When the Cold War ended suddenly in 1989-90, the signposts were clearly visible. Communist governments collapsed in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Romania, and Bulgaria. The Berlin Wall fell in November 1989. Germany was unified in October 1990. In the same period, the Soviet Union announced that it would withdraw, within four years, all of its 680,000 stationed troops from Eastern Europe. The United States countered by declaring major withdrawals of its forces from Western Europe. Against this background of political revolution, unification, and massive military force withdrawals, the leaders of Europe, Canada, the United States, and the Soviet Union signed the Peace of Paris in November 1990. Two multinational agreements constituted the heart of that peace: the Accords for the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) and the Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty.
Following national ratification, the CFE Treaty entered into force in July 1992. By then the Soviet Union had collapsed as an empire and eight new republics had emerged to become treaty signatory states. In all, 30 Atlantic-Eurasian states implemented the CFE Treaty. On-site inspection played a critical role in monitoring treaty compliance. Every treaty state established new, or expanded existing, verification agencies and staffs to conduct and host on-site inspections. This history narrates the efforts by the United States and other nations to plan, staff, train, equip, and conduct on-site inspections under the CFE Treaty.
The book begins with the CFE Treaty's signature in November 1990, and it concludes with the signing of the Final Document at the First Review Conference in May 1996. Between those years, the treaty nations collectively reduced more than 50,000 conventional weapons--tanks, artillery, armored combat vehicles, fighters, and helicopters. Hundreds, if not thousands, of on-site inspectors monitored these reductions in accordance with the protocols of the treaty. Inspection standards were established and sustained across national borders. A rule of law was replacing the rule of force. Many of the inspectors had been soldiers of the Cold War; now they were monitoring force reductions under a complex peace treaty. Quietly, professionally, effectively these inspectors and their respective governments ensured that the new rule of "law," as detailed in the CFE Treaty, was being enforced.
Agency support for the research and writing of this history was directly attributable to the support of Brigadier General Thomas E. Kuenning, Jr., USAF, OSIA Director (1995- ), and Brigadier General Gregory G. Govan, USA, OSIA Director (1993-1995). Dr. Joerg H. Menzel, OSIA's Principal Deputy Director, took a personal interest and shepherded the project from the sharp knives of those hostile to major long-term efforts. Colonel Paul H. Nelson, USA, OSIA's Chief of Staff, read the manuscript and encouraged the authors at every step along the way in the final two years. Colonel Lawrence G. Kelley, USMC, OSIA European Operations Command, read every word, wrote incisive comments, and then discussed each comment with us personally. His intellect and professionalism strengthened the final book in numerous ways. Colonel Kenneth D. Guillory, Commander of the OSIA's European Operations Command, contributed his support to the project in its final year.
We would like to acknowledge the assistance and helpful suggestions of all of the people of OSIA's European Operations Command. We interviewed many of the team chiefs, inspectors, planners, logisticians, and commanders; their opinions and insights helped straighten out the often confusing references to treaty protocols, tables, paragraphs, and subparagraphs. In particular the following NCOs and officers shared their time and experiences: Stephen Barneby, Mark Bumala, David Carter, William Chesney, Joe Drach, Tom Dudley, Ed Gallagher, Les Garrison, David Gessert, Jan Karcz, Gary Karstens, Michael Lukes, Jack Monahan, Keith Oatman, Richard O'Shea, George Partridge, Ken Periman, Tom Regan, Larry Chultz, Mike Slifka, Bill Smith, and Ron Tait. In the review process, senior officials in the JCS, OSD (Policy), and OSD (Acquisition) read and critiqued the manuscript for policy and operations considerations. In that process, Mary Margaret Evans, OSD, Acquisition, was especially helpful.
When it came time for assembling the final book in all if its parts--the tables, charts, appendices, bibliography, and fact checking--we are indebted to David Willford of the History Office. His diligence and intelligence made it a better history. Stephen Jimenez contributed to the chronology and appendices. Rolen Maddox helped cross-check every name, place, figure, and bibliographic reference. Bob Coleman and Tom Pearlman developed the cover art and maps, and assisted with other photographs throughout the book. At EEI, Judy Cleary and Gayle Dahlman guided the book through production, Baiba Seefer edited the manuscript, and Jennifer Whittington created the design and layout, with the assistance of Lynn Whiteley. Rey Ovalle steered the finished design through the government bureaucracies to final publishing. Everyone knows that publishing a textbook of this nature is both an individual and a collective work. Individually, the authors researched and wrote the book, and they are credited on its cover and title pages. Collectively, the contributions of the others are mentioned only here. This fact obscures the appreciation we hold for their work and contributions. We simply could not have completed this history without them.
Joseph P. Harahan
John C. Kuhn, III
July 24, 1996