Press Release


Final Declaration Unanimously Adopted at CTBT Conference

VIENNA, 8 October 1999 - Ninety-two ratifying and signatory States of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) have agreed on a Final Declaration of the Conference. The Declaration was adopted by the Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which concluded today at Vienna. The purpose of the three-day meeting was to examine the extent to which the requirement for the entry into force of the Treaty had been met and to agree on measures consistent with international law to accelerate its ratification. The CTBT, which to date has been signed by 154 States and ratified by 51 signatory States, bans all nuclear explosions in all environments. To enter into force, the Treaty has to be ratified by 44 nuclear-capable States listed in the Treaty; so far, 41 of them have signed the Treaty and 26 of them have deposited instruments of ratification. The Conference was attended by over 400 representatives of 92 ratifying and signatory States, and four non-signatory States, as well as three intergovernmental organizations and 13 non-governmental organizations.

During the Conference, speakers emphasized the urgent necessity for early entry into force of the CTBT to fulfil the pledges made when the Treaty was adopted and opened for signature in September 1996. Entry into force would give fresh impetus to efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons and to the process of nuclear disarmament. Many speakers stressed the importance of universal adherence to the Treaty and of the global verification system being built up by the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). Several speakers referred to the dangers of reviving another nuclear arms race. It was also observed that unilateral self-imposed moratoria on testing could not replace a legally binding commitment through the signature and ratification of international instruments such as the CTBT. In addition to over 50 statements by ratifying and signatory States, the Conference also heard a statement from Pakistan as a non-signatory State.

Final Declaration

Ratifiers and signatory States made the following appeals and undertakings:

  • Called upon all States that had not yet signed the Treaty to sign and ratify it as soon as possible and refrain from acts that would defeat its object and purpose in the meanwhile;
  • Called upon all States that had signed but not yet ratified the Treaty, in particular those whose ratification was needed for its entry into force, to accelerate their ratification processes with a view to their early successful conclusion;
  • Recalled the fact that two States whose ratification was needed for the Treaty’s entry into force but which had not yet signed it had expressed their willingness not to delay the entry into force of the Treaty, and called upon them to fulfil those pledges;
  • Noted the fact that one State whose ratification was needed for the Treaty’s entry into force but which had not yet signed it had not expressed its intention towards the Treaty, and called upon that State to sign and ratify it so as to facilitate the entry into force of the Treaty;
  • Noted the ratification by two nuclear weapon States, and called upon the remaining three to accelerate their ratification processes with a view to their early successful conclusion;
  • Urged all States to sustain the momentum generated by the Conference by continuing to remain seized of the issue [of entry into force] at the highest political level;
  • Agreed that ratifying States would select one of their number to promote cooperation to facilitate the Treaty’s early entry into force, through informal consultations with all interested countries;
  • Urged all States to share legal and technical information and advice in order to facilitate the processes of signature, ratification and implementation by the States concerned, and upon their request. Encouraged the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO and the Secretary-General of the United Nations to support actively those efforts consistent with their respective mandates;
  • Called upon the Preparatory Commission to continue its international cooperation activities demonstrating the benefits of the application of verification technologies for peaceful purposes in accordance with the Treaty’s provisions, thus encouraging signature and ratification of the Treaty by the States concerned;
  • Appealed to all relevant sectors of civil society to raise awareness of and support for the objectives of the Treaty, as well as its early entry into force as provided for in Article XIV of the Treaty;
  • Reaffirmed their commitment to the Treaty’s basic obligations and their undertaking to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of the Treaty pending its entry into force;
  • Remained steadfast in their commitment to pursue the efforts to ensure that the Treaty’s verification regime shall be capable of meeting the verification requirements of the Treaty at entry into force, in accordance with the provisions of Treaty Article IV, and declared that they would continue to provide the support required to enable the Preparatory Commission to complete its tasks.


The following ratifying and signatory States participated in the Conference:

Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Sao Tome and Principe, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United States of America, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zambia.

Also, the following non-signatory States participated: Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Zimbabwe.

In accordance with the rules of procedure, representatives of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean, the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency attended as observers. In addition, 13 non-governmental organizations attended and, in accordance with the rules of procedure, a representative made a statement on their behalf.