Cooperative Threat Reduction Status
The CTR program has accomplished much in its first nine years and has played a substantive role in achieving U.S. national security objectives and promoting global stability. Many of the program's achievements were unthinkable less than a decade ago; yet tangible results can be delineated for each program objective. The following lists the major accomplishments of the program to date. The CTR Program has helped make fundamental changes to the political and strategic landscape of the former Soviet Union. Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine have acceded to the Non-Proliferation Treaty as non-nuclear weapons states.
In Ukraine, the CTR Program assistance has included:
- Ukraine, which once had the potential to become the third largest nuclear power, became a non-nuclear weapons state in June 1996. Ukraine is nuclear weapons-free; 20 SS-19s have been destroyed and 62 silos have been eliminated.
- Kazakhstan is completely free of nuclear weapons; 104 SS-18 ICBMs have been removed from their launchers and returned to Russia. CTR assistance helped Kazakhstan become a non-nuclear weapons state in April of 1995;
- Belarus is nuclear weapons-free; all 81 SS-25 mobile ICBMs and their associated nuclear warheads have been withdrawn to Russia safely and securely. Belarus became a non-nuclear weapons state in November 1996.
In Belarus, CTR assistance has led to:
- safe return of 1900 strategic nuclear warheads to Russia;
- providing equipment which enabled the early deactivation of the 460 warheads from 46 SS-24 ICBMs;
- providing 58 intermodal tank containers for defueling and transporting oxidizer, and providing a facility capable of storing 3,810 metric tons of fuel from the 110 SS-19 ICBMs at Khmelnitskiy and Pervomaysk;
- eliminating 111 SS-19 ICBMs at the CTR-provided SS-19 Neutralization and Dismantlement facility;
- eliminating 144 SS-19 ICBM silos by providing equipment and an integrating contractor for SS-19 dismantlement tasks;
- constructing 261 houses at the Pervomaysk ICBM base and 605 apartments at the Khmelnitskiy ICBM base to demobilize the equivalent of more than six Strategic Rocket Forces regiments;
- eliminating 6 of 51 SS-24 ICBM and launch control silos, and 55 SS-24 missiles.
- eliminating 3 heavy bombers
The CTR Program has assisted Kazakhstan by:
- safe return of 81 SS-25 ICBM and associated warheads to Russia;
- establishing an analytical chemistry laboratory and equipping an AN-26 aircraft with remote sensing equipment to help restore the environment at former Strategic Rocket Forces facilities and sites.
The CTR Program has assisted Russia to accelerate strategic offensive arms elimination to START levels, by:
- safe return of 1400 strategic nuclear warheads and 104 SS-18 ICBMs, as well as their support equipment to Russia;
- eliminating 147 ICBM (mostly SS-18) silo launchers, launch control centers and test silos located at Zhangiz-Tobe, Derzhavinsk, Semipalatinsk and Leninsk;
- closing and sealing 178 of 181 nuclear weapons test tunnels at the Degelen Mountain Test Tunnel Complex and 13 vertical test bore holes at Balapan;
- providing equipment and services to dismantle 7 heavy bombers.
CTR has enhanced the security, control, accounting and storage of nuclear weapons and fissile materials in Russia by:
- providing equipment and services to help eliminate 258 SLBM launchers;
- providing equipment and services to help dismantle 50 ICBM silos;
- providing equipment and services to dismantle 42 heavy bombers;
- assisting in the disposal of 100,000 metric tons of liquid propellant from ballistic missiles;
- providing equipment and services which resulted in the elimination of 119 SS-11s, 10 SS-17s, 116 SS-18s, and 13 SS-19 ICBMs, along with 30 SLBMS;
- assisting in the destruction of 160 SLBM launchers.
The CTR Program has helped to initiate and accelerate Russia's chemical and biological weapons destruction program by:
- providing design, equipment, training, materials and construction services associated with the construction of a 25,000 container fissile material storage facility at Mayak. The main storage building is enclosed.
- delivering over 26,000 fissile material containers to Mayak;
- delivering 4,000 kevlar ballistic blankets which are used to enhance the protective capability of nuclear weapons containers and vehicles while nuclear weapons are in transport;
- providing 150 supercontainers for physical and ballistic protection of nuclear weapons during transport;
- providing computers and associated training to enhance MOD's capability to account for and track nuclear warheads;
- delivering 117 railcar conversion kits (100 cargo, 15 guard and two prototypes) to enhance the physical security of warheads and nuclear weapons in transit;
- delivering emergency support equipment to enhance the Russian capability to respond to potential accidents involving nuclear weapons. Five mobile response complexes have been delivered.
To ensure assistance provided under the CTR Program is used as intended, CTR agreements include provisions for the United States to conduct audits and examinations (A&Es) of the assistance provided. Through 22 October,1999 28 A&Es have been conducted in Russia, 22 in Ukraine, 14 in Belarus, and 12 in Kazakhstan, for a total of 76. The total volume of assistance audited by these A&Es was over $599 million. Detailed annual reports of these activities are submitted to Congress. To date, all A&Es have been successfully completed and results continue to indicate that DoD assistance is being properly utilized, accounted for, and maintained. After some initial difficulties in coming to agreement on A&E procedures with the recipient countries, A&Es have become a routine and regular part of the CTR Program. At least one A&E per month is scheduled through the year 2001.
Through defense and military contacts, the United States educates FSU military staffs on the role and functions of the military in western society. These activities are an important component of the effort to expand the domain in which U.S. security interests coincide, rather than conflict, with those of the recipient states. Through September 30, 1999, 432 contacts were funded in Russia, 448 in Ukraine, 163 in Kazakhstan, 59 in Belarus, 48 in Kyrgyzstan, 104 in Moldova, 77 in Georgia, 88 in Uzbekistan, and 32 in Turkmenistan.
Overall management and implementation of the program has become increasingly efficient and effective. The organized and focused structure of the management team and its ability to develop and utilize management tools to predict and respond to implementation difficulties are evident in the obligation rates for the CTR Program. As of 12 October 1999, a total of $2.1 billion has been obligated.
- delivering three mobile chemical analytical laboratories;
- working jointly with Russia to evaluate and validate the Russian two-step chemical weapons destruction process;
- developing design concepts and planning documentation to support site selection and construction approval for a CWDF at Shchuch'ye, Kurgan Region;
- developing design concepts and planning documentation to support site selection and construction approval for a Chemical Weapons Destruction facility at Shchuch'ye (Kurgan Region);
- providing assistance to eliminate a former Soviet facility designed for the production of biological weapons.
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Updated Sunday, December 12, 1999 4:39:51 PM