Title: "Russia's Kozyrev Urges Permanent Extension of NPT." Collection of remarks by Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev and representatives from other nations regarding the
extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). (950424)
RUSSIA'S KOZREV URGES PERMANENT EXTENSION OF NPT (NPT Excerpts: Review Conference general debate) (1960) United Nations -- Arguing for the unconditional and indefinite extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Russian Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrev said April 24 that a permanent treaty will ensure "a progressive movement toward a world free of nuclear weapons."
In his address during the NPT conference general debate, Kozyrev also pressed for a consensus decision on the treaty's future. But failing a consensus decision, he said, the vote must be open in order to further "a broad mutual trust which has become one of the most important gains of the NPT."
"It is each government's duty to openly and unequivocally state its position in its vote," the Russian minister said.
As the NPT conference entered its second week, more than 90 representatives of states parties had addressed the plenary and work began in the three main committees.
During the general debate several proposals have been advanced for the extension of the treaty and strengthening the review and implementation process. Nongovernmental organizations have counted five options proposed for the treaty's extension: indefinite (which has the largest number of supporters); a single fixed period (proposed by Nigeria); a rollover of 25 years with options for further extension (proposed by Venezuela); a rolling extension of successive, but as yet unspecified, fixed periods (proposed by Indonesia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea); and suspension of the conference to be reconvened at a later date (suggested by Egypt and Syria).
Following are excerpts from the speeches on April 21 and April 24: Russian Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrev: "The treaty has become a most important barrier in the way of dissemination of nuclear weapons. There are still five nuclear powers. The provisions of the treaty have become inalienable norms of both international law and civilized behavior on the international arena nobody can afford to ignore...."
"The NPT has become an appreciable factor in the strengthening of regional stability. One can imagine what would happen in the areas of local conflicts in the absence of the treaty....
"No other thing in the treaty has been engendering more heated debates than the obligation envisaged in it with regard to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and nuclear disarmament.
"The answer we, together with other states, give to any doubts and questions in this respect is unequivocal: the nuclear arms race has been stopped and put in reverse. It is an indisputable fact....Russia is committed to the final goal of complete elimination of nuclear arms."
"...Among the major landmarks on the road to nuclear disarmament is the prohibition for all time of nuclear tests. Relevant multilateral talks have started and are successfully underway in Geneva. An indefinite, universal treaty subject to effective international verification is within reach. Russia stands for signing it as early as this year. It continues to adhere to its moratorium on nuclear tests, which has been repeatedly extended."
"...Another pressing issue: a ban on the production of fissile materials for nuclear weapons. A program is underway in Russia for the shut-down of the remaining facilities which previously produced plutonium for weapons. What is being manufactured is not used for these purposes. We stopped the production of weapons-grade uranium a few years ago. We will actively work on the ad hoc committee of the Conference on Disarmament established to negotiate the issue to start its work as soon as possible."
"...Russia firmly stands for an indefinite and unconditional extension of the treaty. There is a historic opportunity to do it now, and it would be inexcusable to miss it.
"To reject such an extension of the treaty means demolishing the foundation of international stability. In a world where the logic of the nuclear arms race was defeated not so long ago, this would be an inadmissible recoil.
"On the contrary to impart to the treaty a permanent basis, to point it to the future means to guarantee an increase in all the positive the NPT has rendered.
"I would like to especially underline that the indefinite extension of the NPT is not a mandate for an indefinite possession by the nuclear powers of their nuclear arsenals. It is a perspective of a progressive movement toward a world free of nuclear weapons."
Ambassador Rex S. Horoi, head of the Solomon Islands delegation: "Solomon Islands believes that the success of the conference on the extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) will be judged not only by a decision that the parties make to extend the treaty but also by the demonstrated political will of the parties to implement the treaty, including Article VI, and to reform and strengthen the global nuclear non-proliferation regime.
"While the NPT has proven to be an invaluable tool in stemming the proliferation of nuclear weapons, it is not sufficient to extend the NPT indefinitely without wholehearted support by a broad consensus. Both the treaty itself, and the commitments toward disarmament required to achieve its goals, merit the affirmation of the conference by overwhelming votes, freely given. The security of the international community demands no less."
Horoi called for the elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles, a test ban treaty, safeguards on fissile material from dismantled weapons, a ban on production of fissile material, no first use and negative security assurances, and improved non-proliferation safeguards. "If these commitments are made during this conference, there will be a basis for overwhelming, wholehearted support for an indefinite extension," he said.
"Solomon Islands endorses the indefinite extension of the NPT and in so doing places its trust in the commitment of the nuclear weapons states to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to disarmament...."
Ambassador Inal Batu of Turkey: "The problem of nuclear weapons proliferation is increasingly preoccupying the agenda of many governments. The NPT, which constitutes the main building block of the international non-proliferation regime, is the most widely supported multilateral arms control agreement yet concluded. It has positively contributed to the process of international security and arms control. The NPT has long proven its value in safeguarding international peace, strengthening the security of states, and promoting international cooperation on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Turkey hold the view that strict adherence to its provisions is of crucial importance...."
"Turkey supports the indefinite and unconditional extension of the NPT. This choice is based on our belief that the main objectives of the treaty, with regard to both strengthening the non-proliferation regime and nuclear disarmament can only be achieved through a permanent NPT. It is evident that the NPT can attain its goals only if it is universal and permanent. We sincerely believe that a universally adhered and indefinitely extended NPT will strengthen international peace and security."
Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati: "Shortcomings in the implementation of the treaty by nuclear weapons states and other nuclear advanced countries does not...lay grounds for a strictly limited extension, as this may lead to its eventual termination. A call for its permanence implies, on the other hand, permanence of nuclear weapons states -- at least as long as negotiations on elimination of all nuclear weapons are absent on the international disarmament agenda.
"What is most significant here, in the meantime, is to arrive at a consensus extension agreement which logically lies between the two extremities. Such a decision can only be arrived in an atmosphere of mutual trust and cooperation free from any political and economic pressures aimed at imposing a specific extension option on states parties. Anything short of this means adoption of an option which lacks moral authority and collective will of states parties...."
"The compelling momentum generated and the opportunity afforded by this unique gathering should not be allowed to slip away. The NPT remains, in our view, a legal instrument of paramount importance for the maintenance of international peace and security to which we lend our full support for its extension. It is incumbent upon us all, in particular nuclear weapons states to ensure the success of the conference. Our collective political will will enable us to achieve this noble goal and to establish a solid non-proliferation regime."
Lithuanian Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys: "Regional security issues are a priority concern for Lithuania. We note with great satisfaction the accession of Kazakhstan, Ukraine and our neighbor, Belarus, to the NPT as non-nuclear weapon states. However, we feel that the new political and security realities associated with the end of the Cold War require more attention and decisiveness. Lithuania as other countries of Central and Eastern Europe have found themselves in a security vacuum. It would be a mistake to ignore these and other concerns, which we believe affect the broader arms control and disarmament question. The underlying causes of nuclear proliferation and the arms race must be taken into account in order for the process to be effective. "Uncertainty, be it over the future of the treaty or regarding security assurances, could harm the security interests of all. For this reason, we feel the NPT requires permanence and that is why Lithuania will support the indefinite and unconditional extension of the NPT, the cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and a pillar of global security in the 21st century...."
"Lithuania is dependent on nuclear energy. One of the biggest power plants in the world, Ignalina, is located on our territory. Therefore, we feel that our efforts to stop proliferation should not at the same time prevent non-nuclear weapon states to develop civilian nuclear activities. We recognize the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and welcome assistance in the area of nuclear safety and other nuclear cooperation projects."
"...We fully share the view of many other states that a weakened non-proliferation regime would place the world in danger. Given the fact that the NPT has been able to garner such broad-based support, bringing together nuclear and non-nuclear weapon states, countries large and small with different political systems and levels of economic development, Lithuania believes that indefinite and unconditional extension of the NPT would serve the security needs of all states."
Ambassador Wilfred Kendall of the Marshall Islands: "...my delegation is very concerned with the potential for so-called 'horizontal' proliferation. We appeal on the one hand to those countries on the threshold to becoming nuclear weapons states to follow the example of South Africa. A free, democratic, and non-racially divided South Africa has shown the international community that it is possible to make peace between hitherto bitter enemies and to co-exist peacefully with one's neighbors. On the other hand we appeal to those states outside the NPT regime to accede to the treaty and the safeguards currently provided and to work with us to comprehensively improve on the regime.
"...it is a key concern to my government that there is a lack of safe waste depositories anywhere in the world. It is a worrying problem that so little attention is given to the disposal of the waste resulting from the dismantling of civilian reactors and military weapons, let alone the nuclear contamination in our islands. We believe that this conference should review article IV.2 with a view to finding a way to help us clean up radioactive contamination around the globe....
"My delegation fully supports an indefinite extension of the NPT, but we would like to see more work done on the following areas of concern: 1. Strengthening of the IAEA safeguards regime. 2. A comprehensive test ban treat. 3. A cessation in the production of fissionable nuclear materials. 4. Enhanced disarmament measures to be undertaken by the nuclear weapons states, with further assurances to be given to the non-nuclear weapons states."