Department of Defense
ANNUAL POLYGRAPH REPORT TO CONGRESS
Fiscal Year 1999 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense
(Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I DoD Use of Polygraph Examinations II Fiscal Year 1999 Counterintelligence-Scope Polygraph (CSP) Examinations CSP Refusals Specific CSP Examination Results Significant Information Developed III Utility of the Investigative Polygraph IV Training and Qualification Standards for Department of Defense Forensic Psychophysiologist (Polygraph Examiners) V Polygraph Research VI Plans for Expanded Use of the Polygraph
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe Department of Defense (DoD) uses the polygraph in criminal investigations, counterintelligence cases, foreign intelligence and counterintelligence operations, and for requests for exculpation. This report contains numerous examples of polygraph utility in resolving counterintelligence and security issues as well as criminal investigations. The polygraph is clearly one of our most effective investigative tools.
The Department of Defense Polygraph Institute (DODPI) trains all federal polygraph examiners. The basic polygraph courses are taught at the Masters Degree level. The Institute also offers specialized courses in forensic psychophysiology through their continuing education program. In addition, DODPI conducts on-going evaluations of the validity of polygraph techniques used by federal examiners as well as research on new polygraph techniques, instrumentation, analytic methods, and polygraph countermeasures.
The Department published a handbook for all federal polygraph examiners which sets forth standardized techniques and procedures for conducting polygraph examinations. The handbook also outlines a Quality Assurance Program (QAP) wherein DODPI inspects federal polygraph programs to ensure compliance with both those techniques and procedures taught at DODPI and the continuing education requirements established by the polygraph community for polygraph examiners.
Approximately 72 percent of our polygraph examinations are conducted as a condition for access to certain positions or information under the DoD Counterintelligence-Scope Polygraph (CSP) Program. The DoD CSP Program is authorized by Public Law 100-180. The purpose of the CSP Program is to deter and detect activity involving espionage, sabotage, and terrorism.
The DoD conducts CSP examinations on military personnel, DoD civilian employees, and DoD contractor personnel. Of the 8,289 individuals examined under the CSP Program in Fiscal Year 1999, 8,088 showed no significant physiological response to the relevant questions (non-deceptive) and provided no substantive information. The remaining 201 individuals yielded significant physiological responses, or were evaluated as inconclusive and/or provided substantive information. Of these 201 individuals, 187 received a favorable adjudication, five are still pending adjudication, eight are pending investigation, and one individual received adverse action denying or withholding access.
IThe Department of Defense has used the polygraph for almost half a century. It is used in criminal investigations, counterintelligence cases, foreign intelligence and counterintelligence operations, exculpation requests, and as a condition for access to certain positions or information. The polygraph is a tool that enhances the interview and interrogation process. Often it is the only investigative technique capable of providing essential information to resolve national security issues and criminal investigations. The use of the polygraph as a condition for access is limited by a statutory quota for CSP examinations.
DOD USE OF POLYGRAPH EXAMINATIONS
The following table reflects Department of Defense Polygraph Program statistics for Fiscal Year 1999.
Criminal 2,183 18.9% Exculpatory 510 4.4% Cl Scope 8,289 71.8% All Others* 564 4.9% Total** 11,546 100%
* Includes examinations conducted in support of personnel security investigations, counterintelligence and intelligence operations, and polygraph assistance to non-DoD federal agencies.
** Does not include polygraph examinations conducted by the National Security Agency (NSA) . A breakout of polygraph examinations conducted by NSA is contained in a classified table submitted with this report. Nor does it include polygraph examinations conducted by the National Reconnaissance Office, which are conducted under the authority of the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI).
IISection 1121 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989 (Public Law 100-180, December 4, 1987; 101 Stat. at 1147) authorizes the Department of Defense to conduct CSP examinations as a condition for access to certain information.
Fiscal Year 1999 Counterintelligence-Scope
The purpose of the CSP Program is to deter and detect espionage, sabotage, and terrorism. The following topics are covered during the CSP examination: (1) Involvement with a foreign intelligence/security service, involvement in espionage; (2) Involvement in terrorism; (3) Unauthorized foreign contacts; (4) Deliberate failure to protect classified information; and (5) Damaging/sabotaging government information systems, clandestine collection, or defense systems. These CSP topics meet the needs of both DoD and the Intelligence Community facilitating the transfer of security clearances.
The Department published a handbook for federal polygraph examiners standardizing techniques and procedures for conducting polygraph examinations. The handbook also outlines the Quality Assurance Program (QAP) wherein DODPI inspects federal polygraph programs to ensure compliance with the techniques and procedures taught at the Institute. DODPI trains all federal polygraph examiners. This allows for standardization and promotes reciprocity, thus eliminating unnecessary polygraph examinations. Memorandums of Agreement are being staffed, by federal agencies that have polygraph programs, to obtain their concurrence with the provisions contained in the handbook.
Public Law 100-180 authorizes DoD to administer CSP examinations to persons whose duties involve access to information that has been classified at the level of top secret or designated as being within a special access program under section 4.4 of Executive Order 12958. This includes military and civilian personnel of the Department and personnel of defense contractors. The number of CSP examinations has been limited to 5,000 per fiscal year since Fiscal Year 1991. For Fiscal Years 1988 through 1990 the ceiling was 10,000. The quota reduction took place two years after new exemptions for cryptographic and reconnaissance programs were adopted. Public Law 100-180 exempts certain intelligence agencies and functions from the 5,000 quota: (1) individuals assigned, detailed or under contract with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2) persons employed, assigned, detailed, under contract or applying for a position in the National Security Agency, (3) persons assigned to a space where sensitive cryptographic information is produced, processed, or stored, and (4) persons employed by, assigned or detailed to, an office within the Department of Defense for the collection of specialized national foreign intelligence through reconnaissance programs or a contractor of such an office.The following table reflects CSP examinations conducted by the Department of Defense in accordance with Public Law 100-180.
(1) Special Access Programs 2,070 (2) DIA Critical Intelligence Positions 1,174 (3) TOP SECRET 0 (4) Examinations for Interim Access to Sensitive Compartmented Information 0 Total Examinations Conducted Under the Congressional Ceiling 3,244 Exempted Examinations* 5,045 DoD Counterintelligence-Scope Polygraph Prograin TOTAL** 8,289
*NOTE: Includes detailees to CIA and NSA, assignees to cryptographic information processing spaces, persons in non-NRO reconnaissance programs.
**NOTE: Does not include polygraph examinations conducted by NSA. A table of polygraph examinations conducted by NSA is contained in a classified annex to this report. Nor does it include examinations conducted by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), which are conducted under the authority of the Director Central Intelligence.
In Fiscal Year 1999, only one person declined CSP testing required as a condition of access to certain information. Department of Defense policy states those persons who decline to take the examination are denied access to the classified material in question, but are retained in their position or transferred to other positions in the organization of equal pay and responsibility, commensurate with the clearance level held before the declination.
Specific CSP Examination ResultsThe polygraph examination results for the 8,289 individuals tested under the Department of Defense Counterintelligence-Scope Polygraph Program are as follows:
One hundred and ninety six individuals required more than two series (a series is defined as the collection of at least two polygraph charts on an examinee). A total of 66 examinations required more than one day to complete.
There were 8,088 individuals whose polygraph examination results were evaluated as no significant physiological response (non-deceptive). The remaining 201 individuals yielded significant psychological responses or were evaluated as inconclusive and/or provided substantive information.
One hundred and eighty nine individuals made admissions relevant to the issues being tested, and through further testing, the examiner was able to resolve all relevant issues favorably to the subject.
After reviewing the psychological data, the polygraph examiner was unable to render an opinion for four individuals. One of these individuals made admissions relevant to the issues being tested.
There was one individual whose polygraph examination results was evaluated as significant physiological response (deceptive) and who made no admissions to the relevant issues.
Seven individuals made admissions relevant to the issues being tested but continued to be evaluated as significant psychological response (deceptive) during further testing.
Of the 201 individuals whose examination results were evaluated as yielding significant physiological responses, or evaluated as inconclusive and/or provided substantive information, 187 received a favorable adjudication, five are still pending adjudication, eight are pending investigation, and one individual received adverse action denying or withholding access.
Significant Information Developed
The following cases reflect significant information developed during DoD CSP examinations covered by this report. It should be noted that all these individuals had been interviewed previously by security professionals and investigated by other means without any discovery of the information obtained by the polygraph examination procedure. In most cases the information was elicited from the subject in discussion with the examiner.
Most of the information developed during CSP examinations relates to the removal of classified material and computer media to residences and unauthorized foreign contacts. Some of those cases, classified material was comingled with personal papers, and often when discovered was either destroyed or returned to government control. In some cases, the classified material was deliberately taken home to prepare a briefing or to meet a deadline. Admissions of removal of classified material were followed-up with additional polygraph testing to determine whether the material was compromised, or if any other material was still outside of government control, or if the extent and nature of the foreign contacts were different than reported. Following subsequent polygraph testing the results were provided to appropriate security officials for adjudication.
During a CSP examination, the examinee, who had traveled to a sensitive location, disclosed that he had befriended a foreign national from his target country. The association involved an exchange of money to the individual and the individual's family for artwork, and additional money to support the foreign national's lifestyle. The examinee also expressed a desire to defect to Cuba. He also admitted that he had manipulated evaluation reports on the target country due to personal sympathies he had for the country.
During CSP testing, the examinee, who previously had been evaluated as deceptive on four CSP examinations given by another U.S. government agency, admitted to providing prohibited collection export technology to a foreign country. The examinee indicated that he provided the information in order to obtain the business before obtaining an export license.
During a CSP examination, the examinee exhibited "Significant Response" to a question concerning having a secret relationship with, working with, and providing classified information to a non-U.S. intelligence service. During five days of interviews and polygraph tests, examinee disclaimed any unreported contact with a non-U.S. intelligence service. Between 1985 and 1997, examinee was involved in HUMINT intelligence activities. He admitted security violations related to HUMINT operations, but denied any unauthorized activity with a foreign intelligence service. The examinee continued to exhibit "Significant Response" to the above topics, and the matter was referred for additional investigation.
During CSP testing, examinee admitted disclosing classified information to unauthorized persons. An investigation was conducted concerning the unauthorized disclosures and additional polygraph testing was requested. During the subsequent polygraph testing the examinee confessed to providing additional classified information not previously reported and to telling additional unauthorized individuals classified information at a previous duty station. The individual was processed for discharge from the Air Force.
During CSP testing, examinee disclosed during the post test polygraph interview, that five years earlier he had thoughts of toppling the U.S. government and was advocating anarchy. He reportably believed if he could create a race war and destroy transportation and electrical systems, he would obtain this goal. He was denied a security clearance.
During CSP testing, examinee admitted disclosing to uncleared friends and co-workers specific classified details about her employment at another federal agency. These details included target and intercept methodology. The individual was denied access to sensitive information.
Utility of the Investigative Polygraph
During Fiscal Year 1999, DoD investigations obtained unique and significant information from interviews conducted with the aid of the polygraph. In all illustrated instances, the polygraph examination process produced significant security or criminal information, which would not otherwise have been secured for the specific investigation. The polygraph examination process was also valuable in helping to establish the innocence of persons charged with serious infractions.
A transport truck was stopped and searched under the General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP) in Bosnia-Herzegovina. During the search, illegal weapons of war in contravention to GFAP were discovered and confiscated. A passenger in the vehicle was interviewed and denied knowledge of the weapons or illegal activities. The individual agreed to undergo a polygraph examination to confirm his story. The examinee was evaluated as deceptive and admitted withholding significant information regarding the weapons being transported. The examinee disclosed the location of a large weapons cache located in Bijeljina, Republia Srpska; identified a Republia Srpska Army (VRS) General and other personnel involved in the illegal weapons transportation; and confirmed that he was a soldier in the VRS. The examinee's information led NATO forces to a warehouse where a major cache of weapons was stored.
An Army member was suspected of having unreported contact with Russian military personnel during a deployment to Bosnia. During the investigation, the member understated her involvement with Russian military personnel. She agreed to undergo a polygraph examination during which she admitted to an intimate relationship with a Russian Warrant Officer, and that she had continued associations with Russian military personnel during her subsequent assignment to an NSA facility. She denied having contact with any foreign intelligence personnel or having provided details of her military assignment or classified information to any foreign representatives. The examinee completed her polygraph testing with no deception indicated. This information was referred to the Army Central Clearance Facility for adiudication of her security clearance.
During a background investigation, an employment reference from an insurance company where the subject was previously employed, stated that subject had embezzled money from the cash payments made to him by policyholders. Subject denied the allegation and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. During the pre-test, he admitted to stealing the money and agreed to make restitution to his former employer.
During a background investigation, information was developed that subject was trafficking in drugs on a military base. Subject denied any involvement with illegal drugs since 1958. He agreed to undergo a polygraph examination to support his claim. During the pre-test interview, subject admitted that he has been using marijuana, cocaine, LSD, opium and several other drugs since 1980. He also admitted to selling illegal drugs and stated that he intends to continue using and selling illegal drugs. This information was referred to law enforcement authorities.
An investigation was initiated based on a complaint by an Army trainee that she had been raped by her drill instructor. The drill instructor was interviewed and denied any sexual contact with the trainee and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. The results of the polygraph examination indicates no deception. Based upon the results of the polygraph examination, the alleged victim was re-interviewed and admitted she had fabricated the entire story. The trainee was administratively discharged from the military.
An investigation was initiated regarding the death of an Air Force Non Commissioned Officer. A suspect was developed based on his association with the NCO's wife and access to the residence. The suspect was interviewed and denied any knowledge or involvement in the death of the NCO. The suspect agreed to undergo a polygraph examination to confirm his denials. The examination results indicated deception. During a subsequent interview, the suspect confessed that he planned the NCO's death with the NCO's spouse and committed the murder. The suspect is awaiting trial.
An investigation was initiated regarding the arson of four military recruiting offices in a shopping mall. The primary suspect was a night janitor/security person. This individual agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. The results of the polygraph examination indicated no deception. Next, the military recruiters were polygraphed. The polygraph examination results of the Army recruiter indicated deception. During the post-test interview, the Army recruiter confessed to setting the fire in his office to avoid a command inspection scheduled for the following day. He also confessed to setting the other fires to make it look like kids had done it, thus drawing suspicion away from himself. The recruiter is awaiting trial.
An investigation was initiated on a military officer when a bag of suspected methamphetamine was found in his gym bag during a routine gate check of his vehicle. The officer was interviewed and admitted the gym bag was his, but that he had no knowledge or involvement with the methamphetamine. The officer agreed to undergo a polygraph examination the results of which were evaluated as non-deceptive. Subsequently, a polygraph examination was conducted on the officer's son. The results of this polygraph examination indicated deception. Subsequently, the son admitted that a friend of his had placed the methamphetamine in the gym bag.
An investigation was initiated regarding the reported theft of $877,367.82 from an MCI Center located on a military installation. There were no signs of forced entry to the building; therefore, it was suspected that an employee might be involved. Shortly after the theft, an employee quit work at the facility. The employee was interviewed and denied any criminal knowledge or involvement in the theft and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. The results of the polygraph examination indicated deception. Subsequently, the employee admitted that she provided a key for the facility to an individual who made a copy of the key and paid her $500.00 to keep quiet about the theft. The employee received 12 months probation.
An Air Force member was suspected of physically abusing his four-year old daughter. The abuse resulted in fractures to both of her legs, her right wrist, and several ribs. The member denied any knowledge or involvement in the abuse and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination to support his denial. The results of the polygraph examination indicated deception. During the post-test interview, the member admitted to physically abusing his daughter. Prosecution is pending.
During a background investigation for a DoD contractor, information was developed indicating subject was experiencing financial difficulties due to his excessive gambling. During his interview, subject claimed he attended Gamblers Anonymous in 1992 and 1993, and had not been involved in any illegal gambling activities since 1990. Subject agreed to undergo a polygraph examination to prove his claims. During the pre-test interview, he admitted betting money in football pools conducted on U.S. government property, and having friends place between $800.00 and $1,000.00 bets for him on jai lai games. The results of the subsequent polygraph examination indicated deception. In a post-test interview, he admitted gambling about $500.00 a month on Keno games and placing four illegal football game bets through bookmakers. The last of those was made two months prior to the polygraph examination. Adjudication action on his security clearance is pending.
An investigation was initiated after a 5-month old child was brought into the hospital emergency room with head injuries. It was determined that the injuries consisted of a skull fracture and hemorrhaging of the brain. At the time of the injuries, the child was in the care of his father. The father stated that he and the child had fallen asleep on the couch and the child subsequently fell to the floor. Due to the extent of the injuries, the child was placed on life support which was ultimately discontinued resulting in the child's death. Medical personnel stated that the circumstances described by the father were not sufficient to cause the severe trauma to the child. The father maintained his original statement and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. The results of the polygraph examination indicated deception. During a subsequent interview, the father admitted that he had shaken the child and hit the child's head on the coffee table because the child would not stop crying. The father is pending court-martial.
A fraud investigation disclosed that a DoD subcontractor provided monetary payments totaling $554,560.00 and two non-interest bearing loans totaling $240,000.00 to a DoD contractor responsible for overseeing engineering contracts at an Air Force Base. The subcontractor agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. During the polygraph examination he admitted to providing gratuities to the government contracting officer in exchange for authorized cost overruns and extensions for completing the contract. All individuals involved were convicted in court and fined and or incarcerated.
During a background investigation for a military reservist, information was developed alleging that he molested his former stepdaughters. His former spouse had not reported this information to the police out of fear that it would interfere with ongoing divorce proceedings. During his interview, subject denied ever molesting any children and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination to support his denials. The polygraph examination results indicated deception. During the post-test interview, subject admitted molesting one of his step-daughters. This information was referred to law enforcement authorities. The reservist is awaiting trial.
An investigation was initiated regarding the theft of seven computers valued at $15,125.00. During the investigation, one of the computers was located at the home of an individual who claimed he had bought the computer from another individual. The individual he bought the computer from had been identified as a suspect in similar cases. The suspect was interviewed and denied any knowledge or involvement in the theft and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. The results of the examination indicated deception. During the post-test interview, the individual admitted to the theft of the computer and the thefts of five other computers, totaling about $5,000.00. Prosecution is pending.
An Air Force member was suspected in the unattended death of her infant child. The member claimed that she went to sleep at 11 PM and her child was asleep in her crib. Sometime during the night the child awoke and the mother moved her to the couch in the living room. She checked on the child at 0830 the following morning and noticed that the child's skin color was blue and her jaw was tightly clenched shut. She called 911 and attempted CPR. She believed the child had a seizure because she had one before. The mother denied doing anything that would have caused the child to stop breathing and agreed to undergo a polygraph examination. The results of the polygraph examination indicated deception. During the post-test interview, the mother admitted that she had held the child's face in the couch cushion until she stopped breathing. The mother was prosecuted and convicted of the death of her child.
IVThe Department of Defense maintains very stringent standards for polygraph examiners. The Institute's basic polygraph program is the only program known to base its curriculum on forensic psychophysiology, and conceptual, abstract, and applied knowledge that meet the requirements of a master's degree-level of study. Candidates selected for DoD polygraph positions must meet the following minimum requirements:
Training and Qualification Standards for
Department of Defense Forensic
Psychophysiologist (Polygraph Examiners)
1. Be a United States citizen.All federal polygraph examiners receive their basic polygraph training at DODPI. In Fiscal Year 1999, the Institute trained 49 new polygraph examiners. After completing the basic polygraph training, DoD personnel must serve an internship consisting of a minimum of six months on-the-job-training and the conduct of at least 25 polygraph examinations under the supervision of a certified polygraph examiner before being certified as a DoD polygraph examiner. In addition, DoD polygraph examiners are required to complete 80 hours of continuing education every two years. To help meet this requirement, the Institute offers 21 different specialized courses in forensic psychophysiology. In Fiscal Year 1999, approximately 470 students attended the specialized courses.
2. Be at least 25 years of age.
3. Be a graduate of an accredited four-year college or have equivalent experience that demonstrates the ability to master graduate-level academic courses.
4. Have two years of experience as an investigator with a federal or other law enforcement agency. Two years of comparable experience may be substituted for the requirement of investigative experience with a Federal or other law enforcement agency.
5. Be of high moral character and sound emotional temperament, as confirmed by a background investigation.
6. Complete a DoD-approved course of polygraph instruction.
7. Be adjudged suitable for the position after being administered a polygraph examination designed to ensure that the candidate realizes, and is sensitive to, the personal impact of such examinations.
Department of Defense Forensic Psychophysiologists
(Polygraph Examiners)Average Number Fiscal Year Of Examiners Attrition Rate 1994 192 19% 1995 176 18% 1996 164 19% 1997 153 18% 1998 147 15% 1999 144 19%
VMandated by Congress, the research program at the Institute is focused on: (1) developing new psychophysiological detection of deception (PDD) techniques, instrumentation and analytic methods to improve PDD technology; (2) conducting research on PDD countermeasures; and (3) evaluating the validity of PDD techniques.
Polygraph (Forensic Psychophysiology) Research
To facilitate the research, a small grant program was established in Fiscal Year 1992. In Fiscal Year 1999, the Institute funded three grant proposals and granted extensions for continued research of two previous grants. Efforts to increase PDD related research have resulted in receipt of no less than 12 new proposals. It is anticipated that DoDPI will be able to fund three or four of the proposals in FY 2000.
The Institute has a prioritized research plan which was approved by the Security Policy Board. This plan describes a series of projects to be completed in support of PDD research. Its successful completion is dependent on the availability of resources. The plan has been approved in its entirety by the Personnel Security Research Subcommittee. To organize this aggressive agenda, in FY 1999, the Institute hired a new chief of the Research Division. Efforts to establish strategic partnerships with university laboratories and increase the breadth of PDD research have begun.
The Research Division at the end of FY 1999 was comprised of two research psychologists, two research assistants, one graduate assistant and a polygraph research officer assigned from a non-DoD agency. Other personnel support for the Research Division was secured by contract, co-op students from a local university, and from the Instruction Division staff at the Institute. The Research Division anticipates hiring three additional research-scientists in FY 2000.
Current Research ProjectsAn Examination of Response Parameters of Electrodermal Recording (EDR) to Standard Stimuli. The objective of this project is to determine if equivalent EDR responses are obtained to equivalent psychological stimuli presented at different EDR tonic levels. The goal of the research is to determine if resistance or conductance is a more accurate measure during PDD examinations.
Effects of Augmented Physiological Feedback on the Detection of Deception. This project will determine if augment feedback improves the accuracy of PDD examinations.
Detecting Stress in the Voice. This is a collaborative study between DoDPI and the Chief, Department of Neuroendocrinology and Neurochemistry, Division of Nureoscience, Walter Reed Institute of Research to determine if stress in the voice is related to biomedical measures of psychological stress. Biomedical measure were shown to be reliable indicators of human stress; however, there was no correlation between those measures and those measures provided by a computer voice stress analyzer (CVSA), a device currently used by many non-federal law enforcement agencies to detect deception. The utility of other analytic technologies is not ruled out and should be examined. This project is complete and a report will be published in FY 2000.
Thermal Imaging During a PDD Examination. Infrared thermal imaging, a non-intrusive and non-invasive technology, was used to determine if peripheral changes in skin surface temperature (SST) are related to psychological stress. Preliminary studies have shown that stressful tasks cause a decrease in SST on the dorsal surface of the hands. Additional studies need to be conducted to determine if the technology is useful for PDD.
Scaled P300 Scalp Profiles in Detection of Deception. Previous electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of deception have been limited to changes in the amplitude of responses to specific questions. An investigator at Northwestern University has been awarded funds to pursue an innovative and unique measure of deception, the distribution of EEG activity over the scalp. A preliminary report showed favorable results and the contract was extended.
A Field Study to Test the Validity and Comparative Accuracy of Voice Stress Analysis Measured by the Computerized Voice Stress Analyzer: In a Psychophysiological Context. DODPI awarded funds to an investigator employed by the Michigan State Police Polygraph Unit to access the validity of the computerized voice stress analyzer using subjects who are being tested for actual crimes. The data has been collected and a report is anticipated in early FY 2000.
Vagal Tone Monitor/ARIS. This project is designed to determine the feasibility of using a Vagal Tone Monitor and Autonomic Response Indicator System (ARIS) software to monitor changes in cardiovascular activity during a PDD examination. The Vagal Tone Monitor and ARIS software are designed to measure the direct influence of the vagal nerve on heart rate. Data collection has been completed and an analysis is being done. The final report is anticipated in early FY 2000
Polyscore 3.3 and Psychophysiological Detection of Deception Examiners when Scoring Examinations from Actual Criminal Investigations. This study was designed to examine Polyscore and human examiner accuracy rate using data collected during actual criminal investigations. A set of 100 Zone of Comparison Test (ZCT) and a set of 100 Modified General Question Test (MGQT) format examinations were scored by six examiners (three per test format) using a 7-position scoring scale. The data were later converted to a 3-position scale for comparison. The examinations were also scored using a computerized scoring algorithm, Polyscore 3.3. The results showed that the examiner decisions were more accurate when using a 7-position scale, and they generated more correct decisions for the MGQT format than for the ZCT format. Polyscore was more accurate when scoring ZCT examinations, as opposed to MGQT examinations. Polyscore was also more accurate than the examiners when scoring ZCT examinations. The final report has been completed.
Intrarater Agreement of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception Examiners when Scoring Examinations from Actual Criminal Investigations. This is a follow-up study to the Polyscore study above. The examiners who participated in the Intrarater study were asked to score the same ZCT and MGQT examinations in order to assess the reliability of their decisions and scoring procedures. The data has been evaluated and a report will be published in FY 2000.
Effects of Prior Demonstrations of Polygraph Accuracy on Outcomes of Probable Lie and Directed Lie Polygraph Tests. Investigators at the University of Utah are examining the usefulness of administering an acquaintance test during a PDD examination. A known solution peak of tension, or acquaintance test, is used to convince examinees that the PDD procedure can accurately detect deception. Unfortunately there have been no systematic studies to determine the validity or efficacy of this procedure. This study will examine the usefulness of the acquaintance test and also compare the directed versus probable lie comparison questions. The report will be completed in FY 2000.
Validity of Outside-Issue Questions in the Control Question Test. Investigators at Boise State University are studying the validity of Outside-Issue questions in the Control Question Test. Outside-Issue questions are those which address topics that are not included in relevant comparison questions (i.e. Do you believe I will only ask you the questions we have reviewed? Is there something else you are afraid I will ask you about?) A report is expected in FY 2000.
A Comparison of Decision Accuracy Rates Obtained by Computer Programs Designed to Evaluate PDD Examination Data. Four vendors currently sell computer programs purported to accurately evaluate PDD examination data. The accuracy of the computer programs has not been independently evaluated. This study will be completed in FY 2000.
Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD) Accuracy Rates Obtained Using Test for Espionage and Sabotage: A Replication. DoDPI developed new security screening examination procedure in the early 1990s, the Test for Espionage and Sabotage. While high accuracy rates were obtained, the number of observations per sample cell was relatively small. This is a replication study with a larger sample to validate the previous results.
Anticipated Projects for Year 2000
Research Training in Cognitive Psychophysiology and Detection of Deception. A strategic partnership agreement with the University of South Carolina is expected next year. This partnership will provide research in cognitive psychophysiology emphasizing brain process and the detection of deception and research training in these areas. More specifically this project will be comprised of research into the cognitive process occurring in the detection of deception, the brain areas underlying the cognitive activity, and the cognition-brain-deception relationship. This research will be conducted using High-density EEG/ERP recordings. Moreover, this effort will investigate and localize deception-specific critical sources and the effects of deception on ERP topography. In a subsequent phase, this research will investigate and correlate these findings with current Automic Nervous System recordings during a PDD examination. Specialized training in cognitive neuroscience will be provided to the DODPI staff and the PDD community.
Remote Sensing of Emotion and Stress Using Laser Doppler Vibrometry. This multidisciplinary project involving investgators from the medical, psychological, computer engineering and physics disciplines will use emerging technologies to develop methods for deriving simultaneous information from the Laser Doppler signal regarding multiple psychological functions including body tremor, respiration, cardiac function, muscle contraction, and sweating. Laser Doppler Vibrometry recording methods do not require the invasive attachment of physical transducers and could be adapted to multiple examination settings. This technology, if successful, would be immune to many of the artifacts that are problematic during traditional FDD examinations.
Laboratory Assessment of the Accuracy of the CQT: The Effect of Culture on the PDD Examination Process. Security organizations in the future will need to accept employees from diverse ethnic backgrounds. The critical issue is how to best evaluate risk given the potential employees background. This project will investigate the cross-cultural effects on the outcome of PDD examinations administered by both Chinese-American examiners and natural American examiners on examinees of both cultures. These languages and cultural effects have the potential to modify the training of federal polygraph examiners and could suggest test format modifications for the examination of diverse populations.
"Polyplot" - A Computer Program for Generating and Modifying Polygraph Charts. DoDPI instructors currently use polygraph charts produced during field cases for instructional purposes. These polygraph charts do not always provide textbook examples of key physiological patterns nor do they allow the instructor and students to consider subtle but important variations in the tracings. In response to this problem, DoDPI has developed a statement of work for a computer program that allows DoDPI instructors to generate and modify hypothetical polygraph tracings.
Exploration of Manual and Automated Scoring Methods for Relevant/Irrelevant Multiple Issue Screening Examinations. The Relevant/Irrelevant (RI) PDD screening format is used by some federal agencies for applicant screening and employee vetting. The development of an objective means of interpretation of the polygraph recordings in this role is the goal of this project. Live cases conducted by a contractor for which ground truth was established independently have been subjected to automated and human scoring systems. The data is being subjected to statistical approaches to determine which series of decision rules maximize decision accuracy. The outcome will help identify the best means of interpretation for these types of polygraph data.
Pretest Interview Project. This project will identify important variables in the interview that precedes PDD examinations, the pretest interview. The pretest interview is an essential part of the PDD process; however, it has not previously been subjected to scientific analysis. Videotapes of pretest interviews are being coded to record the behavior of examiner and examinees during the pretest interview to identify variables which may be used to predict the validity of the PDD examination.
Other ActivitiesInternational Use of PDD. The Institute maintains contact with PDD examiners in other countries to keep abreast of polygraph development around the world. The Institute issues periodic reports summarizing international PDD activity. The use of polygraph in other countries has increased dramatically.
Presentations. DoDPI presented results of their research several audiences in FY 1999, including the Federal Interagency Polygraph Seminar, the annual seminar of the Society of Psychophysiological Research, and the annual seminar of the American Polygraph Association. The Institute has also provided formal instruction to federal examiners at courses sponsored by the University of Virginia, the FBI National Academy and the basic and advanced courses at DoDPI.
The DoDPI staff taught a total of 23 courses to more than 600 students within the federal polygraph community. Additionally, the DoDPI staff provided PDD courses and seminars to more than 300 students in the local and state law enforcement community.
VIIn an effort to eliminate or reduce the number of unauthorized disclosures of classified information to the media, we plan to implement a new policy. As a condition for access to Top Secret, SCI or higher information, DoD military, civilian personnel and contractor employees will sign a form certifying that they are willing to undergo a specific issue polygraph examination if classified information they had access to has been leaked. We believe this will serve as a deterrent to individuals who may be considering leaking classified information.
Plans for Expanded Use of the Polygraph