News


AOARD-LR-95-14

29 Sep 95

Capt Paul McQuay
AFOSR/AOARD
US Address: Unit 45002, APO AP 96337-0007
Int'l Address: 7-23-17 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106, Japan
Tel/Fax: +81 (3) 5410-4409/4407

SUBJECT: Liaison Report - Summary of the International Workshop on Ordered Intermetallic Alloys and Composites (IWOIAC) in Beijing, and Visit to Aerospace Related Institutes and Laboratories in the Peoples Republic of China, 25 Jun - 11 Jul 95


ABSTRACT: Dr. Dennis Dimiduk and Capt Paul A. McQuay, in conjunction with the AOARD co-sponsored International Workshop on Ordered Intermetallic Alloys and Composites (IWOIAC) in Beijing, visited the following research labs and institutes for the purpose of establishing contacts and assessing their research activities and capabilities in the area of aerospace structural materials: Xi'an JiaoTong University; Northwest Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi'an; Northwest Institute for Non-Ferrous Metal Research (NIN), Xi'an; Institute of Metal Research (IMR), Academia Sinica, Shenyang; Shanghai JiaoTong University; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (BUAA); University of Science and Technology (UST), Beijing; Central Iron and Steel Research Institute (CISRI), Beijing; Beijing Institute of Aerospace Materials (BIAM). This visit provided the USAF with a rare opportunity to begin a multilevel dialogue with most of China's best and brightest in the area of advanced structural materials. Overall, our visits were met with interest, and nearly all of the hosts expressed the desire to collaborate with USAF labs in the future.


INTRODUCTION

The Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD), in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the US Army Research Office - Far East (ARO-FE), and the Office of Naval Research, co sponsored the International Workshop on Ordered Intermetallic Alloys and Composites. Prof. Guo L. Chen, of the University of Science and Technology, Beijing, was the Chairman of the conference, along with Dr. C. T. Liu, of ORNL, and Prof Steve Sass of Cornell University, as Co-Chairman.

AOARD and WL/MLLM saw this conference as a unique opportunity to meet with many of the major research groups in aerospace structural materials in China, in hopes of beginning a foundation for a future relationship. Although current US-Sino relations make such a relationship difficult, we feel this visit provided an opportunity to prepare for the future, and to make an assessment of their interests and activities today.

With the generous help of Dr. C.T. Liu, Dr. Dimiduk and I were able to visit 9 leading Chinese universities and research institutes following the conclusion of the conference.


1. BACKGROUND

In China, universities, research institutes, and production facilities are vertically integrated within given ministries. For aerospace materials for example, there are at least three relevant ministries, the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metals, and the Ministry of Aerospace; in addition to the Education Commission and the Chinese National Science Foundation (Academy of Sciences). These ministries effectively own the entire program.
To a large extent the ministries dictate the scope of the curriculum at the universities and provide essentially the only source of funding (outside of "private" enterprise) for the universities in their ministry. Proposals are permitted to go to the Chinese NSF; however, the competition for these funds is too stiff for this to be a significant funding source for any but a few institutes. However, all of the universities have some limited production facilities which turn profits over the university to fund research etc. For example, several of the universities we visited had production facilities for superalloy turbine airfoils which were sold to the engine manufacturers for profit.
The research institutes are somewhat parallel operations to corporate research laboratories in the U. S. of say a decade or more ago. These institutes carry out fundamental research (an all but gone entity in US corporate labs.) and actually confer graduate degrees, with a graduating class each year. They also support post doctoral and visiting scientists. While doing this, they also develop products and demonstrate at least pilot-plant production readiness of new technologies. The research and product scope of these institutes can be rather broad, as evidenced by the commercial abrasives, batteries, and birth control devices which were in production with the Ministry of Metallurgical Industries at a few of these institutes. In these cases the institutes have full production of products and turn a profit to support themselves. Again, they are constrained to operate principally within their Ministry for core research funding.
Although the universities and research laboratories under each functional ministry would appear to narrowly focused at first glance, in practice, they are fairly diverse. As an example, although there is a Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metals, which has the responsibility for Ti, Zr, and other reactive and refractory metals, the Metallurgical Ministry which is primarily concerned with steel, also conducts research on non-Fe superalloys, titanium alloys and intermetallic alloys. There are many other examples of this, which appears to have created some competition in China's normally rather insulated market.
There appears to be very little "cross talk" between the ministries, consequently there is redundancy in the topics covered and a significant degree of "not invented here" syndrome. The individuals are encouraged to take "cradle to grave" command of technologies. Students are able to obtain patent rights to inventions and even have their theses kept out of public access if necessary. However, an exception to this is that for flight qualification of aerospace materials technologies, everything must go through the Beijing Institute for Aerospace Materials (BIAM). This provides a critical "trump-card" that all other research centers must be able to beat to get their products into service, and gives BIAM and inside view of emerging developments. However, individuals are expected to take ownership of things they invent and be the champions for them in getting through BIAM.
The institutes have recently been building the instrumentation capabilities through World Bank loans. These funds are available somewhat independent of the research funds, although still difficult to get. Clearly some institutes have better access to these funds than others. When "Key State Laboratories" were identified a year or so ago, the respective ministries were encouraged by the education commission to invest heavily in these. In some cases this has clearly occurred, but certainly not in all cases.


2. WORKSHOP SUMMARY

25-30 Jun 95, Int'l Workshop on Ordered Intermetallic Alloys and Composites (IWOIAC), Mi Yun Yun Hu Holiday Resort, Beijing Co-Sponsored by AOARD, DOE, ARO-FE, and ONR
IWOIAC was a resounding success from several viewpoints: scientific exchange; building contacts and relationships; learning more about China's interests, activities, and capabilities. Technically, the workshop attracted nearly 30 of the leading scientists in the US, Europe, and Japan, and over 20 leading scientists from China, making the technical program a valuable, thought provoking workshop for all involved.
The workshop was one of the first formal introductions between scientists from the USAF, and China in the field of structural materials. During the workshop, Capt. McQuay was invited to give a twenty minute introduction to AOARD, it's mission and programs. Dr. Dennis Dimiduk of the Air Force Wright Laboratory Materials Directorate presented a review of the AF research program in the area of Advanced High Temperature Intermetallics, and Dr. Young-Won Kim, an on-site contractor from Dr. Dimiduk's group, gave a presentation reviewing progress on titanium aluminide alloys.
Additionally, discussions were held with Chinese scientists from over 10 different universities and research institutes. These contacts were followed up during the liaison tour of 9 institute and university laboratories which are described below. Technical highlights from the conference may be obtained by contacting Dr. D M Dimiduk of Wright Laboratory, WL/MLLM.


3. SUMMARY OF SITE VISITS

3 JUL 95, XI'AN JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY
Primary Host: Professor Jia Wen He, Director of State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Xi'an JiaoTong University is one of China's most prestigious national universities in science and engineering. Originally part of the Shanghai JiaoTong University, it was created in Xi'an as the first "inland" Chinese university, in an attempt by Chairman Mao to move vital S&T;assets away from the Chinese coastline. It remains the only major university in China which is not near the coastline.
We met with 8-10 professors and over 15 graduate students from the Department of Material Science and Engineering and the Structural Mechanics Department. We reviewed their research program, toured several laboratories, and provided an introduction to AOARD and WL/ML.
As the site for China's Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, JiaoTong has one of the strongest programs in crack growth, fatigue and impact damage of structural materials. They are heavily involved in surface engineering and coatings, including residual stress analysis and control (principally for ferrous materials at present and including biaxial stress studies), as well as abradable seals for aircraft engines. They are very interested in correlating surface properties to the fatigue behavior of components in a quantitative way.
The Department of Structural Mechanics also is recognized as having a world-class program on vibration and passive and active vibration control. They are beginning a focused program on aging aircraft and life prediction, including damage tolerant design. Much of these efforts will be devoted to polymer matrix composites as well as metals. They have and active program in vibration and damping for space and rocket structures.
The university has a ceramics division which produces boron carbide reactor control rods. They are also becoming active in permanent magnets technology. JiaoTong also is the home for another Key Laboratory, Multi Phase (aerodynamic) Flow, in the Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics.


3 JUL 95, NORTHWEST INSTITUTE FOR NON-FERROUS METAL RESEARCH (NIN)
Primary Host: Professor Zhou Lian, Vice President of NIN
Because of our tight schedule, and being invited to visit NIN at the IWOIAC in Beijing the previous week, our visit to NIN consisted of a working dinner with about 8 professors and engineers from the institute, and the vice president of the institute, Professor Zhou Lian.
NIN is operated by the Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metals, and is primarily responsibly for developing new alloys and processes, and transferring this technology to the ministries industries. Most of our discussions with the NIN staff were regarding NIN's recent development of new titanium and titanium aluminide alloys for the aerospace industry.
NIN is also responsible, along with several government run enterprises, for the production of Ti and Zn sponge and ingot. Part of the institute and much of the sponge and ingot industry were located west of Xi'an in a remote mountainous area called Baoji, as part of a strategic plan several decades ago to remove strategic assets away from the Chinese coastline. As cold war fears and strategies are ebbing, much of the institute is now moving back to Xi'an.
Although the universities and research laboratories under each functional ministry would appear to narrowly focused at first glance, in practice, they are fairly diverse. As an example, although there is a Ministry of Non-Ferrous Metals, which has the responsibility for Ti, Zr, and other reactive and refractory metals, the Metallurgical Ministry which is primarily concerned with steel, also conducts research on non-Fe superalloys, titanium alloys and intermetallic alloys.


4 JUL 95, NORTHWEST POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY (NPU)
Primary Host: Professor Lin Liu, Deputy Head, Department of Applied Physics
Out of all of the universities we visited NPU seemed to be trying the hardest to be a "western-style" university. It sports a new campus with modern facilities. NPU belongs to the Ministry of Aviation, and is the primary aviation and space related university supported by the ministry, along with the University of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Beijing.
The Director of the International Affairs Office arranged a meeting for us with Professors and Directors of many departments at the university, including Materials Science and Engineering, and Aeronautics and Astronautics.
As would be expected, the emphasis at the university is on applied science and engineering. NPU is the home for three State Key Laboratories in the area of materials: Solidification; Alloy Development; and Metal and Ceramic Matrix Composites. Some of the programs of interest in these laboratories include: nickel-based superalloys, including directionally solidified and single-crystal casting technology, and grain refinement technology for casting polycrystalline blades; casting process modeling; non-burning Ti alloy development; TiAl alloy development; Al-Li alloy modification and processing; directional solidification of magnetic materials; and development and production of metallic and ceramic matrix composites and C/C composites.
Work at this and many of the other universities is not restricted solely to R&D,;but also includes production of parts such as advanced turbine and compressor blades, which are purchased by industry.
The university also has a strong program in Astronautics, with three State Key Laboratories: Rocket Engines, Flights Dynamics and Aero Structures. Highlights in these laboratories include steady and unsteady combustion instability, x-ray real-time burn instrumentation, engine monitoring and control technology, engine design and optimization, and advanced CFD for airframes and engines. They also perform research in rocket design and GPS systems. They have a strong interest in 2-D and 3 D computational fluid dynamics for combustion paths in rocket engines and are investing in this area.


5 JUL 95, SHANGHAI JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY, SHANGHAI
Primary Host: Professor Donliang Lin, Director of Institute of Materials Science and Engineering
Our primary host for the visit was to be Professor Lin, whom we met at the IWOIAC workshop in Beijing, but unfortunately he was out of the country during our visit. Professor Da Chen, a member of his institute graciously hosted our visit and discussions. In addition to Professor Lin, we met with 4 or 5 graduate students in the group which are involved in research into advanced intermetallic alloys.
The primary focus of the group has been on the M3Al, where M is a metal such as Fe, Ni, or Ti. Several students are also working on other aluminide alloys such as TiAl. Approximately 30% of the groups research is applied, while the remainder is basic research. Their laboratories are well equipped to work a variety of problems the group is engaged in: from a 20 kg induction skull melter, large forging press, etc., with which to conduct alloy/processing/microstructure development; to several high resolution transmission electron microscopes for conducting research on the deformation mechanisms and microstructural interactions in aluminide alloys.
Professor Lin's group has been instrumental in developing several alloys which are currently being used in industrial applications in China. The most successful alloy in these industrial application is Fe3Al, which is being used to fabricate pipes and tubes for petrochemical refining, and also for racks and other fixtures in heat treatment furnaces, rolling mills, etc. They are also investigating the superplastic behavior and formability of several intermetallic alloys.


7 JUL 95, INSTITUTE OF METAL RESEARCH (IMR), ACADEMIA SINICA, SHENYANG
Primary Host: Professor Yiyi Li, Director-General, Academician of Chinese Academy of Sciences
IMR is a unique institute, being one of several institutes sponsored by Academia Sinica (also know as the Chinese Academy of Sciences), and is clearly one of, if not the premier laboratory on materials science in China. The institute is very large, patterned after the old Soviet model, with over 1,100 members, 800 of which are permanent faculty - scientists and engineers.
Like many institutes in China, it is a degree conferring body, which in addition to conducting R&D,;also has considerable production facilities. In fact, one third of the institute is devoted to manufacturing (not manufacturing research), which brings in approximately half of the institute's budget. Approximately 25% of the institute's resources come from the Academy of Sciences, and are expended towards basic research of a truly open-ended exploratory nature. The remaining 40% of resources are used for applied research, which is primarily funded through extramural contracts and manufacturing sales.
The scope of the research and development activities at IMR are quite broad. There are numerous interesting R&D;programs at IMR in both structural and functional/electronic materials. Standouts include novel high-rate RS technology, and perhaps one of only three facilities known in the world for producing nanostructured metallic materials in quantities in excess of a kilogram. This was the only institute visited which showed some computational materials science activity, though minimal. They have the key laboratory for atomic imaging of solids which includes a Hitachi HF-2000 TEM. They are specialists in hydrogen embrittlement and cryogenic materials. A State Key laboratory on fatigue and fracture in housed there.
As with many of the Chinese institutes, one of IMR's biggest challenges is in transferring viable technology to Chinese industry. While their technology is truly world-class and state-of-the-art, paying for technology remains a foreign concept to Chinese industry. So instead of selling the technology, IMR is often forced to produce and sell the actual hardware. Hence, IMR currently operates numerous small production factories and is active in numerous joint ventures.

10 JUL 95 BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS (BUAA)
Primary Host: Professor Cui Deyu, Director, Division of Aeronautics and Astronautics
BUAA is sponsored by the Ministry of Aviation. The university was established in 1952 with considerable assistance from the Soviet Union, and was patterned somewhat after the Moscow Institute of Aeronautics. It was a merger of eight aeronautical institutes and departs of Qinghua University and ten other universities. Recently, BUAA has branched out from it's polytech roots, and has established a School of Management, and a Flight School.
The university has been involved in a number of historic aviation events in China: developed China's first indigenous twin-prop passenger plane (1956); and developed China's first high altitude sounding rocket (1958). BUAA continues to build prototypes and even some commercial production of light aircraft, target drones, and flight simulators.
One of BUAA's strongest departments is its Department of Propulsion, which has a strong group in thermodynamics, combustion and CFD. BUAA also has a fairly strong Department of Materials Science, which is conducting considerable R&D;into upgrade Chinese technology in Polymer Matrix Composites - especially prepreg and injection molding techniques for the auto and aerospace industry. Their intent is to go into production for profit in polymeric composites, probably for automotive applications.
BUAA has fundamental research programs on intermetallics, including NiAl and TiAl. They must focus their research on aerospace applications, rather than process materials since they fall under the Ministry of Aerospace. Their TiAl program will compete with that from BIAM for applications, but is more fundamentally based since they are a university.


10 JUL 95, UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (UST), BEIJING
Primary Host: Professor G.L. Chen, Director, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials
Our visit to UST was primarily with Professor G.L. Chen, who was the Co-Organizer for the IWOIAC workshop in Beijing. UST is affiliated with the Metallurgical Ministry, and used to be known as the University of Iron and Steel.
Professor Chen's Laboratory has 3 main research groups: structural materials; functional materials (magnetics); and environmental effects. His laboratory is impressively equipped with a number of new processing and testing facilities, most of which are funded through the Key Laboratory program, although most of the operational expenses and some of the salaries are paid via outside contracts, of which he currently has over 20. The is a large emphasis on multi-disciplinary teams working novel projects, and approximately 2/3 of the laboratory staff are temporary (domestic or international visiting scientists, post doctoral, etc.), brought in to work a specific project.
Prof. Chen's laboratory has a long history of research on Ni-based superalloys. His laboratory also began research on nickel-aluminide based intermetallic alloys more than 8 years ago. UST is also active in the manufacture and sales of superalloy vanes and blades to Chinese industry, and lately Prof. Chen's group has been examining creep and fatigue interactions, and life prediction for gas turbine power generators and exhaust gas generators, where long life-times are a must.


11 JUL 95, CENTRAL IRON AND STEEL RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CISRI), BEIJING
Primary Host: Professor Di Feng, Director, Dept. of Superalloys
CISRI is the research institute for the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, with a staff of just over 2,000. As the name implies, CISRI is primarily devoted to research, development, application and limited production of steel products. However, CISRI is also active in other metal systems such as superalloys, refractory alloys, intermetallic alloys, and other functional and electronic metal-based systems.
In superalloys, they are involved in the R&D;and production of Fe, Ni, and Co-based superalloys, in the wrought, cast and PM (or ODS) forms. In cast superalloys, this includes polycrystalline, directionally solidified (DS) and single crystal turbine blades and vanes.
They have also developed a titanium aluminide Alpha-2 alloy which is to undergo engine testing as a middle compressor vane, fabricated by superplastic forming techniques. They also are interested in developing a ring-rolled Alpha-2 compressor case. CISRI is currently conducting diesel engine tests for a cast gamma TiAl turbo charger rotor, but have no immediate plans for gamma turbine engine components.
Perhaps their most interesting project to apply an intermetallic alloy to the turbine engine is their development of a DS Ni3Al turbine vane, which they believe has better high temperature capability and lower cost than their conventional superalloy vanes. This alloy composition is different than the Ni3Al alloy being developed by BIAM for the same application: the CISRI alloy is a single phase DS alloy, whereas the BIAM alloy is a two phase alloy containing approximately 10-15% of the gamma Ni phase. CISRI anticipates that their single phase alloy will have superior creep resistance over the BIAM alloy.


11 JUL 95, BEIJING INSTITUTE OF AEROSPACE MATERIALS (BIAM), BEIJING
Primary Host: Professor Bocao Lin, Director General of BIAM
BIAM is one of the largest research institutes in China with a staff of over 2,700 employees, of which nearly 1,200 are engineers and scientists. It's size is remarkable in light of it's primary focus as the only institute under the Ministry of Aviation and the Aviation Industries of China (AVIC).
The institute has 22 laboratories, including the National Key Laboratory of Advanced Composites. BIAM operates 13 small to medium size aerospace materials production lines, and some 20 jointly owned factories. In addition to it's own research, development and production of aerospace materials, BIAM also has the role of central administration for standards of aeronautical materials and processes. This puts BIAM in the enviable position of administering the application of new materials in the industry, while at the same time being a major competitor with other universities, laboratories and institutes (such as CISRI) in this same field.
BIAM was also patterned closely off of FSU laboratories and institutes, and still has very close working relationships with them. In fact, the Director of BIAM, Professor Lin, is an Academician of the Russian Academy of Engineering.
BIAM's processing and production capabilities and equipment are impressive for a research institute, having the capability to not only research new alloys and processes, but take them through to limited production in such areas as conventional, DS and single crystal investment casting, isothermal forging, PM fabrication, and superplastic forming technology.
One area of interest is their development work on burn-resistant Ti alloys, based on the FSU Ti-Cu-Al-type alloys. Most of their work on intermetallics center on Ti3Al and Ni3Al alloys, several of which are being evaluated via engine tests. Although these systems only offer nominal improvements over conventional Ni and Ti systems (at least compared with Western alloy systems), there is evidently sufficient payoff in current Chinese designs to warrant their investment. Their expertise in polymer matrix composite fabrication appears to be equally impressive.
The Key Laboratory on Advanced Composites is reportedly the most advanced composites laboratory and production facility in China. Although the laboratory in the past primarily purchased prepregs, resins and other composite materials abroad, they have opened several small pilot plants for producing their own fibers, resins and prepregs. They produce a variety of complex structural parts, using state-of-the-art thermoset and thermoplastic composite systems.
Director Lin seemed very interested in potential future collaboration with the USAF Materials Directorate.


SUMMARY

China appears to be making systematic improvements in their scientific infrastructure for structural-materials research. They are performing basic research which is of world-wide interest, notably in the areas of intermetallics and nanocrystalline materials. On the surface, engineering development in high-temperature materials for aerospace systems is appears to lag behind western standards, although the approaches and objectives are significantly different than in the west. China may well lead the west in the use of intermetallic alloys as functional or process materials. Surprisingly, computational materials science techniques do not yet appear to have a measurable role in materials research, even though numerous Chinese nationals are trained in this field annually in the United States.

Further technical details regarding any of these visits may be obtained by contacting Dr. Dimiduk or Capt. McQuay directly at the follow addresses:

Dr. Dennis M. Dimiduk, Group Leader for Structural Materials, Wright Laboratory, Materials Directorate, WL/MLLM, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7817, USA Tel/Fax: (513)-255-9839/3007; e-mail: [email protected]

Paul A. McQuay, Capt., USAF Science Liaison Officer, Asian Office of Aerospace R&D;(AOARD) US Address: Unit 45002, APO AP 96337-0007, Int'l Address: 7-23-17 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 106, Japan. Tel/Fax: +81 (3) 5410-4409/4407; e-mail: [email protected]




*** APPENDIX: CONTACTS IN CHINA ***


XI'AN JIAOTONG UNIVERSITY


Professor Jia-Wen He
Director
State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3269071/3237910
email: [email protected]

Assoc Prof Guo Wanlin
Deputy Director
State Key Laboratory of Structural Strength and Vibration
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3268751/3237910

Professor Zhen-Bang Kuang
Head
Institute for Engineering Mechanics
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3268750/3237910

Professor Shen Ya-Peng
Head
Department of Engineering Mechanics
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3268751/3237910

Professor Kewei Xu
Vice Director
National Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Metallic Materials
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Vice Dean, College of Materials Science and Engineering
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3268915/3237910

Professor Xu Jian-Xue
Director
Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Faculty of Architecture Engineering and Mechanics
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3268751/3237910
email: stchen%[email protected]


Asst Prof Bryan C. Hendrix
State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an 710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3269071/3237910
email: [email protected]


Professor Mao-Hong Yu
Director, School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics
Xian Jiaotong University
Faculty of Architecture Engineering and Mechanics
Xian
710049
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-3239424/3237910




THE NW INSTITUTE FOR NONFERROUS METAL RESEARCH, XI'AN AND BAOJI


Professor Zhou Lian
Vice-President
Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN)
P.O. Box 51
Xi'an 710016
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-6231101/6231103


Mr. Cai Xuezhang
Sr. Engineer
Ti-Alloy Laboratory
Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN)
P.O. Box 71
Baoji 721014
China
Tel/Fax: +86-917-382239, ext 643/917-382001


Professor Han Chuanxi
Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN)
P.O. Box 71
Baoji 721014
China
Tel/Fax: +86-917-412239 or 413983/917-412001

Professor Deng Ju
Director
Titanium Alloy Research Center
Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN)
P.O. Box 51
Xi'an 710015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-6231078/6231103


Mr. Zhu Yubin
Sr. Engr
Titanium Alloy Research Center
Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research (NIN)
P.O. Box 51
Xi'an 710015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-6231078/6231103



NORTHWESTERN POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, XI'AN


Professor Xiaoyan Tung
Director, Science and Technology Division
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Aircraft Engine Department
Xi'an
710072
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-4253406/5253406


Professor He Ming
Dept of Materials Science
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi'an
710072
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-5255911, 2643/5250199


Donghong Lui
Interpreter
Dept of Materials Science
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi'an
710072
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-5251491, 2267/5250199


Professor Timin Cai
College of Astronautics
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi'an
710072
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-5253351, 3406/5250199


Professor Jiesheng Jiang
Director, Office of Foriegn Academic Exchange Affairs
Deputy Director, Institute of Vibration Engineering Research
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi'an
710072
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-5251491/5250199


Professor Lin Lui
Deputy Head, Department of Applied Physics
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi'an
710072
China
Tel/Fax: +86-29-5253351, 3154/5250199



INSTITUTE FOR METAL RESEARCH ACADEMIA SINICA, SHENYANG


Professor Gui-Wen Qiao
Deputy Director
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang
110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-3843124, ext. 55722/3891320


Professor Guo Jian Ting
Director
Department of Superalloy and Special Casting
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang 110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-383531, ext. 493/3891320

Professor Yiji Li
Director General
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang 110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-3843204, ext. 493/3891320

Professor Zhuang-Qi Hu
Director
State Key Laboratory of Rapidly Solidified Nonequilibrium Alloys
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang 110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-3843531, ext. 55821/3891320

Professor Huiming Cheng
Professor
Carbon Based Materials
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang 110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-3843531, ext. 55321/3891320


Professor Ke Yang
Vice Dept Head
Department for Technological Development
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang 110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-383533, ext. 55445/3891320


Professor Dong-Sheng Xu
Institute of Metal Research Academia Sinica
72 Wenhua Road
Shenyang 110015
China
Tel/Fax: +86-24-3843531, ext. 55377/3891320



SHANGHAI JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY


Professor Dongliang Lin
Director
Institute of Materials Science and Engineering
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
1954 Hua Shan Road
Shanghai 200030
China
Tel/Fax: +86-21-4310310, ext 2544/4330892


Professor Da Chen
Professor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
1954 Hua Shan Road
Shanghai 200030
China
Tel/Fax: +86-21-4310310, ext 2544/4330892



BEIJING INSTITUTE OF AERONAUTICAL MATERIALS (BIAM)


Professor Chenggong Li
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81
Beijing 100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2552983/2546772


Professor Ma Jimin
Vice Chief Engr
Head of Titanium Department
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81-15
Beijing 100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2552983/2558529


Professor Yafang Han
Director, The Science and Technology Committee
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81
Beijing
100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2556622, 2009/2546772


Professor Bocao Liu
Director General
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81
Beijing 100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2541475/2546772


Professor Minggao Yan
Dean
Graduate School
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81
Beijing 100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2523485/2546772


Mr. Fusheng Sun
Sr. Engineer
Titanium Alloys Laboratory
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81
Beijing 100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2556622/2558529


Ms. Guorong Li
Deputy Director, Sr. Interpreter
Foreign Affairs Office
Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials (BIAM)
P.O. Box 81
Beijing 100095
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2556622/2558529



UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, BEIJING


Professor Guo Liang Chen
Director
State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals
University of Science and Technology, Beijing (UST)
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Beijing 100083
China
Tel/Fax: +86-2019944, ext. 2205/2017283


Professor Zu Qing Sun
Vice President
University of Science and Technology, Beijing (UST)
No 30 Xueyuan Road
Beijing 100083
China
Tel/Fax: +86-2019944, ext. 3113/2017283



BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS


Assoc Prof Liang Zhiyong
Vice-Director
Beijing Polymer Matrix Composite Laboratory
Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Beijing 100083
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2017251, ext. 7684/2028356


Professor Y.G. Zhang
Professor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Beijing 100083
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2017251, ext. 7834/2015347


Professor Cui Deyu
Director
Division of International Academic Exchange
Professor, Solid Mechanics
Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Beijing 100083
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2017251, ext. 7582/2015347


Professor C.Q. Chen
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
37 Xueyauan Road
Haidian District
Beijing 100083
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2017251, ext. 834/2015347



CENTRAL IRON AND STEEL RESEARCH INSTITUTE


Mr. Wenxing Wang
Vice Director and Sr. Engr
Foreign Affairs Office
Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
Ministry of Metallurgical Industry
No. 76 Xueyuan Nan Lu
Haidian District
Beijing 100081
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2181046 or 2182504/2181004, or 2181018

Professor Di Fang
Vice Director and Sr. Engr
Department of Superalloy
Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
Ministry of Metallurgical Industry
No. 76 Xueyuan Nan Lu
Haidian District
Beijing 100081
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2182557/8321136

Professor Zengyong Zhong
Director, Research Department
Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
No 76 Xueyuan Road
Beijing
100081
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2182337/2181018

Professor Jia-Hua Sun
Vice Director and Sr. Engr
Department of Superalloy
Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
Ministry of Metallurgical Industry
No. 76 Xueyuan Nan Lu
Haidian District
Beijing 100081
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-8312255, ext 2337/8321136 or 8312144

Professor Shiquiong Li
Vice Director and Sr. Engr
Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
Ministry of Metallurgical Industry
No. 76 Xueyuan Nan Lu
Haidian District
Beijing 100081
China
Tel/Fax: +86-10-2182456, ext 3/8321136 or 2181018