23 September 1997


(Clinton Administration issues chronology) (1290)

(The following fact sheet on nuclear CTBT negotiations during the
Clinton Administration was issued by the White House on September 22.)

Chronology During Clinton Administration

March 3, 1993: Assistant to the President for National Security
Affairs (APNSA) Lake orders completion of an interagency Presidential
Review of U.S. Policy on Nuclear Testing and a Comprehensive Test Ban
Treaty (CTBT).

April 4, 1993: Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agree at the Vancouver
summit that negotiations on a multilateral nuclear test ban should
commence at an early date and that the two governments would consult
with each other accordingly.

April 23, 1993: President Clinton releases a White House statement on
advancing U.S. relations with Russia and the other New Independent
States stating his intention to begin consultations with Russia, our
allies and other states on the specific issues related to a CTBT
negotiation within the next two months.

July 3, 1993: President Clinton announces in his Saturday radio
address to the nation the conclusion of the Presidential review on
nuclear testing and a CTBT and states his intention to extend the U.S.
testing moratorium and seek to negotiate a CTBT.

August 10, 1993: The Geneva Conference on Disarmament (CD) decides to
give its Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban a mandate to begin
negotiations on a CTBT in January, 1994. The Chairman of the AHC is
authorized to proceed with intersessional consultations on the
specifics of the CTBT mandate and other issues.

October 5, 1993: China conducts first nuclear test since President
Clinton's appeal for a global moratorium. White House issues statement
regretting China's decision to resume nuclear testing.

December 16, 1993: United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) passes
resolution 48/70 by consensus supporting the multilateral negotiation
of a CTBT. This is the first time that a consensus resolution in
support of a CTBT has been adopted by the UNGA.

January 25, 1994: The CD reconvenes in Geneva and directs the Ad Hoc
Committee to negotiate intensively on a universal and multilaterally
and effectively verifiable comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty,
which would contribute effectively to the prevention of the
proliferation of nuclear weapons in all its aspects, to the process of
nuclear disarmament and therefore to the enhancement of international
peace and security. Negotiations begin in the Ad Hoc Committee.

December 15, 1994: UNGA passes resolution 49/70 by consensus
reaffirming its support for multilateral negotiations on a CTBT.

January 30, 1995: APNSA Lake announces that the President has decided
to extend the moratorium on U.S. nuclear testing until a CTBT enters
into force (assuming signature before September 30, 1996). Lake also
announces that the U.S. will withdraw its proposal for a special
"right to withdraw" from the CTBT ten years after it enters into
force, noting that the President considers the maintenance of a safe
and reliable nuclear stockpile to be a supreme national interest of
the United States.

May 11, 1995: The NPT Review and Extension Conference agrees to extend
the NPT indefinitely and without condition. The Conference adopts --
Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-Proliferation and
Disarmament -- calling for the conclusion of negotiations on a CTBT in

June 13, 1995: President Chirac announces he will resume nuclear
testing in September, conduct eight tests, to be completed by May, and
be ready to sign a CTBT in the fall of 1996. White House issues
statement regretting France's decision to resume nuclear testing.

August 11, 1995: President Clinton announces that the United States
will support a true zero yield CTBT banning any nuclear weapon test
explosion or any other nuclear explosion.

September 5, 1995: France resumes nuclear testing in the South
Pacific. White House issues a statement regretting this action.

September 14, 1995: The United Kingdom announces its support for a
zero yield CTBT.

October 20, 1995: The United States, France and the United Kingdom
release a joint statement at the United Nations and in capitals
stating their intent to sign the Protocols to the South Pacific
Nuclear Free Zone (SPNFZ) Treaty during the first half of 1996.

October 23, 1995: Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agree at Hyde Park to
work together to succeed in getting a zero yield CTBT in 1996.

December 12, 1995: United Nations General Assembly passes resolution
50/65 by consensus calling on the CD to conclude the CTBT so as to
enable its signature by the outset of the 51st session of the General

January 29, 1996: President Chirac announces the end of French nuclear
testing in the South Pacific.

February 29, 1996: Australia submits a 102-page draft CTBT text to the
CD and calls on negotiators to reach an agreement by late June.

March 19, 1996: U.N. Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appeals
to the CD to complete a global treaty banning all nuclear explosions
by June 30.

March 25, 1996: U.S., France and the UK sign three Protocols to the
South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty in Suva, Fiji.

April 11, 1996: U.S. signs Protocols I and II to the African Nuclear
Weapon Free Zone Treaty in Cairo, Egypt.

April 20, 1996: Moscow Nuclear Summit issues statement on CTBT calling
for concluding and signing the CTBT by September, 1996.

May 28, 1996: Nuclear Test Ban Ad Hoc Committee Chairman Jaap Ramaker
of the Netherlands tables a draft -- Chairman's text -- stating he had
concluded that the best way to meet the internationally agreed
deadline was to present a complete draft to show the way forward.

June 28, 1996: Chairman Ramaker tables compromise draft text at the
conclusion of the second part of the 1996 CD session. White House
releases statement by the President from Lyon, France, applauding the
compromise draft and calling on members of the CD to return to Geneva
in late July prepared to agree to forward a CTBT to the United
Nations, so that the Treaty can be approved and opened for signature
in the United States in September.

July 29, 1996: China conducts nuclear test and declares it will start
a moratorium on nuclear testing effective from July 30, 1996.

August 9, 1996: After consultations in the Ad Hoc Committee, Chairman
Ramaker announces that he has confirmed that continuing negotiations
on the draft Treaty as a whole would not likely yield further results.
Announces one modification in the draft Treaty relating to the number
of states required to approve an on-site inspection.

August 16, 1996: Nuclear Test Ban Ad Hoc Committee meets and agrees to
a report to the CD stating that -- no consensus -- could be reached
either on adopting the text of the CTBT or on formally passing it to
the CD, due to Indian objections.

August 23, 1996: Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer
announces Australia will sponsor a resolution seeking the endorsement
from the United Nations General Assembly of the CTBT and its opening
for signature at the earliest possible date.

September 10, 1996: UNGA reconvenes and votes to adopt the CTBT and
open it for signature at the earliest possible date by a vote of 158
in favor, three opposed (India, Bhutan, Libya), and five abstentions
(Cuba, Lebanon, Syria, Mauritius, Tanzania).

September 24, 1996: President Clinton is the first world leader to
sign the CTBT.

November 19, 1996: Meeting of CTBT signatory states adopted by
acclamation the Text on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission
for the CTBT Organization, developed at the CD.

November 20, 1996: Preparatory Commission convenes its first meeting
to begin the process of developing Rules of Procedure, Financial
Regulations, and other necessary measures for the future operation of
the Organization in implementing the Treaty.

September 22, 1997: President Clinton transmits the CTBT to the Senate
for advice and consent.