The new generation of American combat aircraft, including the F-117A, YF-22, the
A-12 and the B-2, are all characterized by stealth features unmatched by the
aircraft of other countries. While these new systems may provide some operational
advantages, they have not rendered all other aircraft obsolete. Stealth is by not
means a prerequisite for delivery ordnance on target, since as previously discussed,
the performance of air defense systems against more conventional attack aircraft
still leaves much to be desired. Nor should stealth be regarded as the final move
in the game of electronic countermeasures, given the variety of design and
operational constraints imposed by stealth. Finally, all the American stealth
projects face serious budget problems, and their future is far from assured.
Stealth has become the magic word in contemporary weapon systems.
Contemporary work on stealth has its roots in long-standing efforts to reduce the
visibility of military aircraft through camouflage paint schemes. However, as
electronic sensors have replaced the eyes of pilots as the primary means of tracking
other aircraft, more intricate means of defense were needed.
Often thought of simply as the use of special materials to render aircraft invisible
to radar, stealth is actually a complex design philosophy to reduce the ability of an
opponent's sensors to detect, track and attack an aircraft (or other platforms such
as warships). Since a variety of sensors would be used in this process, design of a
stealth vehicle requires careful trade-offs among different techniques. The great
secrecy surrounding stealth programs is designed not simply to protect a particular
stealth technology, as it is to protect the choice and mix of techniques that have
been used in a specific system. (1)
A variety of technologies are may be combined in order to make itself "invisible"
to radar. These technologies include a smooth surface, "flying wing" design, radar
absorbent materials (RAM), engines hidden in the body of the airplane, and
electronic countermeasures (ECM). Each of these features contribute to the attempt
fool enemy air defense systems. The planes low radar cross section (RCS) reduces
the range at which ground-based and air-based radars can detect the aircraft. The
RAM absorbs most of a radar's signal, and the aircraft's wing-shaped and rounded
design redirects much of the remaining power away from the radar source. Engines
are buried in the fuselage with air intake and exhaust ducts placed on the top of
the aircraft in order to reduce the heat trail, and hide the jet engine's compressor
blades from radar detection. ECM is a last resort attempt to confuse the radar
operator through jamming and ghost imaging.
The benefits of stealth technology is inherently obvious. Especially since, 70
percent of Soviet-style air defense systems use radar detection and tracking.(2)
However, as the next section on limitations will illustrate, the other elements of air
defense detection and tracking; infrared (IR), electro-optical (EO) and visual, also
need to be circumvented if an aircraft is to be truly "stealthy."
There is no one optimum stealth design, but rather each mission requirement
generates an appropriate mix of techniques. Implementation of stealth is not
without penalties. Some of the materials used require special and costly
maintenance. The maneuverability of an aircraft can be compromised by the
introduction of stealth design features. As was the case with the F-117A, each B-2
bomber will have its own covered maintenance facility, since the B-2's low
observable features require frequent performance of structural and maintenance
Stealth requires not only design compromises, it also imposes operational
compromises. Sensors to locate targets pose a particular problem for stealth aircraft.
The large radars used by conventional aircraft would obviously compromise the
position of a stealth aircraft. Air-to-air combat would rely on passive detection of
transmissions by hostile aircraft, as well as infrared tracking. However, these
techniques are of marginal effectiveness against other stealth aircraft, explaining
the limited application of stealth to the Advanced Tactical Fighter.
Aircraft for attacking targets on the ground face a similar problem. FLIR can be
used for precise aiming at targets whose general location is known, but they are
poorly suited for searching for targets over a wide area. A radar on the aircraft to
scan for potential targets would compromise its position. In order to locate targets,
stealth aircraft may rely on an airborne laser radar, although such a sensor may
prove of limited utility in poor weather. A more promising approach would be to
use data from reconnaissance satellites, either transmitted directly from the
satellite or relayed through communications satellites from processing centers in the
There are limits to the utility of stealth techniques. Since the radar cross-section
of an aircraft depends on the angle from which it is viewed, an aircraft will
typically have a much smaller RCS when viewed from the front or rear than when
viewed from the side or from above. In general stealth aircraft are designed to
minimize their frontal RCS. But it is not possible to contour the surface of an
aircraft to reduce the RCS equally in all directions, and reductions in the frontal
RCS may lead to a larger RCS from above. Thus while a stealth aircraft may be
difficult to track when it is flying toward a ground-based radar or another aircraft
at the same altitude, a high-altitude airborne radar or a space-based radar may
have an easier time tracking it.
Another limitation of stealth aircraft is their vulnerability to detection by bi-static
radars. The contouring of a stealth aircraft is designed to avoid reflecting a radar
signal directly back in the direction of the radar transmitter. But the transmitter
and receiver of a bi-static radar are in separate locations -- indeed, a single
transmitter may be used by radar receivers scattered over a wide area. This greatly
increases the odds that at least one of these receivers will pickup a reflected signal.
The prospects for detection of stealth aircraft by bi-static radar are further
improved if the radar transmitter is space-based, and thus viewing the aircraft from
above, the direction of its largest radar cross section.
Several analysts claim stealth aircraft such as the ATF will be vulnerable to
detection by infrared search and track systems (IRST). The natural heating of an
aircraft's surface makes it visible to this type of system. The faster and aircraft
flies, the warmer it gets, and thus, the easier to detect through infrared means.
One expert asserts "if an aircraft deviates from its surroundings by only one degree
centigrade, you will be able to detect it at militarily useful ranges."(4) In fact, both
the Russian MiG-29 and Su-27 carry IRST devices, which indicates that the
Russians have long targeted this as a potential stealth weakness.(5)
Stealth aircraft are even more vulnerable to multiple sensors used in tandem. By
using an IRST to track the target and a Ladar (laser radar), or a narrow beam,
high-power radar to paint the target superior data is provided.(6)
The most basic potential limitation of stealth, is its vulnerability to visual
detection. Since the ATF is 25-30 percent larger than the F-15 and 40 percent
larger than the F-18, for example, it will be much easier to detect visually from
ranges on the order of 10 miles.(7) When one considers that stealth characteristics
will drastically reduce the effectiveness of several types of guided air-to-air missiles,
fighter engagements will probably move back to the visual range arena. In this
context, the cumbersome F-22 would be at a distinct disadvantage.(8)
Another potential "limitation" of stealth technology has little to do with its
capabilities. Rather, some question the effect the pursuit of such hi tech aircraft
will have on the US aerospace industry as a whole. These aircraft would not be
available for foreign export until well into the next century. During that time,
competitors such as the Gripen, Rafale and EFA will be peddled aggressively by
European exporters. One analyst estimated that US foreign sales saved the
Pentagon "about $2.8 billion through surcharges to recover part of their
development costs and perhaps another $4 billion through the learning curve effect
of higher production runs."(9) Thus, America's stealth success could actually backfire,
on its larger aerospace industry by causing it to forfeit sales to a new generation
of top-of-the-line, although less formidable, European fighter aircraft.(10)
F-117A - Development of stealth aircraft began in the early 1970s, with the
Experimental Stealth Tactical (XST), code-named "Have Blue." This project resulted
in the Lockheed F-117A, with 20 of these aircraft ordered from Lockheed by the Air
Force in 1981, and a total of 59 aircraft were produced. The F-117A first flew in
1983 and entered service at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada in 1983. The original
F-117A program envisioned over 100 aircraft, but soaring costs (each aircraft costs
over $100 million), performance problems (several of the aircraft have crashed in
training flights),(11) limited payload (the aircraft can carry only two 900 Kg laser
guided bombs internally)(12), and the lack of a clearly defined mission(13) all
contributed to the curtailment of the program.(14) Although the F-117A exhibits
breakthrough low-observable characteristics, it was not built from scratch.
Designers modified F-16 flight controls and F-18 engines. Lockheed officials say
that using and improving on existing technology, rather than re-inventing the
wheel, allowed them to make the F-117 at half the cost and in half the time of
The F-177A first saw combat in the American intervention in Panama in December
1989, when two of the aircraft were used to attack an airfield, but this mission was
marred by pilot error which caused one of the aircraft's bombs to land far from the
intended target.(16) The F-117A performed well in Desert Storm, which may be the
primary reason that the aircraft's production line, once slated for closure, has
recently been revived.(17)
ATF - YF-22 The Advanced Tactical Fighter, which will enter Air Force service in
the mid-1990's, is designed primarily to carry missiles such as the AMRAAM for
air superiority operations. The ATF will combine supersonic cruise capability with
enhanced maneuverability. The ATF design by Lockheed, General Dynamics and
Boeing was selected in April 1991 over the YF-23 of Northrop and McDonnell
Douglas. Although less futuristic and perhaps less capable than the Northrop
design, Air Force officials said risk was key to their decision to buy the F-22.
Lockheed was judged more likely to be able to accomplish what it proposed.(18)
The two competitors embraced different philosophies concerning the future air
battle. Lockheed designed an aircraft that would be superior in both the visual and
beyond visual range battles. It maintained that in the future there will always be
occasions when aircraft get within visual range of each other. In those scenarios,
stealth offers no advantages. Thus, the F-22 incorporates some stealth features
such as internal weapons carriage,(19) but the stealth characteristics of the airframe
configuration have been compromised by aerodynamic considerations required to
execute the close-in dogfight. (20) Northrop, by contrast, prophesied that close-in air
battles were unlikely in the future, and optimized stealth and maximum speed at
the expense of agility.
The F-22's advertized capabilities sound impressive. It will be more agile than
current fighters with higher climb rates and turning acceleration. According to
some advocates, the fighter's ability to execute sharp turns at supersonic speeds
will revolutionize next century's dog fight tactics. Air to air tactics would also be
radicalized by the ATF's ability to detect, target and destroy other aircraft well
before they themselves were discovered. The ATF will employ "supercruise," which
will enable it to fly at a speed of at least Mach 1.56 without afterburners, greatly
reducing IR signature and saving fuel. Its speed/altitude operating envelope
without afterburners is estimated to be greater than the F-15C's with afterburners.
The F-22's radar signature is estimated at 1,000 times smaller than the F-15s.(21)
The F-22 is predicted to have a 25 percent greater range than the current F-15C.(22)
The YF-22 will employ thrust vectoring which will give it a substantial
maneuverability advantage over other aircraft both at the lowest and highest
speeds. Seventy five percent of the ATF's cost will be eaten up by the aircraft's
most technical components; the avionics, integration, manufacturing and materials
The ATF's avionics reportedly have the throughput capacity of seven Cray
computers.(24) The "brains" will be provided by a Hughes Aircraft Common
Integrated Processor, which has been described as an ultrafast central computer
made up of common modules. The radar will be of the electronically scanning,
active phased array variety. The Integrated Communications Navigation
Identification Avionics (ICNIA) will consolidate into a single suite the functions
usually performed by several processors, transmitters and receivers. The
Integrated Electronic Warfare System (INEWS) will also combine functions
currently performed by several systems into a single unit. It will handle electronic
warning and countermeasures tasks.(25)
While Defense Secretary Cheney's Major Aircraft Review did not cut the Air Force
goal of buying 750 aircraft, it did defer production by two years, and reduce the
maximum annual build rate from 72 per year to 48 per year.(26) This reduction in
procurement is partially responsible for the 23 percent increase over the ATF's
original $79.5 billion price tag.(27) Development is estimated at $18 billion and
production $80 billion. Another ramification of the ATF's development costs is that
the Air Force will stop production of F-16s and F-15s (arguably the best fighters
in the world in their respective classes) long before originally planned.(28) Pentagon
officials say the ATF is required because by the early 2000s foreign countries may
close the gap in avionics and pilot training that currently makes the F-15 superior
to other "aerodynamically competitive" aircraft.(29)
In light of diminishing governments funds and the almost non-existent threat from
the former Soviet Union, a broad range of analysts and policy makers are
wondering if spending $95 billion on 650 ATFs(30) is a good idea. While the F-22's
capabilities are indeed revolutionary, the requirement for such capabilities is
unclear. Upgrading the aircraft which were so effective in Desert Storm, or
pursuing agreements with other advanced countries to mutually postpone
developing new fighter aircraft for a decade may be better guarantors of US
national security than developing such an expensive weapon. Pentagon officials
claim that F-15s could be upgraded to beyond rough parity with top of the line
Russian fighters, "but not to the revolutionary extent of the ATF."(31) considering
the Russians are busy trying to keep from fragmenting like a broken mosaic, does
the United States really need to improve on today's MiGs to a "revolutionary
Boeing, General Dynamics and Lockheed are trying to interest the US Navy in a
carrier-based variant of the ATF, dubbed the NATF (Navy ATF) as a candidate in
the AX competition. The NATF was canceled as a program in the Navy's FY'92
budget submission, but the A-X may breathe new life into the program.
The manufacturers claim the NATF has a number of advantages over the other
competitors. The Navy's stealth requirement, for example, would prove easier for
the NATF to satisfy than upgraded F-14s, A-6s and F/A-18s. The NATF's weapon
bay is almost as large as the A-12s, allowing most if not all radar reflecting
armaments to be carried internally.(32) Price is another factor. Although the NATF
is projected to be a much larger aircraft than the ATF, and carry a larger bomb
load, there would still remain a great deal of commonality between the programs.
Enough commonality in avionics, armament, and subsystems, say Lockheed officials,
to save the NATF program $11 billion.(33) In current and future budget crunches,
each service may be forced to purchase each other's aircraft. The NATF may be
Lockheed's only opportunity to manufacture a strike ATF, as Air Force Officials
have expressed no interest in a two-seat F-22 follow on.(34)
ATA - A-12 - On 7 January 1991, Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney canceled
the Navy's A-12 Avenger Advanced Technology Aircraft (ATA) slated to replace
current A-6s on aircraft carriers in the mid-1990's. It was the largest contract
termination in the DoD's history. By one estimate the A-12 had become so
expensive that it would have consumed up 70 percent of the Navy's aircraft budget
within three years.(35) The Navy originally planned to buy 620 of the McDonnell
Douglas/General Dynamics aircraft, and the Air Force at one point considered
buying 400, at an average cost that was estimated at close to $100 million each.
The A-12 was designed to fly faster and further than the A-6E, and carry a large
bomb-load, in internal bomb-bays to reduce drag and maintain a low radar cross-section.(36) As with the ATF, the A-12 was expected to have greater reliability than
current aircraft (double that of the A-6E), and require half the maintenance
The A-12 proved to be the most troubled of the new American stealth aircraft in
large part because of problems found in the extensive use of composites in the
aircraft's structure. These composites did not result in anticipated weight savings,
and some structural elements had to be replaced with heavier metal components.
The weight of the aircraft exceeded 30 tons, 30% over design specification, and close
to the limits that can be accommodated on aircraft carriers.(37) The program
experienced problems with its complex Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar system,(38)
as well as delays in its advanced avionics components.(39)
The full scope of these problems were not appreciated at the time of Defense
Secretary Cheney's Major Aircraft Review, which slowed the production rate and
dropped 238 Marine Corps aircraft from the original total Navy buy of 858 aircraft.
Cheney also decided to delay for over 5 years the Air Force buy (from 1992 to
1998), which was decoupled from the Navy project.(40) Subsequently, the A-12
contractors revealed that the project was faced with serious engineering problems
and a $2 billion cost overrun, which would delay the first flight by over a year, to
the fall of 1991.(41)
At first blush, the A-12's performance capabilities would have been in roughly the same class as existing aircraft.
Payload Range Max Weight Max Speed Cost* A-12** 16,000lb 1,200mi 58,000lb Mach .9 $105 A-6E 6,000lb 1,011mi 58,000lb Mach .9 n/a F/A-18D 4,000lb 575mi 56,000lb Mach 1.8 $40 F-14D 8,000lb 2,000mi 74,350lb Mach 1.88 $75 * Cost in $ millions; unit procurement(42) **A-12 figures estimates.(43)
The A-12's key improvement over existing aircraft, not inherently obvious when
comparing specifications, was stealth. While today's radar can detect existing
naval aircraft at a range of 50 miles, the A-12 was designed to remain undetected
until approximately 10 miles distant. This would result in significant operational
and survival benefits for the A-12 since defenders would have little opportunity to
engage the aircraft once detected so close to the target. The A-12's reduced radar
cross section would have been derived, in part, from carrying its ordnance
internally. While the top speed of the more visible F/A-18 and A-6 would be
significantly reduced by the drag induced by external weapons carriage, the internal
weapons bay on the A-12 would provide no impediment to speed.(44)
When the A-12's problems became apparent, renewed interest in alternatives to the
A-12 surfaced. (45) The three programs considered were an upgraded A-6G, F/A-18,
and "Advanced Tomcat 21" (ATC-21) F-14D. While the A-6 was really not a player,
the other entrants had competing advantages and disadvantages. The upgraded
F/A-18, for example, would be cheaper and more amenable to low observables than
the F-14.(46) Others point out, however, that it would have to add the all-weather
capability that the A-6 successor would require.(47) The ATC-21, proponents said,
would have greater range and payload than the F/A-18.(48) Upgrading existing
aircraft, however, would be extremely expensive.
AX - Because it is doubtful that upgraded existing aircraft will be able to fulfill
all of the A-12s requirements, Navy officials decided to get fresh bids for a new A-12.(49) The Navy estimates the AX to cost $150 per unit as opposed to the A-12's
$165 price tag.(50) In FY 1992, the AX program will receive over $100 million.(51) To
facilitate this program's implementation, the Navy reportedly quizzed the Air Force
on how it resurrected the B-1 after President Carter's cancellation.(52)
The A-X's capabilities have been slightly scaled back from those of the A-12. The
A-X could be termed "A-12 lite" as its range, payload, and stealth requirements will
all be more modest than its predecessor's.(53) The Navy has emphasized the strike
role at the expense of the air-to-air mission in the new program, rather than trying
to "cover all the bases" and produce an aircraft that could perform numerous roles.
This ambition proved to be the A-12's undoing.
The AX's initial operating capability (IOC) is planed to be between 2000 and 2004, four to eight years later than the A-12's 1996 IOC.(54)
The program has engendered
one of the most elaborate and bizarre contractor mating dances in history. Five
teams are competing for the prime contractor slot. Team one is comprised of
McDonnell Douglas and the LTV Corporation. Team two is General Dynamics and
McDonnell Douglas. Team three is made up of Boeing, Lockheed, and General
Dynamics. Team four is Grumman, Boeing, and Lockheed. Northrop had a
difficult time filling its dance card, apparently because of its bad public image, but
it eventually seduced General Dynamics to enter the contest with its third
entrant.(55) Thus, of the seven teams competing, it appears that four have developed
advanced cases of schizophrenia. McDonnell Douglas, General Dynamics, Lockheed
and Boeing have be employing at least two separate teams of engineers working
at separate locations who won't be allowed to exchange strategy or data.(56)
While the mating process may seem original, some of the designs are not. General
Dynamics and McDonnell Douglas will rehash their A-12 design and Boeing,
General Dynamics and Lockheed will offer a version of their F-22 ATF. Grumman
originally tried to market upgrades of its F-14 Tomcat as an A-12 replacement.
The Navy rejected the Tomcat primarily because of its lack of stealth, but the
Grumman, Boeing, Lockheed team will surely draw from Grumman's F-14 and
naval aviation experience.(57) Even if the macro-design for the AX is new, it is likely
that the aircraft will borrow from other programs for subcomponents. The A-12
cancellation set back the Navy's schedule, and it is looking at the F-22's avionics
package for possible integration. TRW is investigating how avionics being
developed for the F-22 could be used on the AX. Monetary savings is reportedly
a prime motivation.(58)
In addition to the A-X's elaborate contractor mating dance, the project's contractor/Navy contractual relationship will be unusual as well. It will be the first aircraft in a decade to be built on a "cost plus" -- which allows the Pentagon to reimburse contractors for costs incurred over the agreed ceiling -- rather than a "fixed price" basis.(59) Industry officials blamed the A-12's fixed price contract for cramping their flexibility in addressing and solving problems as they arose.(60)
ATB - B-2 - The Stealth Bomber project was first announced by the Carter
Administration in the heat of the 1980 Presidential campaign, in response to
Republican criticism of the decision to cancel the B-1A bomber. Since its unveiling
in November 1988, the B-2 has been the focus of mounting criticism of the
inexorably growing cost of the project, the regularity with which its schedule has
been delayed, and doubts about mission requirements.
The B-2 will be the most expensive aircraft ever procured, and by some estimates
each bomber will literally cost its weight in gold. The General Accounting Office
estimated that the cost of the 132 aircraft program in then-year dollars would total
$68.8 billion, based on a $36.6 billion cost in constant FY81 dollars.(61) By mid-1988
the cost estimate for 132 aircraft had grown to $43 billion (in constant 1981
dollars).(62) In the Spring of 1990 Secretary Cheney's decided to reduce the buy from
132 aircraft to 75, with a budget in then-year dollars of $61 billion.(63) Based on the
costs required to bring the B-1B up to its intended performance (an additional $8
billion over the original $20 billion price) the eventual cost of the more
technologically challenging B-2 could exceed $1 billion each.
Two missions for the B-2 emerged from the veil of secrecy. Some advocates argued
that the B-2 is needed to offset improvements in Soviet air defenses, and that the
exertions the Soviets would make to augment their air defenses to counter the B-2
will inhibit their efforts in strategic offensive and conventional forces. Others argue
that the B-2 is needed in order to attack Soviet mobile missiles such as the SS-24
and SS-25. But given the high cost of the project and competing budget priorities,
neither of these rationales has proved particularly compelling to the Congress.
Secretary Cheney's decision to reduce scope of the program proved a watershed.
Recently, House and Senate conferees agreed to spend only $1.8 billion in 1992 on
the B-2. Nothing more can be spent on the aircraft without the approval of the full
House, which has been consistently opposed to the program. While supporters of
the Stealth Bomber say the aircraft's future is unclear, the $1.8 billion figure was
a distinct setback. Critics claim that the agreement literally kills the program.(64)
Non - US Programs
Great Britain has expressed interest in developing its own low-observable aircraft.
The US Air Force has clearly indicated its interest in selling the F-117 to the
United States' closest ally. It is more likely, however, that London will acquire
certain stealth technologies that it can use in its down programs, than buy the
finished product.(65) Britain plans to begin work on a stealth aircraft in the next five
years,(66) and have a functioning technology demonstrator by the end of the 1990s.(67)
The RAF says it will develop an upgraded Tornado that will be akin to the US
Navy's AX strike aircraft.(68) The RAF has been conducting radar absorbent material
(RAM) experiments on Tornados since at least November 1990.(69)
One phenomenon that worries US defense officials is the technology lag between
the time the United States fields a particular system, and the time its adversaries
do. For example, while the United States' top line fighter was introduced in 1975,
the Soviet's top fighter, the MiG-29's initial operating capability (IOC) was 11 years
later in 1986. Thus, "their" best aircraft is based on technology 11 years more
modern than "ours." Secretary of Defense Cheney has recently voiced concern that
this may apply to the fielding of stealth technology, and that 11 years after the F-22s IOC, for example, we will be facing a brand new Russian stealth fighter.(70)
1. Most of the technical discussion in this section is based on the definitive work by the leading stealth authority Bill Sweetman, Stealth Aircraft (Motorbooks, Osceola, WI, 1986.
2. Brinkley, Randolph, "Future US Fighters Are at a Cost/Technology Crossroad," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.49.
3. "AF Plans Individual Covered Parking Spaces for B-2 Bombers," Aerospace Daily, 8 March 1988, pp 358-359.
4. Tusa, Francis, "Europeans suffer stealth sticker shock syndrome," Armed Forces Journal International, February 1991, p.24.
5. "ATF Might Be Tracked By Skin Friction Infrared Signature," Aerospace Daily, 26 November 1990, p.323.
6. Tusa, Francis, "Europeans suffer stealth sticker shock syndrome," Armed Forces Journal International, February 1991, p.24.
7. Brinkley, Randolph, "Future US Fighters Are at a Cost/Technology Crossroad," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.49.
8. Brinkley, Randolph, "Future US Fighters Are at a Cost/Technology Crossroad," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.49.
9. Schemmer, Benjamin, "Will Stealth Backfire," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.44.
10. Schemmer, Benjamin, "Will Stealth Backfire," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.44.
11. Evans, David, "The Stealth May Be Invisible, But Its Deficiencies Aren't" Chicago Tribune, 18 November 1988, page 12.
12. "Stealth -- The Next Step," Flight International, 18 April 1990, page 24.
13. Reed, Fred, "Stealth Fighter Remains a Mystery," Air Force Times, 5 December 1988, page 78.
14. Wilson, George, "Secrecy's Veil Lifted From Stealth Jet," The Washington Post, 11 November 1988, page A3.
15. Wartzman, Rick, "Designer of Stealth Fighter Says US Runs Risk of Losing Technological Edge," The Wall Street Journal, 4 February 1991, p.A7.
16. Gordon, Michael, "Stealth Jet's First Mission Was Marred, Pentagon Says," The New York Times, 4 April 1990.
17. Lancaster, John, "Defense Bill Includes Soviet Aid," The Washington Post, 2 November 1991, p.A1.
18. Bond, David, "Risk, Cost Sway Airframe, Engine Choices for ATF," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 April 1991, p.20.
19. Dudney, Robert, "The ATF and Its Friends," Air Force Magazine, January 1989, page 46-53.
20. "Analysts Fear YF-22 Not As Stealthy as YF-23," Defense Daily, 4 September 1990, page 357.
21. Gellman, Barton, "Zeroing In on America's 21st-Century Fighter Jet," The Washington Post, 21 April 1991, p.A1.
22. Schemmer, Benjamin, "Will Stealth Backfire," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.44.
23. "Lockheed: Thrust Vectoring is Big Plus at Lowest, Highest Speeds," Aerospace Technology, 6 February 1991, p.216.
24. Wartzman, Rick, "Designer of Stealth Fighter Says US Runs Risk of Losing Technological Edge," The Wall Street Journal, 4 February 1991, p.A7.
25. Goodman, Glenn, "ATF Balances Stealth, Supercruise, Agility, Avionics," Armed Forces Journal International, June 1991, p.78.
26. "Cheney Cuts $34.8 Billion From Major Aircraft Through Fiscal 1997," Aerospace Daily, 27 April 1990, page 159-163.
27. "GAO estimates ATF program costs have increased another $1.7 billion," Inside the Pentagon, 7 February 1991, p.13.
28. Gellman, Barton, "Zeroing In on America's 21st-Century Fighter Jet," The Washington Post, 21 April 1991, p.A1.
29. Bond, David, "Risk, Cost Sway Airframe, Engine Choices for ATF," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 April 1991, p.20.
30. Gelb, Leslie, "F-22 = $95 Billion," The New York Times, 22 May 1991.
31. Canan, James, "The Future Is Stealth," Air Force Magazine, January 1991, p.14.
32. Starr Barbara, "Avenger: counting the costs of program cancellation," Jane's Defence Weekly, 19 January 1991, p.79
33. Schemmer, Benjamin, "Northrop, Lockheed, and Engine Firms Sweat Out April 30th ATF Decisions," Armed Forces Journal International, February 1991, p.14.
34. "Air Force: No Strike F-22 Unless it's A-X; Cost is main DAB issue," Aerospace Daily, 11 June 1991, p.421.
35. Schemmer, Benjamin, "Will Stealth Backfire," Armed Forces Journal International, January 1991, p.44.
36. "Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait Illustrates need for A-12 Avenger, Navy Says," Inside the Pentagon, 23 August 1990, page 18.
37. 'A-12 Weight Creep Continues; Composites Disappointing," Aerospace Daily, 24 August 1990, page 319.
38. "Norden Says GD Admits it Can't Prove A-12 Subcontract Default," Aerospace Daily, 30 August 1989, page 369-370.
39. "First 200 ATAs to Fly With A-6 Avionics, Lawmaker Says," Navy News & Undersea Technology, 14 March 1988, page 8.
40. "Major Aircraft Review," Inside the Pentagon, 27 April 1990, page 7-8.
41. "A-12 Makers Are Running Out of Cash," Defense Week, 1 June 1990, page 1, 13.
42. "Morrocco, John, "Senior Navy Officials Doubt AX Adaptable to Multirole Capability," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 May 1991, p.25.
43. Wartzman, Rick, "Cheney's Bomb Rattles Aerospace World," The Wall Street Journal, 9 January 1991, p. A2.
44. Wartzman, Rick, "Cheney's Bomb Rattles Aerospace World," The Wall Street Journal, 9 January 1991, p.A2.
45. Holzer, Robert, "A-12 Woes Prompt New Look at Intruder," Defense News, 23 July 1990, page 1, 32.
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