Index

 

Ocean Science and Engineering Newsletter # 6 (October 1997)

 Hassan B. Ali

 


Report on the First China-US Marine Remote Sensing Conference (CUMRSC '97), and associated site visits to remote sensing facilities in Beijing, China.

 Contents:

1. Summary

2. CUMRSC '97

3. The Remote Sensing Ground Station

4. The National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center .

5. The Institute for Remote Sensing Applications.

6. Principal Chinese contacts.

Contacts

1. SUMMARY

 

A. The Conference

 

The First China-US Marine Remote Sensing Conference (CUMRSC '97) was held in Beijing, China, from 11 to 14 August 1997. The invitation-only conference was sponsored by The Chinese Society of Marine Remote Sensing (State Oceanic Administration, SOA), the Office of the National Commission of Sciences and Technology (NCST), China, and the Chinese-American Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (COAA), USA. The conference was co-chaired by Dr. Yeli Yuan, Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and Director of the First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, and by Dr. Hsien Ping Pao, Professor, Catholic University of America. Approximately 63 scientists from the two countries participated in the conference, which included an opening ceremony attended by high-ranking officials from a number of Chinese agencies, 27 technical presentations, a technical committee meeting, and visits to several facilities in Beijing.

 

The technical presentations reviewed current or planned work in the two countries in the broad area of ocean remote sensing. Topics included: applications of airborne and spaceborne altimeters to studies of sea surface waves; nonlinear equatorial waves; western boundary currents; geodesy; SAR imaging mechanisms; applications of SAR images to shallow water topographic mapping; atmospheric Lee wave observations; coastal ocean monitoring, and continental dynamics; applications of Landsat TM images, NOAA AVHRR images, and CZCS data to studies of coastal waters; data assimilation; and related observations, measurements, and research. A list of the paper titles is provided in Section 2, below.

 

A joint meeting of the Organizing Committee and the Scientific Committee was held to discuss possible publication of a conference proceedings. The participants included the principal Chinese and Chinese-Americans attending the conference as well as the ONR attendees (list of committee members provided in Section 2). It was generally agreed that a Proceedings would be a useful record of the conference and would provide an accessible view of some of the players and work in Chinese ocean remote sensing. Funding for the Proceedings , most likely to be published by the China Ocean Press, was to be solicited by ONR, for the U.S. side, and by Prof. Yeli Yuan for the China side.

 

 

B. Visits to Remote Sensing Facilities in Beijing

 

In conjunction with the conference, brief visits in the Beijing area were made to three facilities concerned with some aspect of remote sensing: The China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station; The National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center; and The Institute for Remote Sensing Applications.

 

(a) The China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station

 

The China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station (RSGS), of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), was established in 1986 as the result of a Sino-American science and technology cooperative project. The staff consists of over 200 personnel, approximately 130 of which are technical. The annual budget of RSGS is approximately $2M, from which it pays approximately $600K to downlink satellite data. It earns capital by selling its data products to outside users at world prices. The users (customers) of RSGS consist of over 600 Chinese and foreign organizations.

 

The main mission of RSGS is to receive, process, distribute, and archive Earth resources satellite remote sensing data. Initially only Landsat TM data were received and processed. Presently, RSGS can also handle data from JERS-1, and SAR from ERS-1 and 2; by the end of the year SPOT and RADARSAT will be included. RSGS is involved in a cooperative project with Brazil involving ERS-1 (CBERS-1).

 

At the Miyun receiving station data are received at a high data rate using X-band antennas and high-density digital recording tapes. The area of coverage includes 80% of China, all of Japan and Korea, and parts of several other Asia-Pacific countries. A second receiver is planned to cover Western China. RSGS includes an image processing facility, an optical-chemistry laboratory, and an Applications Division. The optical-chemistry laboratory produces high-quality images and transparencies of received data.

 

 

 

(b). National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center

 

National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC), of the National Research Center for Marine Environmental Forecasts was founded by the State Oceanic Administration (SOA) in 1965. It is China's sole state-authorized institution to issue marine environmental forecasts for public use. At present, NMEFC has 320 scientists and technicians in total, 20 of which are professors, 50 associate professors, and 152 junior engineers.

 

Remote sensing activities are concerned with monitoring of sea surface temperatures, sea ice, significant wave heights, wind data, etc., using NOAA AVHRR, SAR, and ERS 1 data. They also do research in the areas of air-sea interaction and physical oceanography (ocean currents, etc.). Among their collaborative efforts, joint work is being done with the Japanese (JAMSTEC) in the Yellow Sea, involving oceanographic monitoring of the Kuroshio Current using CTDs, thermistors, current meters, etc.

 

 

 

(c) The Institute for Remote Sensing Applications

 

The Institute for Remote Sensing Applications (IRSA), CAS, is a comprehensive and open research organization for remote sensing science, technology, and applications. IRSA was established in 1980 and has approximately 248 personnel, including 18 professors and 60 associate professors. IRSA is the Research Development Department of the National Remote Sensing Center.

 

A significant component of their fundamental research is performed in the Laboratory of Remote Sensing Information Sciences (LARSIS), consisting of three research divisions: Remote Sensing Radiation Properties, High Spectral Resolution Remote Sensing, and Radar Remote Sensing. LARSIS conducts research on the imaging mechanisms and interactions with the earth's surface of electromagnetic waves in the visible, infrared and microwave regions; this includes methodologies, theories and applications to the study of earth resources and environment.

 

IRSA is engaged both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the theoretical area they have developed: transmission models and quantitative inversion methods for remote sensing information; atmospheric correction algorithms; computer techniques for high-spectral resolution information extraction; GIS software (G Code); etc.

 

Applications of remote sensing cover a wide spectrum, including agriculture, global change monitoring, mineral resources exploration, oceanography, etc. Remote sensing data sources include: NOAA AVHRR; Landsat TM; multi-source SAR (SIR-C/X, JERS-1, ERS-1&2, GlobeSAR, RADARSAT); and two Cessna Citation S/11 aircraft. Some examples of the activities of IRSA are as follows.

 

Radar remote sensing

 

- They appear to be operating at the forefront of SAR data analysis. They have collaborated with several countries, including Russia (Almaz), Japan (JERS-1), Canada (RADARSAT; GlobeSAR), Australia, Germany, etc. They are investigating imaging mechanisms for multi-frequency, multi-polarization, and multi-platform radar images.

- As part of the GlobeSAR project (Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing), airborne SAR measurements were made over southern China in November 1993 using a two-band, multi-polarization SAR. The data set consisted of C-band and X-band HH and VV polarized data, and C-band polarimetric data. A neural network supervised classification scheme was used to discriminate between different types of vegetation, etc., to produce a land use map.

- In conjunction with two separate Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) experiments in 1994, Chinese scientists made simultaneous measurements using a 7200-m altitude airborne SAR (developed by the CAS), ground measurements (C/X-band scatterometer), and spaceborne SAR during passes of the SIR-C/X-SAR over parts of China and Inner Mongolia (at an altitude of 225 km).

- Oceanographic applications include mapping of underwater bottom topography in shallow water using ERS-1 and JERS-1; tracking of ship movements using surface and tail waves; coastal imaging to investigate erosion, recession, and topographic coastal features (ERS-1); propagation of ocean waves (JERS-1); etc.

 

Miscellaneous applications of remote sensing

 

- High spectral resolution (71 non-contiguous bands) techniques are applied to a number of areas, including mineral exploration and classification (using the absorption spectra). They have detected gold, uranium, oil (located by hydrocarbon micro-seepage), etc.

- They conduct airborne remote sensing using two Cessna Citation S/11 aircraft. They have the capability of transmitting the data in real time from the aircraft to ground.

- Multi-temporal Landsat TM data have been used to detect changes in various environmental conditions; e.g., Huanghe (Yellow River) delta growth, desert growth, urban sprawl, oil exploration, etc. They have used SIR-C to detect hidden volcanoes, eroded traces of the Great Wall of China, etc.

 

2. THE FIRST CHINA-US MARINE REMOTE SENSING CONFERENCE

 

The First China-US Marine Remote Sensing Conference (CUMRSC '97) was held in Beijing, China, from 11 to 14 August 1997. The invitation-only conference was sponsored by The Chinese Society of Marine Remote Sensing (State Oceanic Administration, SOA), the Office of the National Commission of Sciences and Technology (NCST), China, and the Chinese-American Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (COAA), USA. The conference was co-chaired by Dr. Yeli Yuan, Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and Director of the First Institute of Oceanography, SOA, and by Dr. Hsien Ping Pao, Professor, Catholic University of America. Approximately 63 scientists from the two countries participated in the conference, which included an opening ceremony attended by high-ranking officials from a number of Chinese agencies, 27 technical presentations, a technical committee meeting, and visits to several facilities in Beijing. The conference was apparently considered of some importance by the Chinese government and local news media: Chinese Central Television (CCTV) and local newspapers reported the conference.

 

The technical presentations reviewed current or planned work in the two countries in the broad area of ocean remote sensing. Topics included: applications of airborne and spaceborne altimeters to studies of sea surface waves; nonlinear equatorial waves; western boundary currents; geodesy; SAR imaging mechanisms; applications of SAR images to shallow water topographic mapping; atmospheric Lee wave observations; coastal ocean monitoring, and continental dynamics; applications of Landsat TM images, NOAA AVHRR images, and CZCS data to studies of coastal waters; data assimilation; and related observations, measurements, and research. A list of the paper titles is provided in Section 2, below.

 

Organizing Committee

Chairman In Honor: Mr. Denyi Zhang, Director of SOA

Chairman: Dr. Yeli Yuan, Professor, Academician and Director, First Institute of

Oceanography, SOA

Co-chairman: Dr. Hsien P. Pao, Professor, The Catholic University of America

Secretary General: Dr. Quanan Zheng, University of Delaware, US

Deputy Secretary General: Dr. Jiayi Pan, First Institute of Oceanography, SOA

 

Committee Members:

Dr. Antony Liu, NASA/GSFC

Dr. Hsien-Wen Li, Professor, Taiwan Ocean University

Prof. Jingshan Jiang, Center for Space and Applied Research, CAS

Mr. Linhao Chen, Division Chief, SOA

Ms. Lizhong Zheng, Division Chief, State Science & Technology Commission of China

Dr. Ming Fang, Professor, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Dr. Norden E. Huang, Professor, California Institute of Technology

Dr. William Y. Tseng, NOAA/NESDIS/SSD

Dr. Xiao-Hai Yan, Professor, University of Delaware, US

Dr. Ya Hsueh, Professor, Florida State University, US

 

Scientific Committee

Chairman: Dr. Norden E. Huang, Professor, California Institute of Technology

Co-chairman: Dr. Dennis B. Trizna, Office of Naval Research

Committee Member: Prof. CaixingYun, State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research

Dr. Charles A. Luther, Office of Naval Research, US

Dr. Chung-Ru Ho, Associate Professor, Taiwan Ocean University

Prof. Hassan B. Ali, Asia Office, Office of Naval Research

Dr. Jiayi Pan, First Institute of Oceanography, SOA

Dr. Jinping Zhao, Professor, Institute of Oceanology, CAS

Prof. Jinshan Jiang, Center for Space and Applied Research, CAS

Dr. John R. Apel, Global Ocean Associates

Prof. Junrong Zhang, Changchun Institute of Geography, CAS

Dr. Quanan Zheng, University of Delaware, US

Prof. Runheng Huang, National Research Center for Marine Environment Forecast, SOA

Prof. Zhisheng Liu, Qingdao Ocean University

 

Titles of Presented Papers

 

Prof. Yeli Yuan, "How Beautiful the SAR Studies"

Prof. Norden E. Huang, "Directional Wind Wave Spectral Development"

Prof. Hsien P. Pao, "A new Advanced Conductivity Measurement System for Oceanic Use"

Dr. John R. Apel, "Surface Signature and Subsurface Dynamics of Oceanic Waves"

Caixing Yun, "The Experiment of the Application of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer in the Coast Zone"

Quanan Zheng, "Coastal Lee waves on ERS-I SAR Images"

William Tseng, "Remote Sensing in Coastal Ocean Monitoring"

Jia Wang, "A Nowcast/Forecast System and Future Data Assimilation Using Remote Sensing"

Qingge Liu, "Motion of Sea Surface Pattern Derived from Sequential Satellite Images"

Maotang Li, "Miniature Ocean Radar Altimeter"

Jing Li, Junrong Zhang, "The Application of Airborne Microwave Radiometer for Remote Sensing of Ocean"

Heguang Liu, "The China Spaceborne Ocean Radar Altimeter".

Meibing Jin, "Simulation and Inversion System of the Bathymetric Features on SAR Images"

Chuqun Chen, "A Preliminary Study of Remote Sensing Model of Concentration Chlorophyll in the High Sand-Containing Water"

Prof. Zhishen Liu, "Measurement of Chlorophyll in the East China Sea Using BLOL Lidar"

Dr. Dennis B. Trizna, "New Remote Sensing Tools for Coastal Monitoring and Current Processes"

Prof. Changbao Zhou, "The Potential Application of Our Spaceborne SAR"

Prof. Guangxue Li, "Suspended Sediment Dispersal off the Yellow River Mouth"

Prof. Shengjie Wang, "The Application of RS data for Land Use"

Dr. Chaofang Zhao, "Estimation of CO2 Exchange Coefficient Based on Satellite Data"

Dr. Pablo Clements-Colon, "The Use of SAR for Oceanic Research and Application of NESDIS"

Dr. Liuzhi Zhao, "Estimation of Extreme Wave Heights Using Satellite Measurements"

Prof. Jianqiang Liu, "The Monitoring of Sea Ice in Bohai Sea with Radarsat Scan-SAR"

Dr. Shuunli Lou, "Temporal and Spatial Scales of Individual Whitecap at Various Wind Velocities"

Dr. Jiayi Pan, "The Application of Geosat and Topex Altimeter Data to Oceanography"

Dr. Quanan Zheng, "Observation of Equatorial Kelvin Solitary Waves in the Pacific Using TOPEX/POSEIDON Altimeter Data"

Mr. Faming Wang, "Spatial and Temporal Variability of Phytoplankton Pigment in the East China Sea"

 

Committee Meeting on Publication of the Conference Proceedings

 

In the evening of 13 August 1997, a joint meeting of the Organizing Committee and the Scientific Committee was held to discuss possible publication of a conference proceedings, and other matters. The participants included the principal Chinese and Chinese-Americans attending the conference as well as the ONR attendees (list of committee members provided in Section 2). The main results of the committee meeting were as follows.

 

It was generally agreed that a Proceedings would be a useful record of the conference and would provide an accessible view of some of the players and work in Chinese ocean remote sensing.

It was tentatively agreed that the Proceedings would be edited by John Apel (Global Ocean Associates) and Hassan B. Ali (ONR Asia) and published in China, most likely by the China Ocean Press. The final choice of publisher would be determined by cost considerations.

Funding for the publication was to be solicited by ONR, for the U.S. side, and by Prof. Yeli Yuan, First Institute of Oceanography, for the China side.

The mechanics, deadlines, etc., for the preparation and submission of papers were established.

It was agreed to hold the CUMRSC conference every two years. The suggested venues for the next conference were, in order of preference, Hong Kong, Qingdao, or Hangzhou, in May or June 1999.

 

 

3. THE CHINA REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE GROUND STATION

 

The China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station (RSGS), of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), was established in 1986 as the result of a Sino-American science and technology cooperative project signed during Deng Xiaoping's visit to the U.S.A. The staff consists of over 200 personnel, approximately 130 of which are technical. The annual budget of RSGS is approximately $2M, from which it pays approximately $600K to downlink satellite data. It earns capital by selling its data products to outside users at world prices. The users (customers) of RSGS consist of over 600 Chinese and foreign organizations.

 

The main mission of RSGS is to receive, process, distribute, and archive Earth resources satellite remote sensing data. Initially only Landsat TM data were received and processed. Presently, RSGS can also handle data from JERS-1, and SAR from ERS-1 and 2; by the end of the year SPOT and RADARSAT will be included. The SAR processors used for ERS-1 were obtained from McDonald-Detweiler (Canada) and modified to suite their own purposes. The SAR Image Processing Division is new. RSGS is also involved in a cooperative project with Brazil involving ERS-1 (CBERS-1).

 

The receiving station (at Miyun) is located in a shallow valley (to minimize RF noise) approximately 100 km from the RSGS facility in Beijing. Data are received at a high data rate using X-band antennas and high-density digital recording tapes. The area of coverage of the present receiver includes 80% of China, all of Japan and Korea, and parts of several other Asia-Pacific countries. A second receiver is planned to cover Western China. In addition to the Miyun receiving station, RSGS includes an image processing facility, which does special processing, not just pre-processing, an optical-chemistry laboratory, and an Applications Division. The optical-chemistry laboratory produces high-quality images and transparencies of received data. RSGS has published an impressive and very attractive 10x14-inch atlas of satellite remote sensing images over China. Most of the 60 images are obtained from Landsat optical TM images (30-m resolution), but there are also ERS 1&2 (30 m), JERS-1 (18 m), and RADARSAT microwave images.

 

 

4. THE NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL FORECASTS.

 

The National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) was established by the State Oceanic Administration in 1965. Its major function is to provide marine environmental forecasting, and related advisory services, and to conduct the associated scientific research. It is the sole state-authorized national institution to issue marine environmental forecast products for public use. It is able to provide users with long, medium, and short term forecasting, warning and advisory services on sea ice, sea waves, storm surges, weather at sea, tides, sea surface temperatures, Tsunamis, etc. These products are used by those concerned with ocean transportation, oil exploration, fishery production, coastal engineering, etc.

 

At present, NMEFC has 320 scientists and technicians in total, 20 of which are professors, 50 associate professors, and 152 junior engineers. Scientific achievements accomplished during the 7th State Five-Year Science and Technology Program have been directly implemented in operational forecasting.

 

NMEFC has imported super computers, such as Cyber 180/840, Cyber 180/855s, and several workstations and personal computers. A computer network exists to ensure that global oceanic and atmospheric real time data can be processed rapidly and that various numerical forecast models can be run. An operational satellite remote sensing system, assembled by NMEFC with hardware imported from the US, has been used for several years, making it possible to obtain real-time data on sea surface temperature, sea ice, significant wave height, ocean wind field, ocean weather system, etc. A communication system, consisting of computers, telex machines, fax machines and a real-time GTS receiving station, collects GTS data and transmits forecast products. Forecast products issued by NMEFC are directly broadcast by CCTV (Chinese Central Television ) and CCBS (Chinese Central Broadcasting Station). In addition, the forecast products can, upon request, be immediately transmitted to a domestic or foreign user in any part of global waters at any time. Moreover, NMEFC also boasts a color video camera, five videocassette recorders, an automatic editing control unit, a universal touch screen controller, and a fantasy autodesk 3D studio.

 

Since the 1970s, NMEFC has been involved in offshore oil exploitation, ocean transportation, fishery production, and coastal engineering and related activities by providing comprehensive marine environmental forecasting services to dozens of users in the field. The recipients of these services include: Act Corporation of France, Elf Aquitaine of France, Dodarel Corporation of France, Japan-China Oil Development Corporation, Phillips Petroleum International Corporation, Asia, BP Petroleum Ltd. of UK, XCL-CHINA Ltd., Bohai Oil Corporation, Nanhai East Oil Corporation, Shallow Sea Engineering Corporation, Dagang Oil Administration, etc. It has also provided numerous forecast services for Chinese Antarctic expeditions, the first GARP Global Experiment, missile launching experiments in the Pacific, long-distance towing of drilling platforms, towing and positioning of large oil-storage tankers, and a man-made island. NMEFC is proud of its ability to provide timely and accurate forecast products, thereby ensuring the safety of activities at sea, as well as contributing to social and economic benefits derived from the development and utilization of the ocean.

 

 

5. THE INSTITUTE FOR REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS

 

The Institute for Remote Sensing Applications (IRSA), CAS, is a comprehensive and open research organization for remote sensing science, technology, and applications. IRSA was established in 1980 and has approximately 248 personnel, including 18 professors and 60 associate professors. IRSA is the Research Development Department of the National Remote Sensing Center.

The work of IRSA is divided into four major areas: Fundamental Research on Remote Sensing; Remote Sensing Applications; National Engineering Center for Geomatics; and Technical Services. A significant component of their fundamental research is performed in the Laboratory of Remote Sensing Information Sciences (LARSIS). LARSIS consists of three research divisions devoted to the following areas: Remote Sensing Radiation Properties, High Spectral Resolution Remote Sensing, and Radar Remote Sensing. In these three areas, LARSIS conducts research on the imaging mechanisms and interactions with the earth's surface of electromagnetic waves in the visible, infrared and microwave regions; this includes methodologies, theories and applications to the study of earth resources and environment.

 

IRSA is engaged both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the theoretical area they have developed: transmission models and quantitative inversion methods for remote sensing information; atmospheric correction algorithms; computer techniques for high-spectral resolution information extraction; GIS software (G Code); etc.

 

Significant emphasis is placed on applications of remote sensing to a wide spectrum, including agriculture, global change monitoring, mineral resources exploration, oceanography, etc. Remote sensing data sources include: NOAA AVHRR; Landsat TM; multi-source SAR (SIR-C/X, JERS-1, ERS-1 &2, GlobeSAR, RADARSAT); two Cessna Citation S/11 aircraft. Some examples of the activities of IRSA are as follows.

 

Radar remote sensing

 

Considerable activity is taking place in this area, especially involving SAR where they appear to be operating at the forefront of data analysis. They have collaborated with several countries, including Russia (Almaz), Japan (JERS-1), Canada (RADARSAT; GlobeSAR), Australia, Germany, etc. They are investigating imaging mechanisms for multi-frequency, multi-polarization, multi-platform radar images.

 

- As part of the GlobeSAR project, initiated by the Canadian Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) in 1993, SAR measurements were made over southern China in November 1993 using the two-band, multi-polarization SAR system on board the CCRS CV-580 aircraft. They were interested in applications to agriculture, geology, hydrology, and forestry. The first data set consisted of C-band and X-band HH and VV polarized data. A second data set, taken a day later, contained C-band polarimetric data (all four polarizations). Real and near-real time ground truth data were also collected (vegetation, rock samples, soil moisture, geological features, etc.). The co-registered data were used as input to a neural network supervised classification scheme to discriminate between different types of vegetation, etc., to produce a land use map. The results produced 90% accurate classifications, much higher than conventional Maximum Likelihood classifiers. Understanding the differences in the radar backscatter intensity of the various vegetation types, etc., contributed to the accuracy of the final results.

 

- IRSA actively participated in Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) experiments, in conjunction with the two separate SIR-C/X-SAR Space Shuttle Endeavor missions in 1994. During passes of the SIR-C/X-SAR over parts of China and Inner Mongolia (at an altitude of 225 km), Chinese scientists obtained simultaneous images using a 7200-m altitude airborne SAR (developed by the CAS) and ground measurements (C/X-band scatterometer).

 

- Oceanographic applications include mapping of underwater bottom topography in shallow water using ERS-1 and JERS-1; tracking of ship movements using surface and tail waves; coastal imaging to investigate erosion, recession, and topographic coastal features (ERS-1); propagation of ocean waves (JERS-1); etc.

 

Miscellaneous applications of remote sensing

 

- As noted earlier, high spectral resolution is one of the focus areas of IRSA. High spectral resolution (71 non-contiguous bands) techniques are applied to a number of areas, including mineral exploration and classification (using the absorption spectra). They have detected gold, uranium, oil (located by hydrocarbon micro-seepage), etc. They have won the First and Third Prizes from the CAS for their successful efforts in mineral resource exploration.

 

- They conduct airborne remote sensing using two Cessna Citation S/11 aircraft equipped with: an inertial navigation system, GPS, vertical gyros, aerial cameras, MS imaging systems, microwave radiometers, and SAR. They have the capability of transmitting the data in real time from the aircraft to ground--perhaps necessitated by the fact that at an altitude of 2000 meters, a 300-meter swath, and 2-3 meter Pixels, huge amounts of data are received.

 

- Multi-temporal Landsat TM data have been used to detect changes in various environmental conditions; e.g., Huanghe (Yellow River) delta growth, desert growth, urban sprawl, oil exploration, etc. They have used SIR-C to detect hidden volcanoes, eroded traces of the Great Wall of China, etc.

 

 

 

6. PRINCIPAL CHINESE CONTACTS

 

First Institute of Oceanography, SOA

3 A Hongdaozhi Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266003

 

- Academician, Prof. Yeli Yuan, Director

Tel. 86-532-2866810 ext.365

Fax. 86-532-2867468

E-mail: [email protected]

 

- Dr. Jiayi Pan

Tel. 86-532-2879943 ext. 227

Fax. 86-532-2879562

E-mail: [email protected]

 

 

The China Remote Sensing Satellite Ground Station

45 Bei san Huan Xi Rd, P.O. Box 2434, Beijing, 100086

 

- Prof. Xizhe Pan, Director General.

Tel. 86-10-6256-1214

Fax. 86-10-6256-1215

E-mail: [email protected]

 

- Prof. Chuanrong Li, Executive Chief Engineer of RSGs, Director, SAR Image Processing Facility.

Tel. 86-10-6256-1202

Fax. 86-10-6258-7827

E-mail: [email protected]

 

National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center, SOA

No. 8 Da Hui Si, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China

 

- Prof. Zhouwen Yu, Director

Tel: 86-10- 6217-3625

Fax: 86-10-6217-3620

E-mail: [email protected]

 

The Institute For Remote Sensing Applications

3 Datun Rd, Chaoyang District, P.O. Box 9718, Beijing 100101, China

 

- Prof. Huadong Guo, Director General

Tel. 86-10-6491-9740

Fax. 86-10-6491-5035

E-mail: [email protected]

-Prof. Jiyuan Liu, Deputy Director

Tel. 86-10-6491-9961

Fax. 86-10-6491-5035

E-mail: [email protected]

 

-Prof. Yun Shao, Acting Director of LARSIS

Tel. 86-10-6491-7351

Fax. 86-10-6491-5035

E-mail: [email protected]