,400 kg
2.25 meters
Liftoff Thrust:
1,093 kiloNewtons
Payload Fairing:
4.82 meters x 2.05 meters


159. Zhao Bing, "A System Analysis of the Launch Vehicle Technology in China", Paper 92-824, 43rd Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, August-September 1992.

160. China In Space, China Great Wall Industry Corp., 1988.

161. Space in China. Launch Services and Space Technology, China Great Wall Industry Corp., 1989.

191. P. S. Clark, "Chinese Launch Vehicles - Feng Bao 1", Jane's Intelligence Review, April 1992, pp. 188-191.

192. P. S. Clark, "Chinese Launch Vehicles - Chang Zheng 1", Jane's Intelligence Review, November 1991, pp. 508-511.

Sources and Resources

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