JOINT DECLARATION OF TWENTYTWO STATES |
PARIS, 19 NOVEMBER 1990
The Heads of State or Government of Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech
and Slovak Federal Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,
Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,
Romania, Spain, Turkey, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United
Kingdom and the United States of America
greatly welcoming the historic changes in Europe,
gratified by the growing implementation throughout Europe of
a common commitment to pluralist democracy, the rule of law and human
rights, which are essential to lasting security on the continent,
affirming the end of the era of division and confrontation which
has lasted for more than four decades, the improvement in relation among
their countries and the contribution this makes to the security of all,
confident that the signature of the Treaty on Conventional Armed
Forces in Europe represents a major contribution to the common objective
of increased security and stability in Europe, and
convinced that these developments must form part of a continuing
process of cooperation in building the structures of a more united continent,
Issue the following Declaration:
- The signatories solemnly declare that, in the new era of European
relations which is beginning, they are no longer adversaries, will build
new partnerships and extend to each other the hand of friendship.
- They recall their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations
and reaffirm all of their commitments under the Helsinki Final Act.
They stress that all of the ten Helsinki Principles are of primary significance
and that, accordingly, they will be equally and unreservedly applied,
each of them being interpreted taking into account the others. In that
context, they affirm their obligations and commitment to refrain from
the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or the
political independence of any State, from seeking to change existing
borders by threat or use of force, and from acting in any other manner
inconsistent with the principles and purposes of those documents. None
of their weapons will ever be used except in selfdefense or otherwise
in accordance with the Charter of the Untied Nations.
- They recognize that security is indivisible and that the security
of each of their countries is inextricably linked to the security of
all the States participating in the Conference on Security and Cooperation
- They undertake to maintain only such military capabilities as are
necessary to prevent war and provide for effective defense. They will
bear in mind the relationship between military capabilities and doctrines.
- They reaffirm that every State has the right to be or not to be a
party to a treaty of alliance.
- They note with approval the intensification of political and military
contacts among them to promote mutual understanding and confidence.
They welcome in this context the positive responses made to recent proposals
for new regular diplomatic liaison.
- They declare their determination to contribute actively to conventional,
nuclear and chemical arms control and disarmament agreements which enhance
security and stability for all. In particular, they call for the early
entry into force of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe
and commit themselves to continue the process of strengthening peace
in Europe through conventional arms control within the framework of
the CSCE. They welcome the prospect of new negotiations between the
United States and the Soviet Union on the reduction of their shortrange
- They welcome the contribution that confidence and securitybuilding
measures have made to lessening tensions and fully support the further
development of such measures. They reaffirm the importance of the "Open
Skies" initiative and their determination to bring the negotiations
to a successful conclusion as soon as possible.
- They pledge to work together with the other CSCE participating States
to strengthen the CSCE process so that it can make an even greater contribution
to security and stability in Europe. They recognize in particular the
need to enhance political consultations among CSCE participants and
to develop other CSCE mechanisms. They are convinced that the Treaty
on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and agreement on a substantial
new set of CSBM's, together with new patterns of cooperation in
the framework of the CSCE, will lead to increased security and thus
to enduring peace and stability in Europe.
- They believe that the preceding points reflect the deep longing of
their peoples for close cooperation and mutual understanding and
declare that they will work steadily for the further development of
their relations in accordance with the present Declaration as well as
with the principles set forth in the Helsinki Final Act.
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