The Visible Human Project (VHP), anatomical modeling and related endeavors:
The Visible Human Project
National Library of Medicine
“The Visible Human Project® is an outgrowth of the NLM's 1986 Long-Range Plan. It is the creation of complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the normal male and female human bodies. Acquisition of transverse CT, MR and cryosection images of representative male and female cadavers has been completed. The male was sectioned at one millimeter intervals, the female at one-third of a millimeter intervals. The long-term goal of the Visible Human Project® is to produce a system of knowledge structures that will transparently link visual knowledge forms to symbolic knowledge formats such as the names of body parts.”
Center for Human Simulation
University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
“The Center for Human Simulation (CHS) is a synthesis of human anatomy and computed three-dimensional imaging. This synthesis resulted in a three-dimensional, high resolution database of human male and female anatomy (the Visible Human) as derived from direct analysis of anatomical specimens and radiological imaging. The general purpose of this Center is to facilitate the collaboration of anatomists, radiologists, computer scientists, engineers, physicians and educators to promote the application of this and other anatomical data to basic and clinical research, clinical practice and teaching.”
Stanford Visible Female
SUMMIT (Stanford University Medical Media and Information Technologies) Program
“The Stanford Visible Female dataset, restricted to the female pelvis, is similar to the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. Both datasets are a series of digitized color photographs of human cryosections. They are being utilized in multiple ways, including in teaching human anatomy, basic research, and for developing 3D models of human anatomy.”
“The NLM sponsored University of Michigan Visible Human Project in collaboration with the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center will implement the Next Generation Internet (NGI) to serve the Visible Human data to a wide range of users. This information will be accessed using standard 2D browsers as well as a 3D "Edgewarp" browser. Linked to the 3D representations will be video, audio, text, and graphics to explain and expand upon the images. The UM team will develop and evaluate these new virtual tools with input from users in various testbed groups (e.g., anatomy, nursing, surgical, and dental). Physicians, medical personnel, researchers, engineers, and students; using high speed Internet access; will be able to view and interact with the human body online as never before. The development of a new and detailed anatomic database holds the potential of transforming research, medical education, training, diagnosis, and treatment.”
“Insight is a project to develop an application programmer interface (API) and first implementation of a segmentation and registration toolkit. The goal of this initiative is to create a self-sustaining code development effort to support image analysis research in segmentation, classification, and deformableregistration of medical images. Ultimately, we hope that this will be a public software resource that will serve as a foundation for future medical image understanding research. The intent is to amplify the investment being made through the Visible Human Project and future programs for medical image analysis by reducing the reinvention of basic algorithms. We are also hoping to empower young researchers and small research laboratories with the kernel of an image analysis system in the public domain. An objective of NLM and partner Institutes is to support development that will form prototypes for advanced applications based on the VHP data sets.”
“As our research group accumulated data during the digitisation of a skeleton, it became apparent that some kind of system was needed to keep track of this information. As we are also working on FieldML, an XML-based markup language for describing spatially varying fields, it seemed appropriate to have another XML-based language that included FieldML as a subset, as well as storing any additional information that we needed. The result is AnatML, a language for storing geometric information and documentation obtained as part of the musculoskeletal modelling project… The Musculoskeletal Modelling Project is a part of the Physiome ProjectAnatML - Anatomical Markup Language”. which seeks to apply mathematical modelling to physiology in order to assist in integrating whole organ function to its underlying biophysically detailed mechanisms. The scope of this project requires international and interdisciplinary cooperation. To assist this the Bio-engineering Group is developing a number of XML-based languages to enable easy dissemination and circulation of data amongst contributing scientists. This website contains the specfication for AnatML - Anatomical Markup Language”.
Gold Standard Multimedia, Inc. (COMMERCIAL SITE)
The Virtual Human Gallery
The Virtual Human Gallery will be re-released in Spring 2001 as one of the world's premier collections of scientifically accurate 3D anatomical imagery, animations, and multimedia. Our medical illustration and programming teams are rapidly building the new site, which will offer you the opportunity to browse and link to (for free) or download (for a fee) a comprehensive collection of content for your education, teaching, presentation, and project needs. Until then, we invite you to share your suggestions with us via email.