Index Military Definitions

M. 1Code applied to designations for armament systems and equipment, used by the U.S. Army, 2million, 3monthly

M, P, and T domain assessments Reports prepared by PERSCOM, Force Integration Division, MPT Domain Branch. They assess the manpower, personnel and training risk of the system. They identify all favorable attributes, critical issues, major issues, and concerns. They address the impact the system will have on MPT resources by examining a myriad of domain characteristics.

M&S (models and simulations). [TR 350-70] Live, virtual, and constructive models, including simulators, stimulators, and emulators. (AR 5-11)

M&S (models and simulations) activity. The development and maintenance of a computer-based M&S capability by or for organizations of the Army.

M&S (modeling and simulation) application sponsor. [TR 5-11] The organization that utilizes the results or products from a specific application of a model or simulation.

M&S (models and simulations) combat developer. [TR 350-70] Command, agency, organization, or individual that commands, directs, manages, or accomplishes the work of combat development. Combat development is the process of analyzing, determining, documenting, and obtaining approval of warfighting concepts, future operational concepts, MNSs, operational requirements documents, organizational requirements, and materiel requirements. Process must be IAW TRADOC Pam 71-9 and in consonance with the TRADOC Warfighting Lens Analysis (WFLA) process governing all DTLOMS domains.

M&S (modeling and simulation) developer. [TR 5-11] The organization responsible for managing, or overseeing modeling and simulation developed by a DoD component, contractor, or Federally funded research and development center (FFRDC). The developer may be the same agency as the modeling and simulation proponent agency.

M&S (modeling and simulation) infrastructure. [TR 5-11] The underlying base or foundation of assets available to support the development and maintenance of modeling and simulation, the basic facilities, equipment, installations, and services needed for the development and maintenance of a system, includes personnel performing development or maintenance, communications, networks, architectures, standards, protocols, and information resources repositories. The modeling and simulation Infrastructure component does not include the assets established and operated by organizations using modeling and simulation in support of their mission.

M&S (models and simulations) materiel developer. [TR 350-70] The research, development, and acquisition (RDA) command, agency, or office assigned responsibility for the system under development or being acquired. Materiel developers are responsible for the conception, development, and execution of solutions to materiel requirements identified and initiated through the combat development process.

M&S (modeling and simulation) proponent. 1[TR 5-11] The organization responsible for initiating the development and directing control of the reference version of a model or simulation. The proponent will develop and execute a viable strategy for development and maintenance throughout the life cycle of the modeling and simulation and for directing the investment of available modeling and simulation resources. The modeling and simulation proponent serves as the advocate and final authority on their modeling and simulation. The modeling and simulation proponent will advise the DUSA(OR) on release of the modeling and simulation to foreign countries and will advise the MACOM or Organizational Release Authority for domestic release of modeling and simulation. Except where responsibilities are specifically designated to an acquisition official by DoD or DA policy e.g. DoD 5000.2 or AR 70-1, the modeling and simulation proponent is responsible for, but may delegate execution of: modeling and simulation development, configuration management, preparation and maintenance of simulation object models, as appropriate, all aspects of verification and validation (V&V), and maintenance of current information in all categories and repositories. The modeling and simulation proponent may be the same as the V&V proponent. 2[TR 350-70] The organization which has responsibility for the combat and training development of the prototype version of a model or simulation. The proponent will develop and execute a viable strategy for development, maintenance, and direction of the investment of available resources throughout the life cycle of the M&S. The M&S proponent serves as the advocate and final authority on its M&S. The proponent will advise the Deputy Under Secretary of the Army for Operations and Research (DUSA[OR]) on releasability of the M&S to foreign countries and will advise the major command (MACOM) or organizational release authority for domestic release. Except where responsibilities are specifically designated to an acquisition official by DoD or Department of the Army (DA) policy, e.g., DoD Directive 5000.2 or AR 70-1, the M&S proponent is responsible for but may delegate execution of ---

l M&S development.

l Configuration management.

l Preparation and maintenance of simulation object models (SOMs), as appropriate.

l All aspects of verification and validation.

l Maintenance of current information in all catalogs and repositories.

M&S (modeling and simulation) requirement. [TR 5-11] Modifications or development of a new tool or capability or significant enhancement to an existing tool or capability used in computer based simulation of military operations, or processes which contribute to military operations. Examples of military operations or processes that modeling and simulation are required include, but are not limited to, designing, analyzing, testing/evaluating, assessing, producing, sustaining military systems/processes, and providing training, exercise support, military operations support, planning tools, and mission rehearsal tools to support soldiers and units.

M&S (models and simulations) training developer. [TR 350-70] Command or agency that formulates, develops, and documents training concepts, strategies, requirements (materiel and otherwise), and programs for assigned mission areas and functions. Serves as user (trainer and trainee) representative during acquisition of their approved training materiel requirements (mission needs statement [MNS] and operational requirements document [ORD]) and TD program. Training developers are responsible for the conception, documentation, and execution of solutions to training requirements as identified during the combat development process.

M-day. [DSMC] The day on which mobilization is to begin. See times.

M-day force materiel requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of an item required to be on hand and on order (on M-day minus one day) to equip and provide a materiel pipeline for the approved peacetime U.S. force structure, both active and reserve.

Mace. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An improved version of the MGM-1C Matador missile, differing primarily in its improved guidance system, longer-range, low-level attack capability, and higher-yield warhead. The MGM-13A is guided by a self-contained radar guidance system. The MGM-13B is guided by an inertial guidance system. Designated as MGM-13.

Mach. Speed of sound, used as speed unit 340.5 m/sec, or 1225.5 km/h at sea level under standard conditions, and decreases with altitude. Above the tropopause (about 11000m) Mach 1 is 295.5 m/sec or 1063.2 km/h.

mach front. See mach stem

mach hold mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, a control mode in which a desired flight (flying) speed of an aircraft expressed as a mach number is maintained automatically.

mach no/yes. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "I have reached maximum speed and am not/am closing my target."

mach number. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ratio of the velocity of a body to that of sound in the surrounding medium.

mach number indicator. See machmeter.

mach stem. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The shock front formed by the fusion of the incident and reflected shock fronts from an explosion. The term is generally used with reference to a blast wave, propagated in the air, reflected at the surface of the Earth. In the ideal case, the mach stem is perpendicular to the reflecting surface and slightly convex (forward). Also called mach front.

mach trim compensator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, an automatic control subsystem which provides pitch trim of an aircraft as a function of mach number.

mach wave. See mach stem.

machine controlled time. [DSMC] That part of a work cycle that is entirely controlled by a machine and, therefore is not influenced by the skill or effort of the worker.

machine element. [DSMC] A work cycle subdivision that is distinct, describable, and measurable. The time is entirely controlled by a machine, and therefore, not influenced by the skill or effort of the worker.

machmeter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays the mach number of the aircraft derived from inputs of pilot and static pressures.

magnetic bearing. See bearing.

magnetic circuit. See magnetic mine.

magnetic compass. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument containing a freely suspended magnetic element which displays the direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field at the point of observation.

magnetic declination. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle between the magnetic and geographical meridians at any place, expressed in degrees east or west to indicate the direction of magnetic north from true north. In nautical and aeronautical navigation, the term magnetic variation is used instead of magnetic declination and the angle is termed variation of the compass or magnetic variation. Magnetic declination is not otherwise synonymous with magnetic variation which refers to regular or irregular change with time of the magnetic declination, dip, or intensity. See also magnetic variation.

magnetic equator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A line drawn on a map or chart connecting all points at which the magnetic inclination (dip) is zero for a specified epoch. Also called aclinic line.

magnetic mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A mine which responds to the magnetic field of a target.

magnetic mine hunting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The process of using magnetic detectors to determine the presence of mines or minelike objects.

magnetic north. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The direction indicated by the north seeking pole of a freely suspended magnetic needle, influenced only by the Earth's magnetic field.

magnetic storage. Any medium upon which information is encoded as variations in magnetic polarity.

magnetic tape. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A thin, strong, non-elastic tape coated with a ferromagnetic emulsion, which can record, store and play back information of various kinds.

magnetic variation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l In navigation, at a given place and time, the horizontal angle between the true north and magnetic north measured east or west according to whether magnetic north lies east or west of true north. See also magnetic declination.

l In cartography, the annual change in direction of the horizontal component of the Earth's magnetic field.

magneto-optics. An information storage medium that is magnetically sensitive only at high temperatures, while stable at normal temperatures. A laser is used to heat a small spot on the medium, changing the polarity at that spot thereby storing data.

mail embargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A temporary shutdown or redirection of mail flow to or from a specific location.

main airfield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An airfield planned for permanent occupation in peacetime, at a location suitable for wartime utilization, and with operational facilities of a standard adequate to develop full use of its war combat potential. See also alternative airfield; departure airfield; redeployment airfield.

main armament. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The request of the observer or spotter to obtain fire from the largest guns installed on the fire support ship.

main attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The principal attack or effort into which the commander throws the full weight of the offensive power at his disposal. An attack directed against the chief objective of the campaign or battle.

main battle area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the battlefield in which the decisive battle is fought to defeat the enemy. For any particular command, the main battle area extends rearward from the forward edge of the battle area to the rear boundary of the command's subordinate units.

main battle tank. See tank, main battle.

main convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The convoy as a whole which sails from the convoy assembly port/anchorage to its destination. It may be supplemented by joiners or joiner convoys, and leavers or leaver convoys may break off.

main deck. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The highest deck running the full length of a vessel (except for an aircraft carrier's hanger deck). See also watercraft.

main detonating line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In demolition, a line of detonating cord used to transmit the detonation wave to two or more branches.

main line of resistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A line at the forward edge of the battle position, designated for the purpose of coordinating the fire of all units and supporting weapons, including air and naval gunfire. It defines the forward limits of a series of mutually supporting defensive areas, but it does not include the areas occupied or used by covering or screening forces.

main operations base (MOB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In special operations, a base established by a joint force special operations component commander or a subordinate special operations component commander in friendly territory to provide sustained command and control, administration, and logistical support to special operations activities in designated areas. See also advanced operations base; forward operations base.

main points. The logical breakdown of subject matter in support of an instructional objective.

main road. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A road capable of serving as the principal ground line of communication to an area or locality. Usually it is wide enough and suitable for two-way, all-weather traffic at high speeds.

main supply route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The route or routes designated within an area of operations upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations.

main trunk. The principal course or line of direction of a program or interactive courseware.

maintain. [JP 1-02] (DoD) When used in the context of deliberate planning, the directed command will keep the referenced operation plan, operation plan in concept format, or concept summary, and any associated Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) automated data processing files active in accordance with applicable tasking documents describing the type and level of update or maintenance to be performed. General guidance is contained in JOPES, Volumes I and II. See also archive; retain.

maintainability. [DSMC] The ability of an item to be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. See mean time to repair (MTTR).

maintenance. 1The physical act of preventing, determining, and correcting equipment or software faults. It includes all actions taken to retain system/equipment/ product in a useful serviceable condition or to restore it to usefulness/serviceability. Maintenance includes inspection, fault isolation, testing, and servicing. 2[DSMC] Preventive maintenance to deter something from going wrong; or corrective maintenance for restoration to proper condition.

maintenance (materiel). [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l All action taken to retain materiel in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. It includes inspection, testing, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation.

l All supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.

l The routine recurring work required to keep a facility (plant, building, structure, ground facility, utility system, or other real property) in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose.

maintenance area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A general locality in which are grouped a number of maintenance activities for the purpose of retaining or restoring materiel to a serviceable condition.

maintenance concept. [DSMC] A brief description of maintenance considerations, constraints, and plans for operational support of the system/equipment under development. A preliminary maintenance concept is developed and submitted as part of the preliminary system operational concept for each alternative solution candidate by the operating command with the assistance of the implementing and supporting commands. A major driver in designing the system/equipment and the support planned.

maintenance engineering. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The application of techniques, engineering skills, and effort, organized to ensure that the design and development of weapon systems and equipment provide adequately for their effective and economical maintenance.

maintenance plan. [DSMC] A more detailed description of maintenance decisions on each repairable item candidate within the system work breakdown structure. There are typically a family of maintenance plans covering each major subsystem, e.g., radar subsystem, hydraulic subsystem, etc. The maintenance plan is based on the level of repair analysis and is the basis for each of the traditional elements of logistic support.

maintenance planning. [DSMC] The process conducted to evolve and establish maintenance/support concepts and requirements for the life cycle of a materiel system. One of the traditional elements of logistic support.

maintenance status. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A nonoperating condition, deliberately imposed, with adequate personnel to maintain and preserve installations, materiel, and facilities in such a condition that they may be readily restored to operable condition in a minimum time by the assignment of additional personnel and without extensive repair or overhaul.

l That condition of materiel which is in fact, or is administratively classified as, unserviceable, pending completion of required servicing or repairs.

maintenance trainer. A trainer on which individuals learn the methods and procedures necessary to maintain a specific system, subsystem, or equipment.

maintenance training simulator. [TR 350-70] A device, usually computer-controlled, that simulates operational equipment and allows students to practice maintenance tasks or procedures.

major assembly. [DSMC] An operation in the construction of a section which joins a number of subassemblies.

Major Automated Information System (MAIS) Acquisition Program. [DoD 5200.2-R] An AIS acquisition program that is designated by ASD(C3I) as a MAIS, or estimated to require program costs in any single year in excess of 30 million in fiscal year (FY) 1996 constant dollars, total program costs in excess of 120 million in FY 1996 constant dollars, or total life-cycle costs in excess of 360 million in FY 1996 constant dollars. MAISs do not include highly sensitive classified programs (as determined by the Secretary of Defense). For the purpose of determining whether an AIS is a MAIS, the following shall be aggregated and considered a single AIS:

l The separate AISs that constitute a multi-element program;

l The separate AISs that make up an evolutionary or incrementally developed program; or

l The separate AISs that make up a multi-component AIS program.

Major Automated Information Systems Review Council (MAISRC). [DSMC] The MAISRC is the DoD's senior level forum for advising the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence) (ASD(C3I)) on critical decisions concerning acquisition category IAM programs.

l The MAISRC is chaired by the ASD(C3I). Principal members of the MAISRC include representatives from the offices of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller); the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation; the Director, Test, Systems Engineer, and Evaluation; the Director, Acquisition Program Integration; the Deputy ASD(C3I); the user representatives; and the cognizant Senior Information Management Official(s) or Component acquisition executives(s), as appropriate. The Deputy ASD(C3I Acquisition) is the MAISRC Executive Secretary and either leads or designates the leader of the overarching integrated product team.

l The MAISRC Chairman is also routinely supported by senior advisors (or their representatives), such as, but not limited to, the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel and Readiness); the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Economic Security); the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs); the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Reserve Affairs); the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Logistics); the Director, Defense Procurement; the Director, Defense Information Systems Agency; and the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Information Management). Other senior Defense officials may be invited by the ASD(C3I) to participate in MAISRC meetings as needed.

major combat element. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those organizations and units described in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan that directly produce combat capability. The size of the element varies by service, force capability, and the total number of such elements available. Examples are Army divisions and separate brigades, Air Force squadrons, Navy task forces, and marine expeditionary forces. See also major force.

major defense acquisition program (MDAP). [DoD 5200.2-R] An acquisition program that is not a highly sensitive classified program (as determined by the Secretary of Defense) and that is: designated by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition and Technology) (USD(A&T)) as an MDAP, or estimated by the USD(A&T) to require an eventual total expenditure for research, development, test and evaluation of more than 355 million in fiscal year (FY) 1996 constant dollars or, for procurement, of more than 2.135 billion in FY 1996 constant dollars.

major disaster. See domestic emergencies.

major fleet. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A principal, permanent subdivision of the operating forces of the Navy with certain supporting shore activities. Presently there are two such fleets: the Pacific Fleet and the Atlantic Fleet. See also fleet.

major force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A military organization comprised of major combat elements and associated combat support, combat service support, and sustainment increments. The major force is capable of sustained military operations in response to plan employment requirements. See also major combat element.

major force program (MFP). [DSMC] An MFP is an aggregation of program elements which reflects a macro-level force mission or a support mission of DoD and contains the resources necessary to achieve an objective or plan. It reflects fiscal time-phasing of mission objectives to be accomplished and the means proposed for their accomplishment. As an example, the future years defense program is comprised of 11 (6 combat and 5 support oriented) major force programs:

Program 1 — Strategic Forces;

Program 2 — General Purpose Forces;

Program 3 — Intelligence and Communications;

Program 4 — Airlift and Sealift Forces;

Program 5 — Guard and Reserve Forces;

Program 6 — Research and Development;

Program 7 — Central Supply and Maintenance;

Program 8 — Training, Medical, and Other General Personnel Activities

Program 9 — Administration and Associated Activities;

Program 10 — Support of Other Nations; and

Program 11 — Special Operations Forces.

major installation.[JP 1-02] (DoD) In the Air Force, a self-supporting center of operations for actions of importance to Air Force combat, combat support, or training. It is operated by an active, reserve, or Guard unit of group size or larger with all land, facilities and organic support needed to accomplish the unit mission. It must have real property accountability through ownership, lease, permit, or other written agreement for all real estate and facilities. Agreements with foreign governments which give the Air Forcejurisdiction over real property meet this requirement. Shared use agreements (as opposed to joint use agreements where the Air Force owns the runway) do not meet the criteria to be major installations. This category includes Air Force bases; air bases; air reserve bases; and Air Guard bases.See also installation complex; minor installation; other activity; support site.

major issue. An issue identified within one or more of the MANPRINT domains, which is expected to result in one or more of the following problems: extensive system damage; injury to friendly personnel; a major reduction in mission performance or effectiveness; or a major negative impact on the ability of the MPT community to support fielding with trained and available personnel. A major issue may become critical over time, and should be resolved as soon as possible in the next acquisition phase.

major milestone. [DoD 5200.2-R] A major milestone is the decision point that separates the phases of an acquisition program. MDAP milestones include, for example, the decisions to authorize entry into the engineering and manufacturing development phase or full rate production. MAIS milestones may include, for example, the decision to begin program definition and risk reduction.

major milestones. Major milestones are points in time at which a recommendation is made and approval sought from higher authority regarding initiation/continuation of a program. The normal milestones are the program initiation decision and the go/no-go decision (Milestone I/II), and the production decision (Milestone III).

major nuclear power. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any nation that possesses a nuclear striking force capable of posing a serious threat to every other nation.

major operation. The coordinated actions of large forces in a single phase of a campaign. A major operation could contain a number of battles or could be a single, critical battle.

major port. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any port with two or more berths and facilities and equipment capable of discharging 100,000 tons of cargo per month from ocean-going ships. Such ports will be designated as probable nuclear targets. See also port.

major program. [DSMC] A term synonymous with major defense acquisition program.

major system. 1[DoD] Acquisition Category I and II programs designed by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition) or the Army Acquisition Executive. The Operational Test and Evaluation Command conducts user tests and evaluation. A combination of elements that shall function together to produce the capabilities required to fulfill a mission need, including hardware, equipment, software, or any combination thereof, but excluding construction or other improvements to real property, system shall be considered a major system if it is estimated by the USD(A&T) to require an eventual total expenditure for RDTE of more than $140 million in FY 1996 constant dollars, or for procurement of more than $645 million in FY 1996 constant dollars. All systems not designated as Categories I and II are nonmajor (IPR). 2[OMB Circular A-109] That combination of elements that will function together to produce the capabilities required to fulfill a mission need. The elements may include, for example, hardware, equipment, software, construction, or other improvements or real property. Major system acquisition programs are those programs that are directed at and critical to fulfilling an agency mission, entail the allocation of relatively large resources, and warrant special management attention. Additional criteria and relative dollar thresholds for the determination of agency programs to be considered major systems under the purview of this Circular, may be established at the discretion of the agency head. 3[DoD 5200.2-R] A combination of elements that shall function together to produce the capabilities required to fulfill a mission need, including hardware, equipment, software, or any combination thereof, but excluding construction or other improvements to real property. A system shall be considered a major system if it is estimated by the DoD component head to require an eventual total expenditure for RDT&E of more than 135 million in FY 1996 constant dollars, or for procurement of more than 640 million in FY 1996 constant dollars, or if designated as major by the DoD component head ((5)). 4[TR 350-70] Acquisition Category I and II programs designated by the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition) or the Army Acquisition Executive. The Operational Test and Evaluation Command conducts user tests and evaluation. All systems not designated as Categories I and II are nonmajor (IPR).

major system acquisition. This is a system acquisition program designed by the Secretary of Defense to be of such importance and high priority as to require special management attention.

major weapon system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One of a limited number of systems or subsystems which, for reasons of military urgency, criticality, or resource requirements, is determined by the Department of Defense as being vital to the national interest.

make safe. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One or more actions necessary to prevent or interrupt complete function of the system (traditionally synonymous with dearm, disarm, and disable). Among the necessary actions are:

l Install (safety devices such as pins or locks).

l Disconnect (hoses, linkages, batteries).

l Bleed (accumulators, reservoirs).

l Remove (explosive devices such as initiators, fuses, detonators).

l Intervene (as in welding, lockwiring).

make safe. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One or more actions necessary to prevent or interrupt complete function of the system (traditionally synonymous with dearm, disarm, and disable). Among the necessary actions are:

l Install (safety devices such as pins or locks);

l Disconnect (hoses, linkages, batteries);

l Bleed (accumulators, reservoirs);

l Remove (explosive devices such as initiators, fuses, detonators);

l Intervene (as in welding, lockwiring).

make-or-buy program. [DSMC] That part of a contractor's written plan for the development or production of an end item which outlines the subsystems, major components, assemblies, subassemblies, and parts the contractor intends to manufacture, test-treat, or assemble (make); and those the contractor intends to purchase from others (buy).

man hour/month/year. [DSMC] The effort equal to that of one person during one hour/month/year.

man portable. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Capable of being carried by one man. Specifically, the term may be used to qualify:

l Items designed to be carried as an integral part of individual, crew-served, or team equipment of the dismounted soldier in conjunction with his assigned duties. Upper weight limit: approximately 14 kilograms (31 pounds.)

l In land warfare, equipment which can be carried by one man over long distance without serious degradation of the performance of his normal duties.

man space. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The space and weight factor used to determine the combat capacity of vehicles, craft, and transport aircraft, based on the requirements of one person with individual equipment. The person is assumed to weigh between 222-250 pounds and to occupy 13.5 cubic feet of space. See also boat space.

man transportable. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items which are usually transported on wheeled, tracked, or air vehicles, but have integral provisions to allow periodic handling by one or more individuals for limited distances (100-500 meters). Upper weight limit: approximately 65 pounds per individual.

man-machine interface. [DSMC] Degree of compatibility between the user (individual) and the equipment being used. See soldier-machine interface (SMI).

management. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A process of establishing and attaining objectives to carry out responsibilities. Management consists of those continuing actions of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, controlling, and evaluating the use of men, money, materials, and facilities to accomplish missions and tasks. Management is inherent in command, but it does not include as extensive authority and responsibility as command.

management and control system (mobility). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those elements of organizations and/or activities which are part of, or are closely related to, the mobility system, and which authorize requirements to be moved, to obtain and allocate lift resources, or to direct the operation of linklift vehicles.

management control objectives. [DSMC] The goals, conditions, or levels of control a manager establishes to provide reasonable assurance that resources are safeguarded against waste, fraud, and mismanagement. For Major Defense Acquisition Programs, basic control objectives involve the ability to adhere to a weapon system's cost, schedule, and performance baseline parameters.

management control techniques. [DSMC] Any form of organization, procedure, or document flow that are relied on to accomplish control objectives. For Major Defense Acquisition Programs, the milestone review information and periodic program status reports specified in DoD 5000.2-R provide adequate control techniques to achieve control objectives.

Management Information System (MIS). [DSMC] An orderly and disciplined accounting and reporting methodology, usually mechanized, which provides for the accurate recordation of data, and the timely extrapolation and transmission of management information used in the decision-making processes.

management materials. Materials that define training requirements and provide an overall plan for the accomplishment of these requirements.

management plan. Program for the assignment, monitoring, and assessment of the personnel, materials, and resources dedicated to a specific mission, operation, or function.

management reserve. [DSMC] An amount of the total allocated budget withheld for management control purposes, rather than designated for the accomplishment of a specific task or set of tasks. It is not a part of the Performance Measurement Baseline. Synonymous with reserve.

MANCAP II. A U.S. Army Research Institute weapons system performance requirements analysis tool.

mandatory release date. [TR 350-70] This is the date at which individual National Guard or Army Reserve soldiers must be released from training to return to their home station.

maneuver. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A movement to place ships or aircraft in a position of advantage over the enemy.

l A tactical exercise carried out at sea, in the air, on the ground, or on a map in imitation of war.

l The operation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, to cause it to perform desired movements.

l Employment of forces on the battlefield through movement in combination with fire, or fire potential, to achieve a position of advantage in respect to the enemy in order to accomplish the mission.

maneuverable reentry vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A reentry vehicle capable of performing preplanned flight maneuvers during the reentry phase. See also multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

maneuvering area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That part of an airfield used for takeoffs, landings, and associated maneuvers.

manifest. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A document specifying in detail the passengers or items carried for a specific destination.

manipulative electromagnetic deception. See electromagnetic deception.

manning. The specific inventory of people at an activity in terms of numbers, grades, and occupational groups.

manpower. 1Manpower is the personnel strength expressed in terms of the number of men and women (military and civilian) available to, or required by, the Army. Consideration of the net effect of Army systems and items on overall Army human resources requirements and authorizations (spaces to ensure that each system is affordable from the standpoint of manpower). It includes analysis of the number of people needed to operate, maintain, and support each new system being considered or acquired, including maintenance and supply personnel and personnel to support and conduct training. It requires a determination of the Army manpower changes generated by the system, comparing the new manpower needs with those of the old system(s) being replaced, and an assessment of the impact of the changes on the total manpower limits of the Army. If, given manpower priorities established by the Department of the Army, systems cannot be supported by projected manpower resources, then changes in system design, organization, or doctrine are made to achieve affordability. In the materiel acquisition process, manpower analyses and actions are necessarily conducted in conjunction with force structure and budget processes. 2The requirements or billets needed in an organization, to accomplish a task or service. See manpower requirements; manpower resources.

manpower (MANPRINT domain). The number of men and women, military and civilian, required and potentially available to train, operate, maintain, repair, supply, transport and provide base support for a system. [NOTE: See AR 602-2, paragraph 1-4 b]

manpower and personnel. [DSMC] The process of identifying and acquiring military and civilian personnel with the skills and grades required to operate and support a materiel system over its lifetime at peacetime and wartime rates. One of the traditional elements of logistic support.

manpower and personnel integration (MANPRINT). 1[DCSPER] The comprehensive technical effort to identify and integrate all relevant information and considerations regarding the full range of manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, system safety, health hazards, and soldier survivability into the system development and acquisition process to improve individual performance, total system performance, and reduce the cost of ownership throughout the entire life cycle of a system. MANPRINT is the Army’s human systems integration process for systems acquisition. 2[TR 350-70] The entire process of integrating manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, health hazard assessment, and system safety into a system through the materiel development and acquisition process. It uses analytical models to help soldier-machine systems reach maximum performance. The models help predict manpower, personnel, and training needs by considering human factors engineering, manpower, personnel, training, safety, and health hazards. 3[TP 71] The comprehensive technical effort to identify and integrate all relevant information and considerations regarding the full range of manpower, personnel capabilities, training development and delivery, human factors engineering, system safety, health hazards, and soldier survivability into the system development and acquisition process to improve soldier performance, total systems performance, and reduce the cost of ownership to an acceptable level throughout the entire life cycle of a system. MANPRINT is the Army’s Human Systems Integration process for systems acquisition.

manpower and personnel planner. This is the agency responsible for developing the total Army requirements to operate, maintain, and support development items or systems.

manpower authorization. The authority to establish a manpower position on an approved document. Due to budgetary constraints, manpower authorizations will normally be less than manpower requirements.

manpower estimate. [DSMC] An estimate of the number of personnel required to operate, maintain, support, and train for the acquisition upon full operational deployment. Required for all acquisition category I programs.

manpower management. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The means of manpower control to ensure the most efficient and economical use of available manpower.

manpower management survey. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Systematic evaluation of a functional area, utilizing expert knowledge, manpower scaling guides, experience, and other practical considerations in determining the validity and managerial efficiency of the function's present or proposed manpower establishment.

manpower, personnel, and training (MPT) analysis. Manpower analysis consists of identification of tasks and work-hours required to perform a job or function. Personnel analysis consists of identification of ratings and occupational specialties and skill levels required to perform the job or function. Training analysis consists of identification of training tasks or functions required for personnel to obtain skill levels necessary to operate and maintain the system, subsystem, or equipment.

manpower requirement. A recognized need in terms of a soldier/civilian of a specified grade level (TOE/TDA).

manpower requirements. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Human resources needed to accomplish specified work loads of organizations.

manpower requirements criteria (MARC). The number of direct workers required to effectively perform a specified work activity. A principle computational component of MARC is the estimate of annual maintenance man hours (AMMH) and its variations (AAMMH, IPAMMH, and DPAMMH), each of which represents different contributing factors to the overall maintenance manpower and personnel determination. AAMMH, AMMH, DPAMMH, and IPAMMH are MARC components of a system from the perspective of the factors each represents. These MARC components are defined below:

l annual available maintenance man-hours (AAMMH). The number of annual man-hours each repairer is expected to be available under sustained operating conditions (e.g., wartime).

l annual maintenance man hours (AMMH). The sum of the direct and indirect productive time (IPAMMH) required to repair an item.

l direct productive annual maintenance man hours (DPAMMH). The estimated wrench-turning time required to repair a component or assembly.


manpower resources. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Human resources available to the services which can be applied against manpower requirements.

manpower scheduling and loading. [DSMC] Effective and efficient utilization and scheduling of available manpower according to their skills to ensure required manufacturing operations are properly coordinated and executed.

MANPRINT action officer (AO). An individual held accountable by the program manager, functional proponent, and/or combat developer for ensuring that the MANPRINT program is executed on a daily basis.

MANPRINT assessment. An independent review of the MANPRINT status of the system. The objective is to present any unresolved MANPRINT issues or concerns to the decision makers at the appropriate decision points. The MANPRINT assessment represents the ODCSPER's formal position on the MANPRINT status of the system.

MANPRINT joint working group (MJWG). An MJWG is established early in the requirements formulation phase of the materiel acquisition process. The MJWG provides oversight and manages MANPRINT issues during the materiel acquisition process.

MANPRINT working group. A body of experts in the MANPRINT domains and other functional areas who are responsible for overseeing and coordinating all MANPRINT activities. The CD/FP MANPRINT Working Group is known as the ICT HSI/MANPRINT Working Group; the PM/MD MANPRINT Working Group is known as the MANPRINT working integrated product team (WIPT).

manual element. [DSMC] A distinct, describable, and measurable subdivision of a work cycle or operation performed by one or more human motions that are not controlled by process or machine.

manual playback. Viewer operation without use of programmed control instructions.

manufacturing. [DSMC] The process of making an item by hand, or especially, by machinery, often on a large scale and with division of labor.

manufacturing engineering. [DSMC] Preproduction planning and operation analysis applied to specific projects. Other similar functions include sustaining (ongoing) engineering, production engineering, and production planning.

manufacturing management production/capability review. [DSMC] A review accomplished by the program office during source selection to determine each competing contractor's existing and planned manufacturing management system and production capacity to meet all known production requirements of the proposed system considering all current firm and projected business.

manufacturing methods and technology (MMT). MMT serves to develop and improve or expand manufacturing technology by improving manufacturing processes, techniques, and equipment to provide for timely, reliable, economic, and high quality production of required materiel.

manufacturing technology (MANTECH). [DSMC] Refers to any action which has as its objective: the timely establishment or improvement of the manufacturing processes, techniques, or equipment required to support current and projected programs, and the assurance of the availability to produce, reduce lead-time, ensure economic availability of end items, reduce costs, increase efficiency, improve reliability, or to enhance safety and anti-pollution measures.

many (raid size). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept usage, 8 or more aircraft. See also few (raid size).

map. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A graphic representation, usually on a plane surface, and at an established scale, of natural or artificial features on the surface of a part or the whole of the Earth or other planetary body. The features are positioned relative to a coordinate reference system. See also administrative map; battle map; controlled map; general map; large-scale map; line-route map; map chart; map index; map series; map sheet; medium-scale map; operation map; planimetric map; situation map; small scale map; strategic map; tactical map; topographic map; traffic circulation map; weather map.

map chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A representation of a land-sea area, using the characteristics of a map to represent the land area and the characteristics of a chart to represent the sea area, with such special characteristics as to make the map-chart most useful in military operations, particularly amphibious operations. See also map.

map convergence. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The angle at which one meridian is inclined to another on a map or chart. See also convergence.

map exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An exercise in which a series of military situations is stated and solved on a map.

map index. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Graphic key primarily designed to give the relationship between sheets of a series, their coverage, availability, and further information on the series. See also map.

map reference. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A means of identifying a point on the surface of the Earth by relating it to information appearing on a map, generally the graticule or grid.

map reference code. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A code used primarily for encoding grid coordinates and other information pertaining to maps. This code may be used for other purposes where the encryption of numerals is required.

map series. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A group of maps or charts usually having the same scale and cartographic specifications, and with each sheet appropriately identified by producing agency as belonging to the same series.

map sheet. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An individual map or chart either complete in itself or part of a series. See also map.

mapping camera. See air cartographic camera.

mapping, charting, and geodesy (MC&G). Maps, charts, and other data used for military planning, operations, and training. These products and data support air, land, and sea navigation; weapon system guidance; target positioning; and other military activities. These data are presented in the forms of topographic, planimetric, imaged, or thematic maps and graphics; nautical and aeronautical charts and publications; and, in digital and textual formats, gazetteers, which contain geophysical and geodetic data and coordinate lists.

margin. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In cartography, the area of a map or chart lying outside the border.

marginal data. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) All explanatory information given in the margin of a map or chart which clarifies, defines, illustrates, and/or supplements the graphic portion of the sheet.

marginal information. See marginal data.

marginal weather. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Weather which is sufficiently adverse to a military operation so as to require the imposition of procedural limitations. See also adverse weather.

Marine Air Command and Control System.(MACCS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system which provides the aviation combat element commander with the means to command, coordinate, and control all air operations within an assigned sector and to coordinate air operations with other Services. It is composed of command and control agencies with communications-electronics equipment that incorporates a capability from manual through semiautomatic control. See also direct air support center; tactical air command center; tactical air operations center.

Marine air control squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The component of the Marine air control group which provides and operates ground facilities for the detection and interception of hostile aircraft and for the navigational direction of friendly aircraft in the conduct of support missions.

marine air support squadron. The component of the marine air control group which provides and operates facilities for the control of support aircraft operating in direct support of ground forces.

Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task organization of Marine forces (division, aircraft wing, and service support groups) under a single command and structured to accomplish a specific mission. The MAGTF components will normally include command, aviation combat, ground combat, and combat service support elements (including Navy Support Elements). Two types of Marine air-ground task forces which can be task organized are the Marine expeditionary unit and Marine expeditionary force. The four elements of a Marine air-ground task force are:

l Command element (CE). The MAGTF headquarters. The CE is a permanent organization composed of the commander, general or executive and special staff sections, headquarters section, and requisite communications and service support facilities. The CE provides command, control, and coordination essential for effective planning and execution of operations by the other three elements of the MAGTF. There is only one CE in a MAGTF.

l Aviation combat element (ACE). The MAGTF element that is task organized to provide all or a portion of the functions of Marine Corps aviation in varying degrees based on the tactical situation and the MAGTF mission and size. These functions are air reconnaissance, antiair warfare, assault support, offensive air support, electronic warfare, and control of aircraft and missiles. The ACE is organized around an aviation headquarters and varies in size from a reinforced helicopter squadron to one or more Marine aircraft wing(s). It includes those aviation command (including air control agencies), combat, combat support, and combat service support units required by the situation. Normally, there is only one ACE in a MAGTF.

l Ground combat element (GCE). The MAGTF element that is task organized to conduct ground operations. The GCE is constructed around an infantry unit and varies in size from a reinforced infantry battalion to one or more reinforced Marine division(s). The GCE also includes appropriate combat support and combat service support units. Normally, there is only one GCE in a MAGTF.

l Combat service support element (CSSE). The MAGTF element that is task organized to provide the full range of combat service support necessary to accomplish the MAGTF mission. CSSE can provide supply, maintenance, transportation, deliberate engineer, health, postal, disbursing, enemy prisoner of war, automated information systems, exchange, utilities, legal, and graves registration services. The CSSE varies in size from a Marine expeditionary unit (MEU) service support group (MSSG) to a force service support group (FSSG). Normally, there is only one combat service support element in a MAGTF.

See also combat service support elements; ground combat element; Marine expeditionary brigade; Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary unit; task force.

Marine air support squadron. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The component of the Marine air control group which provides and operates facilities for the control of support aircraft operating in direct support of ground forces.

Marine base. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A base for support of Marine ground forces, consisting of activities or facilities for which the Marine Corps has operating responsibilities, together with interior lines of communications and the minimum surrounding area necessary for local security. (Normally, not greater than an area of 20 square miles.) See also base complex.

Marine division/wing team. A Marine Corps air-ground team consisting of one division and one aircraft wing, together with their normal reinA Marine Corps air-ground team consisting of one division and one aircraft wing, together with their normal reinforcements.

marine environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, and other major water bodies, including their surface interface and interaction, with the atmosphere and with the land seaward of the mean high water mark.

Marine expeditionary brigade (MEB). A task organization which is normally built around a regimental landing team, a provisional Marine aircraft group, and a logistics support group. It is capable of conducting amphibious assault operations of a limited scope. During potential crisis situations, an MEB may be forward deployed afloat for an extended period in order to provide an immediate combat response. See also marine air-ground task force.

marine expeditionary force (MEF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The MEF, the largest of the marine airground task forces, is normally built around a division/wing team, but can include several divisions and aircraft wings, together with an appropriate combat service support organization. The MEF is capable of conducting a wide range of amphibious assault operations and sustained operations ashore. It can be tailored for a wide variety of combat missions in any geographic environment. See also marine air-ground task force.

marine expeditionary unit (MEU). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task organization which is normally built around a battalion landing team, reinforced helicopter squadron, and logistic support unit. It fulfills routine forward afloat deployment requirements, provides an immediate reaction capability for crisis situations, and is capable of relatively limited combat operations. See also marine air-ground task force.

Marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable) MEU (SOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A forward-deployed, embarked U.S. Marine Corps unit with enhanced capability to conduct special operations. The MEU(SOC) is oriented toward amphibious raids, at night, under limited visibility, while employing emission control procedures. The MEU(SOC) is not a Secretary of Defense-designated special operations force but, when directed by the National Command Authorities and/or the theater commander, may conduct hostage recovery or other special operations under in extremis circumstances when designated special operations forces are not available.

maritime control area.[JP 1-02] (DoD) An area generally similar to a defensive sea area in purpose except that it may be established any place on the high seas. Maritime control areas are normally established only in time of war. See also defensive sea area.

maritime defense sector. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) One of the subdivisions of a coastal area.

maritime environment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, islands, coastal areas, and the airspace above these, including amphibious objective areas.

maritime power projection. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Power projection in and from the maritime environment, including a broad spectrum of offensive military operations to destroy enemy forces or logistic support or to prevent enemy forces from approaching within enemy weapons' range of friendly forces. Maritime power projection may be accomplished by amphibious assault operations, attack of targets ashore, or support of sea control operations.

maritime prepositioning force operation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A rapid deployment and assembly of a Marine expeditionary force in a secure area using a combination of strategic airlift and forward-deployed maritime prepositioning ships. See also Marine expeditionary force; maritime prepositioning ships.

maritime prepositioning ships (MPS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Civilian-crewed, Military Sealift Command-chartered ships which are organized into three squadrons and are usually forward-deployed. These ships are loaded with prepositioned equipment and 30 days of supplies to support three Marine expeditionary brigades. See also Navy cargo handling battalion.

maritime search and rescue region. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; the territories and possessions of the United States (except Canal Zone and the inland area of Alaska) and designated areas of the high seas.

maritime special purpose force (MSPF). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A task-organized force formed from elements of a marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable) and Naval special warfare forces that can be quickly tailored to a specific mission. The MSPF can execute on short notice a wide variety of missions in a supporting, supported, or unilateral role. It focuses on operations in a maritime environment and is capable of operations in conjunction with or in support of special operations forces. The MSPF is integral to and directly relies upon the marine expeditionary unit (special operations capable) for all combat and combat service support.

mark. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In artillery and naval gunfire support:

l To call for fire on a specified location in order to orient the observer/spotter or to indicate targets.

l To report the instant of optimum light on the target produced by illumination shells.

l In naval operations, to use a maritime unit to maintain an immediate offensive or obstructive capability against a specified target.

See also marker.

mark mark. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Command from ground controller for aircraft to release bombs; may indicate electronic ground-controlled release or voice command to aircrew.

mark-sense form. [TR 350-70] Computer readable sheets on which the soldier records identifying information and answers to questions.

marker. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A visual or electronic aid used to mark a designated point.

l In land mine warfare: See gap marker; intermediate marker; lane marker; row marker; strip marker.

l In naval operations, a maritime unit which maintains an immediate offensive or obstructive capability against a specified target.

See also beacon; mark.

marker ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In an amphibious operation, a ship which takes accurate station on a designated control point. It may fly identifying flags by day and show lights to seaward by night.

market analysis. The process of gathering information before making acquisition decisions. It is conducted initially during the Concept Exploration and Definition Phase and, in greater depth, during the Program Definition and Risk Reduction Phase.

market investigation (MI). MI is the process of gathering information in response to an MNS. It is a central activity in the initial milestone review decision to, or not to, select an nondevelopmental item (NDI) acquisition strategy.

market research. [DSMC] The process used for collecting and analyzing information about the entire market available to satisfy the minimum agency needs to arrive at the most suitable approach to acquiring, distributing, and supporting supplies and services.

market surveillance. This is a systematic information and data gathering process to develop and maintain awareness of marketplace activities and products with potential for U.S. Army use.

market survey. [DSMC] Attempts to ascertain whether other qualified sources capable of satisfying the government's requirement exist. This testing of the marketplace may range from written or telephone contacts with knowledgeable federal and nonfederal experts regarding similar or duplicate requirements, and the results of any market test recently undertaken, to the more for all sources-sought announcements in pertinent publications (e.g., technical/scientific journals, or the Commerce Business Daily), or solicitations for information or planning purposes.

marking error. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the distance and bearing of a marker from a target.

marking fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire placed on a target for the purpose of identification.

marking panel. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A sheet of material displayed for visual communication, usually between friendly units. See also panel code.

markup. [DSMC] Line-by-line review and approval/disapproval/ modification of the defense budget by congressional committees.

married failure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a moored mine lying on the seabed connected to its sinker from which it has failed to release owing to defective mechanism.

marshal. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A bearing, distance, and altitude fix designated by an air operations center, helicopter direction center, or carrier air traffic control center on which the pilot will orientate holding, and from which initial approach will commence during an instrument approach. See also air operations center; helicopter direction center.

marshalling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The process by which units participating in an amphibious or airborne operation group together or assemble when feasible or move to temporary camps in the vicinity of embarkation points, complete preparations for combat, or prepare for loading.

l The process of assembling, holding, and organizing supplies and/or equipment, especially vehicles of transportation, for onward movement.

See also stage; staging area.

mass. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The concentration of combat power.

l The military formation in which units are spaced at less than the normal distances and intervals.

mass casualty. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any large number of casualties produced in a relatively short period of time, usually as the result of a single incident such as a military aircraft accident, hurricane, flood, earthquake, or armed attack that exceeds local logistical support capabilities. See also casualty.

massed fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The fire of the batteries of two or more ships directed against a single target.

l Fire from a number of weapons directed at a single point or small area.

master. 1[TR 350-70] In validating training materials or tests, refers to an expert at the particular job or task. 2[DoD] The final edited version of a product used to make distribution copies. 3[JP 1-02] (DoD) The commanding officer of a United States Naval Ship, a commercial ship, or a government-owned general agency agreement ship operated for the Military Sealift Command by a civilian company to transport DoD cargo.

master air attack plan (MAAP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A plan that contains key information that forms the foundation of the joint air tasking order. Sometimes referred to as the air employment plan or joint air tasking order shell. Information which may be included: joint force commander guidance, joint force air component commander guidance, support plans, component requests, target update requests, availability of capabilities/forces, target information from target lists, aircraft allocation, etc.

master evaluation plan. [TR 350-70] The proponent's overall strategy for accomplishing evaluation/QA functions and providing specific descriptions of programs.

master film. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The earliest generation of imagery (negative or positive) from which subsequent copies are produced.

master force list(MFL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A file which contains the current status of each requirement for a given operation plan. The MFL is made available for file transfer service (FTS) transfer to other Worldwide Military Command and Control System activities from a file produced from the joint deployment system data base.

master plot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A portion of a map or overlay on which are drawn the outlines of the areas covered by an air photographic sortie. Latitude and longitude, map, and sortie information are shown. See also sortie plot.

master schedule. A schedule of instruction, prepared by the training activity, to indicate the period-by-period program for each day and week of the course.

mastering. A process in which the premaster videotape is used to modulate a laser onto a photosensitive, glass master disk; the manufacturing process that creates a glass master, and then a metal mold disk, from which others (plastic substrate) are replicated.

mastery. [TR 350-70]

l Training: The performance of the training objectives within the prescribed conditions and to the stated standard.

l On the job: Successful task performance without supervision or coaching.

mastery learning. An approach to curriculum development in which students progress from learning experience to learning experience based upon achievement of instructional objectives rather than other factors such as age, effort, or time of year.

material. 1In military applications this word is generally not used. When it is used, it refers to printed or written words, research, or intelligence. Example: training material. 2[DSMC] Elements, constituents, or substances of which something is composed or can be made. It includes, but is not limited to, raw and processed material, parts, components, assemblies, fuels, and other items which may be worked into a more finished form in performance of a contract.

material management. [DSMC] Direction and control of those aspects of logistics which deal with material, including the functions of identification, cataloging, standardization, requirements determination, procurement, inspection, quality control, packaging, storage, distribution, disposal, maintenance, mobilization planning, industrial readiness planning, and item management classification; encompasses materiel control, inventory control, inventory management, and supply management.

material specification. [DSMC] This type of specification is applicable to raw material (chemical compound), mixtures (cleaning agents, paints), or semi-fabricated material (electrical cable, copper tubing) used in the fabrication of a product. Normally, a material specification applies to production but may be prepared to control the development of a material.

materials. Raw substances, scrap, semi-finished and finished; supplies.

materials handling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The movement of materials (raw materials, scrap, semi-finished, and finished) to, through, and from productive processes; in warehouses and storage; and in receiving and shipping areas.

materials handling equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Mechanical devices for handling of supplies with greater ease and economy.

materials preparing activity (MPA). An organization that develops training materials, prepares major changes or revisions, and produces training materials as directed by the contracting activity. MPAs may be either contractors or training facilities.

materiel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All items (including ships, tanks, self-propelled weapons, aircraft, etc., and related spares, repair parts, and support equipment, but excluding real property, installations, and utilities) necessary to equip, operate, maintain, and support military activities without distinction as to its application for administrative or combat purposes. See also equipment; personal property.

materiel acquisition decision process (MADP) reviews. Major management decision reviews conducted prior to entry into each successive phase of the materiel acquisition process. The purpose of the reviews is to evaluate the development and surface critical issues prior to approval for entry into the subsequent phase. There are three levels of reviews:

& The Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) reviews major systems requiring Secretary of Defense approval of program decisions. After a weapons program progresses beyond DAB II, the service secretaries may be granted responsibility for surveillance as directed by the Deputy Secretary of Defense.

l The Army Systems Acquisition Review Council (ASARC) reviews for major systems requiring the Secretary of the Army approval of program decisions, including those requiring subsequent approval by the Secretary of Defense.

l In-process reviews (IPR) are used to review minor systems.

materiel acquisition process (MAP). The sequence of acquisition activities, starting with the identification of an unmet mission need, and extending through the introduction of a system into operational use.

Materiel Acquisition Review Board (MARB). This is a senior level (GO/SES) review board convened to review, advise, and ultimately approve key program management documents (PMD) and Army Requirements and Management Board (ARMB) preparation efforts prior to each milestone review. The HQ AMC MARB is convened for all DoD major programs and designated acquisition programs (DAPs). The MSC MARB is convened for all other programs (i.e., IPR programs), and prior to any HQ AMC MARB.

materiel cognizance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Denotes responsibility for exercising supply management over items or categories of materiel.

materiel control. See inventory control.

materiel developer (MATDEV). 1[TP 71] The RDA command, agency, or office assigned responsibility for the system under development or being acquired. The term may be used generically to refer to the RDA community in the material acquisition process (counterpart to the generic use of CBTDEV). 2The system program manager (PM) or the PM's representative responsible for research, development, and procurement of a new system.

materiel developments. [TP 71] The conception, development, and execution of solutions to material requirements identified and initiated through the combat developments process, translating equipment requirements into executable programs within acceptable performance, schedule, and cost parameters.

materiel fielding and training. [DSMC] The action of checking out equipment functions and operator and maintenance personnel training after production and before turnover to users.

materiel fielding plan (MFP). 1The MFP is a stand-alone document which consolidates all materiel developer and gaining MACOM actions, schedules, and procedures needed to process, deploy, and sustain a system. Detailed planning and actions required for deployment of a system are described in the MFP. The materiel developer, coordinating with the integrated logistic support (ILS) program participants and gaining MACOM, prepares the MFP. 2[TR 350-70] A document containing detailed system information. This information provides for the detailed planning and actions required for deployment of the system.

materiel improvement (MI). MI is a program to incorporate a configuration change. This change may involve engineering and testing efforts on major end items, and depot repairable components or changes on other than developmental items. This program is designed to increase system/combat effectiveness or extend the useful military life. Materiel improvements can be:

l Engineering change proposals. Reconfiguring a type-classified item that is in production.

l Product improvement proposals. Reconfiguring a type-classified fielded item.

l Preplanned product improvements. An evolutionary development where equipment is designed to accept technological improvements at a later date.

materiel inventory objective. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of an item required to be on hand and on order on M-day in order to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain the approved U.S. force structure (active and reserve) and those allied forces designated for U.S. materiel support, through the period prescribed for war materiel planning purposes. It is the quantity by which the war materiel requirement exceeds the war materiel procurement capability and the war materiel requirement adjustment. It includes the M-day force materiel requirement and the war reserve materiel requirement.

materiel management. The supervision of supplies and equipment throughout the strategic-, operational-, and tactical-level areas of operation. See inventory control.

materiel pipeline. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The quantity of an item required in the worldwide supply system to maintain an uninterrupted replacement flow.

materiel planning. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subset of logistic planning and consists of a four-step process:

l Requirements definition. Requirements for significant items must be calculated at item level detail (i.e., national stock number) to support sustainability planning and analysis. Requirements include unit roundout, consumption and attrition replacement, safety stock, and the needs of allies.

l Apportionment. Items are apportioned to the combatant commanders based on a global scenario to avoid sourcing of items to multiple theaters. The basis for apportionment is the capability provided by unit stocks, host nation support, theater prepositioned war reserve stocks and industrial base, and continental United States Department of defense stockpiles and available production. Item apportionment cannot exceed total capabilities.

l Sourcing. Sourcing is the matching of available capabilities on a given date against item requirements to support sustainability analysis and the identification of locations to support transportation planning. Sourcing of any item is done within the combatant commander's apportionment.

l Documentation. Sourced item requirements and corresponding shortfalls are major inputs to the combatant commander's sustainability analysis. Sourced item requirements are translated into movement requirements and documented in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System data base for transportation feasibility analysis. Movement requirements for nonsignificant items are estimated in tonnage.

materiel readiness. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The availability of materiel required by a military organization to support its wartime activities or contingencies, disaster relief (flood, earthquake, etc.), or other emergencies.

materiel release.The authority granted by the designated general officer to issue materiel to the user(e.g., the VCSA is designated to approve all conditional releases on major and DAP systems).

materiel release confirmation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A notification from a shipping/storage activity advising the originator of a materiel release order of the positive action taken on the order. It will also be used with appropriate shipment status document identifier codes as a reply to a follow-up initiated by the inventory control point.

materiel release order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An order issued by an accountable supply system manager (usually an inventory control point or accountable depot/stock point) directing a nonaccountable activity (usually a storage site or materiel drop point) within the same supply distribution complex to release and ship materiel.

materiel release process (MRP). The authority granted by a designated officer to issue materiel.

materiel requirements. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Those quantities of items of equipment and supplies necessary to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain a Service, formation, organization, or unit in the fulfillment of its purposes or tasks during a specified period. 2[TP 71] Changes or additions to any of the Army’s families of weapon systems, support systems, or TADSS. They range from modernizing existing materiel through parts replacement; major product improvements of existing materiel; one for one replacement of old materiel with new materiel designed to do the same job; to completely new families of materiel designed to do something that has not been done before.

materiel requirements document. [TP 71] A document specifically written to articulate and obtain approval of the mission need or operational requirements for a materiel program. This document concisely states the minimum essential operational, technical, logistical, and cost information necessary to initiate development or procurement of a materiel system. MNS and ORD are two such documents within OSD and the Army.

materiel requirements list. This is a line-by-line list of all materiel (end item/system, associated support items of equipment, etc.) that will be supplied as a total package by the fielding command to the MACOM under the total package/unit materiel fielding (TP/UMF) concept.

materiel system. [DSMC] A final combination of subsystems, components, parts, and materials that makeup an entity for use in combat or in support thereof, either offensively of defensively, to destroy, injure, defeat, or threaten the enemy. It includes the basic materiel items and all related equipment, supporting facilities, and services required for operating and maintaining the system.

materiel transfer plan (MTP). The MTP is a central document used for support and fielding planning for designated displaced systems.

matrix. [DSMC] Organization Combines the advantages of the pure functional (traditional) structure and the product organizational structure. The program manager has total responsibility and accountability for program success. Functional managers provide technical and business assistance to the PM from outside the program management office.

matt. The keying of two scenes; the electronic laying in of a background image behind a foreground scene.

Maverick. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An air-to-surface missile with launch and leave capability. It is designed for use against stationary or moving small, hard targets such as tanks, armored vehicles, and field fortifications. Designated as AGM-65.

maximum aircraft arresting hook load. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The maximum load experienced by an aircraft arresting hook assembly during an arrestment.

maximum class size. [TR 350-70] The largest number of students in a class that can be trained with acceptable degradation in the training effectiveness due to manpower, facility, or equipment constraints. See optimum class size.

maximum effective range. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maximum distance at which a weapon may be expected to be accurate and achieve the desired result.

maximum elevation figure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A figure, shown in each quadrangle bounded by ticked graticule lines on aeronautical charts, which represents the height in thousands and hundreds of feet, above mean sea level, of the highest known natural or manmade feature in that quadrangle, plus suitable factors to allow for inaccuracy and incompleteness of the topographical heighting information.

maximum enlisted amount. [JP 1-02] (DoD) For any month, the sum of: a. the highest rate of basic pay payable for such month to any enlisted member of the Armed Forces of the United States at the highest pay grade applicable to enlisted members: and b. in the case of officers entitled to special pay under Title 37, United States Code, for such month, the amount of such special pay payable to such officers for such month.

maximum landing weight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maximum gross weight due to design or operational limitations at which an aircraft is permitted to land.

maximum operating depth. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The depth which a submarine is not to exceed during operations. This depth is determined by the submarine's national naval authority. See also test depth.

maximum ordinate. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, the height of the highest point in the trajectory of a projectile above the horizontal plane passing through its origin. Also called vertexheight.

maximum permissible concentration. See radioactivity concentration guide.

maximum permissible dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That radiation dose which a military commander or other appropriate authority may prescribe as the limiting cumulative radiation dose to be received over a specific period of time by members of the command, consistent with current operational military considerations.

maximum range. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The greatest distance a weapon can fire without consideration of dispersion.

maximum sustained speed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In road transport, the highest speed at which a vehicle, with its rated payload, can be driven for an extended period on a level first-class highway without sustaining damage.

maximum takeoff weight. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The maximum gross weight due to design or operational limitations at which an aircraft is permitted to take off.

may. May denotes the permissive. However, the words "no person may." mean that no person is required, authorized, or permitted to do the act described.

mayday. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Distress call.

meaconing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system of receiving radio beacon signals and rebroadcasting them on the same frequency to confuse navigation. The meaconing stations cause inaccurate bearings to be obtained by aircraft or ground stations. See also beacon.

mean. [TR 350-70] An arithmetic average calculated by adding up all scores and dividing the total by the number of scores.

mean deviation. The arithmetic mean (average) of the absolute differences between the arithmetic mean of the values and the individual values. Also called standard deviation.

mean lethal dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The amount of nuclear irradiation of the whole body which would be fatal to 50 percent of the exposed personnel in a given period of time.

l The dose of chemical agent that would kill 50 percent of exposed, unprotected and untreated personnel.

mean line of advance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In naval usage, the direction expected to be made good over a sustained period.

mean point of burst. See mean point of impact.

mean point of impact. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The point whose coordinates are the arithmetic means of the coordinates of the separate points of impact/burst of a finite number of projectiles fired or released at the same aiming point under a given set of conditions.

mean score. [TR 350-70] Arithmetic mean score calculated by adding up and dividing the total of all scores by the number of scores.

mean sea level. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide; used as a reference for elevations.

mean time between failures (MTBF). [DSMC] For a particular interval, the total functional life of a population of an item divided by the total number of failures within the population. The definition holds for time, rounds, miles, events, or other measures of life unit. A basic technical measure of reliability.

mean time to repair (MTTR). [DSMC] The total elapsed time (clock hours) for corrective maintenance divided by the total number of corrective maintenance actions during a given period of time. A basic technical measure of maintainability.

means of transport. See mode of transport.

measured mile. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In maritime navigation, distance precisely measured and marked, used by a vessel to calibrate its log.

measures of effectiveness (MOE). 1[TP 71-9] A quantitative indicator of the ability of a human, human/materiel, or materiel system to accomplish the mission for which it was designed. For a military force, it is a measure of the ability of the force to accomplish its combat mission, that is, its combat or operational effectiveness. MOE are system or force attributes. 2[DSMC] A measure of operational success that must be closely related to the objective of the mission or operation being evaluated. For example, kills per shot, probability of kill, effective range, etc. Linkage shall exist among the various MOEs used in the analysis of alternatives, operations requirements document (ORD) and test and evaluation; in particular, the MOEs, measures of performance, criteria in the ORD, the analysis of alternatives, the test and evaluation master plan, and the acquisition program baseline shall be consistent. A meaningful MOE must be quantifiable and a measure to what degree the real objective is achieved. MOE are system or force attributes.

measures of performance (MOP). 1[TP 71-9] The quantitative indicator of the performance capabilities of a system. MOP are system attributes. 2[DSMC] Measures of lowest level of performance representing subsets of measure of effectiveness (MOEs). Examples are speed, payload, range, time on station, frequency, or other distinctly quantifiable performance features. MOP are system attributes.

measurement and signature intelligence(MASINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Scientific and technical intelligence obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis of data (metric, angle, spatial, wavelength, time dependence, modulation, plasma, and hydromagnetic) derived from specific technical sensors for the purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the source, emitter, or sender and to facilitate subsequent identification and/or measurement of the same. See also intelligence.

measurement errors. [TR 350-70] Errors which occur due to the unreliability of the measurement process. These errors are random and are never completely absent. In addition, these may be systematic (non-random) errors due to some fault in the measurement process.

measurement process. The operations involved in determining the amount of an attribute (e.g., skill, knowledge, or attitude) possessed by a student.

measurement ton (M/T or MTON). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Volume measurement equal to 40 cubic feet.

mechanical sweep. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, any sweep used with the object of physically contacting the mine or its appendages.

media. [TR 350-70] A means of conveying or delivering information. Examples of training media are paper, film, videotape, broadcast television, computer program. Also called training media. Note: media is plural, medium is singular.

media alternative. A substitute means for presenting stimuli

media code. [TP 25-71] The code that represents the media of a record.

media delivery format. The physical characteristics of the instructional material presentation medium (e.g., printed materials, overhead transparencies, 35mm slides, etc.).

media mix. Combination of different media used to present a unit of instruction.

media pool. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A limited number of news media who represent a larger number of news media organizations for news gathering and sharing of material during a specified activity. Pooling is typically used when news media support resources cannot accommodate a large number of journalists. The DoD National Media Pool is available for coverage of the earliest stages of a contingency. Additionally, the combatant commanders may also find it necessary to form limited local pools to report on specific missions. See also news media representative; public affairs.

media selection. The process of selecting the most effective means of delivering instruction.

media type. [TP 25-71] The material/environment on which information is inscribed (e.g., microform, electronic, paper).

median incapacitating dose. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The amount or quantity of chemical agent which when introduced into the body will incapacitate 50 percent of exposed, unprotected personnel.

medical evacuees. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel who are wounded, injured, or ill and must be moved to or between medical facilities.

medical intelligence. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That category of intelligence resulting from collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign medical, bioscientific, and environmental information which is of interest to strategic planning and to military medical planning and operations for the conservation of the fighting strength of friendly forces and the formation of assessments of foreign medical capabilities in both military and civilian sectors.

medical officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Physician with officer rank.

medical regulating. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The actions and coordination necessary to arrange for the movement of patients through the echelons of care. This process matches patients with a medical treatment facility which has the necessary health service support capabilities, and it also ensures that bed space is available. See also health service support; medical treatment facility.

medical threat. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A collective term used to designate all potential or continuing enemy actions and environmental situations that could possibly adversely affect the combat effectiveness of friendly forces, to include wounding, injuries, or sickness incurred while engaged in a joint operation.

medical treatment facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A facility established for the purpose of furnishing medical and/or dental care to eligible individuals.

medium. 1The vehicle on which information is presented. Examples of training media are paper, film, videotape, broadcast television, computer program. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD) As used in air intercept, a height between 2,000 and 25,000 feet.

medium artillery. See field artillery.

medium atomic demolition munition. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A low-yield, team-portable, atomic demolition munition which can be detonated either by remote control or a timer device.

medium-altitude bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Horizontal bombing with the height of release between 8,000 and 15,000 feet.

medium-angle loft bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Type of loft bombing wherein weapon release occurs at an angle between 35 and 75 degrees above the horizontal.

medium-lot storage. Generally defined as a quantity of material which will require one to three pallet stacks, stored to maximum height. Thus, the term refers to relatively small lots as distinguished from definitely large or small lots. See also storage.

medium-range ballistic missile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A ballistic missile with a range capability from about 600 to 1,500 nautical miles.

medium-range bomber aircraft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius of under 1,000 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

medium-range transport aircraft. See transport aircraft.

medium-scale map. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A map having a scale larger than 1:600,000 and smaller than 1:75,000. See also map.

meeting engagement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A combat action that occurs when a moving force, incompletely deployed for battle, engages an enemy at an unexpected time and place.

megahertz (MHz). One million hertz per second.

megaton weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nuclear weapon, the yield of which is measured in terms of millions of tons of trinitrotoluene explosive equivalents. See also kiloton weapon; nominal weapon; subkiloton weapon.

memorandum of agreement(MOA). 1[DSMC] In contract administration, an agreement between a program manager and a contract administration office (CAO), establishing the scope of responsibility of the CAO with respect to the cost/schedule control system criteria surveillance functions and objectives, and/or other contract administration functions on a specific contract or program. 2[DSMC] Any written agreement in principle as to how program will be administered.

memorandum of understanding (MOU). [DSMC] Defacto agreements that are generally recognized by all partners as binding even if no legal claim could be based on the rights and obligations laid down in them.

memory. See storage.

mental set. A preparatory mental adjustment, or readiness, for a particular type of experience.

mental skill. [TR 350-70] The active mental processes of identifying, classifying, using rules, and solving problems. Includes thinking, reasoning, analyzing, judging, and inferring functions. See skill.

mercantile convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A convoy consisting primarily of merchant ships controlled by the naval control of shipping organization.

merchant intelligence (MERINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In intelligence handling, communication instructions for reporting by merchant vessels of vital intelligence sightings.

merchant ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A vessel engaged in mercantile trade except river craft, estuarial craft, or craft which operate solely within harbor limits.

merchant ship casualty report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A report by message, or other means, of a casualty to a merchant ship at sea or in port. Merchant ship casualty reports are sent by the escort force commander or other appropriate authority to the operational control authority in whose area the casualty occurred.

merchant ship communications system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A worldwide system of communications to and from merchant ships using the peacetime commercial organization as a basis but under operational control authority, with the ability to employ the broadcast mode to ships when the situation makes radio silence necessary.

merchant ship control zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defined area of sea or ocean inside which it may be necessary to offer guidance, control, and protection to allied shipping.

merchant ship reporting and control message system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A worldwide message system for reporting the movements of and information relating to the control of merchant ships.

mercomms system. See merchant ship.

merged. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Tracks have come together."

message. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any thought or idea expressed briefly in a plain or secret language and prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication.

message (telecommunications). Record information expressed in plain or encrypted language and prepared in a format specified for intended transmission by a telecommunications system.

message center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) See telecommunications center.

metadata. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) Information about information; more specifically, information about the meaning of other data. See also data; information. 2[TP 25-71] The values of the record profile attributes. See record profile.

metaskills. Cognitive strategies that an individual applies to the processing of new information in a novel situation (a scenario not previously experienced). These skills include chunking or organizing new information, recalling relevant schemas, adding the new information to the old schemas, and creating new schemas.

meteorological and oceanographic (METOC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A term used to convey all meteorological (weather) and oceanographic (physical oceanography) factors as provided by Service components. These factors include the whole range of atmospheric and oceanographic phenomena from the sub-bottom of the earth's oceans up to the space environment (space weather).

meteorological and oceanographic forecast center (MFC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The collective of electronically connected, shore-based meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) production facilities that includes centers such as Air Force Weather Agency, Navy Fleet Numerical METOC Center, 55th Space Weather Squadron, Naval Oceanographic Office, Warfighting Support Center, Air Force Combat Climatology Center, Fleet Numerical METOC Center Detachment, Asheville, North Carolina, and the Air Force and Navy theater and/or regional METOC production activities. See also meteorological and oceanographic.

meteorological data. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Meteorological facts pertaining to the atmosphere, such as wind, temperature, air density, and other phenomena which affect military operations.

meteorology The study dealing with the phenomena of the atmosphere including the physics, chemistry, and dynamics extending to the effects of the atmosphere on the earth's surface and the oceans. See also atmosphere.

methodology. [TP 25-71] A Government Information Locator Service data element that identifies specialized tools, techniques, or methodology used to produce an information resource.

methods of instruction. [TR 350-70] Indicates exactly how the training material will actually be provided to the student and has an assigned instructor-to-student ratio. Examples of methods of instruction are conference, demonstration, and practical exercise. See TR 350-70, Appendix H.

methods engineering. [DSMC] The technique that subjects each operation of a given piece of work to close analysis in order to eliminate every unnecessary element or operation and in order to approach the quickest and best method of performing each necessary element or operation. It includes the improvement and standardization of methods, equipment, and working conditions; operator training; the determination of standard times; and occasionally devising and administering various incentive plans.

methods of instruction. The techniques and procedures used in the delivery of instruction, feedback, and evaluation. They indicate exactly how the training material will actually be provided to the student and has an assigned instructor-to-student ratio. A way of presenting instruction to the students. Examples of methods of instruction are conference, demonstration, and practical exercise. See TR 350-70, Appendix H.

methods study. [DSMC] Systematic recording of all activities performed in a job or position of work including standard times for the work performed. Work simplification notes are written during the study.

metric system/metrication. [DSMC] A decimal system of weights and measures. Basic units are the meter (39.37") for length and the kilogram (2.2046 pounds) for mass.

metric system of measurement. [DSMC] As used herein, the term means the International System of Units (or SI from the French Le Systeme International d'Unites) as established by the General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960, and as interpreted, or modified, for the United States by the Secretary of Commerce. The terms metric, metric system, and metric units are used interchangeably with the term SI.

metrology. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The science of measurement, including the development of measurement standards and systems for absolute and relative measurements.

MI system. [TP 525-75] The seamless system of systems that includes all collectors, non-lethal C2 Attack systems, processors, analysts, and assured communications means, organic to intelligence organizations.

micro-purchase. Micro-purchase means an acquisition of supplies or services (except construction), the aggregate amount of which does not exceed $2,500, except that in the case of construction, the limit is $2,000.

micro-purchase threshold. Micro-purchase threshold means $2,500.

microform. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A generic term for any form, whether film, video tape, paper, or other medium, containing miniaturized or otherwise compressed images which cannot be read without special display devices.

micromanagement. [DSMC] The notion, perceived or real, of closely detailed scrutiny of a program's activities by one's superiors in the chain of command, or by the Congress. May result in second-guessing, reviews, changes, or further program justification. A usurpation of authority or responsibility.

mid-range period. This is normally the eight years after the budget year.

midcourse guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The guidance applied to a missile between termination of the boost phase and the start of the terminal phase of flight. See also guidance.

midcourse phase. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the trajectory of a ballistic missile between the boost phase and the reentry phase. See also ballistic trajectory; boost phase; reentry phase; terminal phase.

middleman. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Very high frequency or ultra-high frequency radio relay equipment."

midnight. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "Changeover from close to broadcast control."

midpoint pricing. [DSMC] Uses a single set of rates that are the average of a pricing future time period in lieu of progressively escalated rates to develop an escalated price estimate.

midyear review. 1[DSMC] An update of President's original budget proposal by the Office of Management and Budget and submitted to the Congress by 15 July. 2[DSMC] An examination of specific portions of the budget by the comptroller at approximately the middle of a fiscal year. Primary examination of operations and maintenance appropriations. Also used to release or expedite funding.

milestone. [TP 71-9] A milestone is the major decision point that initiates the next phase of an acquisition program. MDAP milestones may include, for example, the decisions to begin engineering and manufacturing development, or to begin either low-rate initial or full-rate production. MAISAP milestones may include, for example, the decision to begin program definition and risk reduction.

milestone decision authority (MDA). 1[DoD 5200.2-R] The individual designated in accordance with criteria established by the USD (A&T), or by the ASD (C3I) for AIS acquisition programs, to approve entry of an acquisition program into the next phase. 2[TP 71-9] The individual designated IAW criteria established by the USD(A&T), or the ASD(C3I) for AIS acquisition programs, to approve entry of an acquisition program into the next phase.

milestone decision review (MDR). The decision point, separating life cycle phases, at which the system's status is assessed for fitness to proceed to the next phase. The activities that have been performed in the preceding LCM phase, the status of program execution and program management's plans for the remainder of the program, are assessed and exit criteria for the next LCM phase are established during the milestone review and decision process.

militarily significant fallout. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Radioactive contamination capable of inflicting radiation doses on personnel which may result in a reduction of their combat effectiveness.

Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS). A program conducted by the Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force in which amateur radio stations and operators participate in and contribute to the mission of providing auxiliary and emergency communications on a local, national, or international basis as an adjunct to normal military communications.

military assistance advisory group (MAAG). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A joint service group, normally under the military command of a commander of a unified command and representing the Secretary of Defense, which primarily administers the U.S. military assistance planning and programming in the host country.

Military Assistance Articles and Services List. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Department of Defense publication listing source, availability, and price of items and services for use by the unified commands and military departments in preparing military assistance plans and programs.

Military Assistance Program. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That portion of the U.S. security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of l961, as amended and by the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) Act of 1968, which provides defense articles and services to recipients on a nonreimbursable (grant) basis.

Military Assistance Program training. See international military education and training.

military capability. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The ability to achieve a specified wartime objective (win a war or battle, destroy a target set). It includes four major components: force structure, modernization, readiness, and sustainability:

l Force structure. Numbers, size, and composition of the units that comprise our Defense forces; e.g., divisions, ships, airwings.

l Modernization. Technical sophistication of forces, units, weapon systems, and equipment.

l Readiness. The ability of forces, units, weapon systems, or equipment to deliver the outputs for which they were designed (includes the ability to deploy and employ without unacceptable delays).

l Sustainability. The ability to maintain the necessary level and duration of operational activity to achieve military objectives. Sustainability is a function of providing for and maintaining those levels of ready forces, materiel, and consumables necessary to support military effort.

military censorship. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All types of censorship conducted by personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States, to include armed forces censorship, civil censorship, prisoner of war censorship, and field press censorship. See also censorship.

military characteristics. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those characteristics of equipment upon which depends its ability to perform desired military functions. Military characteristics include physical and operational characteristics but not technical characteristics.

military civic action. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The use of preponderantly indigenous military forces on projects useful to the local population at all levels in such fields as education, training, public works, agriculture, transportation, communications, health, sanitation, and others contributing to economic and social development, which would also serve to improve the standing of the military forces with the population. (U.S. forces may at times advise or engage in military civic actions in overseas areas.)

military construction. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any construction, alteration, development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation.

military construction, Army (MCA). A funding term for major construction using Congressional five-year money.

military convoy. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A land or maritime convoy that is controlled and reported as a military unit. A maritime convoy can consist of any combination of merchant ships, auxiliaries, or other military units.

military currency. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Currency prepared by a power and declared by its military commander to be legal tender for use by civilian and/or military personnel as prescribed in the areas occupied by its forces. It should be of distinctive design to distinguish it from the official currency of the countries concerned, but may be denominated in the monetary unit of either.

military damage assessment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An appraisal of the effects of an attack on a nation's military forces to determine residual military capability and to support planning for recovery and reconstitution. See also damage assessment.

military deception. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military decisionmakers as to friendly military capabilities, intentions, and operations, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission. The five categories of military deception are:

l strategic military deception. Military deception planned and executed by and in support of senior military commanders to result in adversary military policies and actions that support the originator's strategic military objectives, policies, and operations.

l operational military deception. Military deception planned and executed by and in support of operational-level commanders to result in adversary actions that are favorable to the originator's objectives and operations. Operational military deception is planned and conducted in a theater of war to support campaigns and major operations.

l tactical military deception. Military deception planned and executed by and in support of tactical commanders to result in adversary actions that are favorable to the originator's objectives and operations. Tactical military deception is planned and conducted to support battles and engagements.

l service military deception. Military deception planned and executed by the Services that pertain to Service support to joint operations. Service military deception is designed to protect and enhance the combat capabilities of Service forces and systems.

l military deception in support of operations security (OPSEC). Military deception planned and executed by and in support of all levels of command to support the prevention of the inadvertent compromise of sensitive or classified activities, capabilities, or intentions. Deceptive OPSEC measures are designed to distract foreign intelligence away from, or provide cover for, military operations and activities.

See also deception.

military department. [JP 1-02] (DoD) One of the departments within the Department of Defense created by the National Security Act of 1947, as amended. See also Department of the Army; Department of the Navy; Department of the Air Force.

military designed vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A vehicle having military characteristics resulting from military research and development processes, designed primarily for use by forces in the field in direct connection with, or support of, combat or tactical operations.

military education. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The systematic instruction of individuals in subjects which will enhance their knowledge of the science and art of war. See also military training.

military geographic documentation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Military geographic information which has been evaluated, processed, summarized, and published.

military geographic information. Comprises the information concerning physical aspects, resources, and artificial features which is necessary for planning and operations.

military geography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The specialized field of geography dealing with natural and manmade physical features that may affect the planning and conduct of military operations.

military government. See civil affairs.

military government ordinance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An enactment on the authority of a military governor promulgating laws or rules regulating the occupied territory under such control.

military governor. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The military commander or other designated person who, in an occupied territory, exercises supreme authority over the civil population subject to the laws and usages of war and to any directive received from the commander's government or superior.

military grid. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Two sets of parallel lines intersecting at right angles and forming squares; the grid is superimposed on maps, charts, and other similar representations of the surface of the Earth in an accurate and consistent manner to permit identification of ground locations with respect to other locations and the computation of direction and distance to other points. See also military grid reference system.

military grid reference system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which uses a standard-scaled grid square, based on a point of origin on a map projection of the surface of the Earth in an accurate and consistent manner to permit either position referencing or the computation of direction and distance between grid positions. See a]so military grid.

military independent. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A merchant ship or auxiliary sailed singly but controlled and reported as a military unit. See also independent.

military installation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A base, camp, post, station, yard, center, or other activity under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of a Military Department or, in the case of an activity in a foreign country, under the operational control of the Secretary of a Military Department or the Secretary of Defense. See also base; camp; station.

military intelligence.[JP 1-02] (DoD) Intelligence on any foreign military or military-related situation or activity which is significant to military policy-making or the planning and conduct of military operations and activities.

Military Intelligence Board (MIB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A decision making forum which formulates Defense intelligence policy and programming priorities. The Military Intelligence Board, chaired by the Director, Defense Intelligence Agency, who is dual-hatted as Director of Military Intelligence, consists of senior military and civilian intelligence officials of each service, U.S. Coast Guard, each combat support agency, the Joint Staff/J2/J6, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Intelligence), Intelligence Program Support Group, National Military Intelligence Production Center, National Military Intelligence Collection Center, National Military Intelligence Support Center, and the combatant command J2s.

Military Intelligence Information Processing System (MIIPS). A system (with mapping/graphic capability) that, along with the XIDB (systems), will comprise the MIDB.

Military Intelligence Integrated Data System/Integrated Data Base (MIDS/DB). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An architecture for improving the manner in which military intelligence is analyzed, stored, and disseminated. The Integrated Data Base (IDB) forms the core automated data base for the Military Intelligence Integrated Data System (MIIDS) program and integrates the data in the installation, order of battle, equipment, and selected electronic warfare and command, control, and communications files. The IDB is the national-level repository for the general military intelligence information available to the entire Department of Defense Intelligence Information System community and maintained by DIA and the commands. The IDB is kept synchronized by system transactions to disseminate updates. See also architecture; military intelligence.

military intervention. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The deliberate act of a nation or a group of nations to introduce its military forces into the course of an existing controversy.

military journalist. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A US Service member or DoD civilian employee providing photographic, print, radio, or television command information for military internal audiences. See also command information.

military land transportation resources. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All military-owned transportation resources, designated for common-user, over the ground, point-to-point use.

military load classification. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A standard system in which a route, bridge, or raft is assigned class number(s) representing the load it can carry. Vehicles are also assigned a number indicating the minimum class of route, bridge, or raft they are authorized to use. See also route classification.

military necessity. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The principle whereby a belligerent has the right to apply any measures which are required to bring about the successful conclusion of a military operation and which are not forbidden by the laws of war.

military nuclear power. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nation which has nuclear weapons and the capability for their employment. See also nuclear power.

military objectives. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The derived set of military actions to be taken to implement National Command Authorities guidance in support of national objectives. Defines the results to be achieved by the military and assigns tasks to commanders. See also national objectives.

military occupation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A condition in which territory is under the effective control of a foreign armed force. See also occupied territory; phases of military government.

military occupational specialty (MOS). A term used to identify a grouping of duty positions possessing such close occupational or functional relationships that an optimal degree of interchangeability among persons so classified exists at any given skill level.

military operational requirements. [DSMC] The formal expression of a military need, responses to which results in development or acquisition of item, equipment's, or systems. See operational requirements document (ORD).

military operations other than war (MOOTW). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Operations that encompass the use of military capabilities across the range of military operations short of war. These military actions can be applied to complement any combination of the other instruments of national power and occur before, during, and after war.

military options. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A range of military force responses that can be projected to accomplish assigned tasks. Options include one or a combination of the following:

l Civic action, humanitarian assistance, civil affairs, and other military activities to develop positive relationships with other countries.

l Confidence building and other measures to reduce military tensions.

l Military presence.

l Activities to convey threats to adversaries and truth projections.

l Military deceptions and psychological operations.

l Quarantines, blockades, and harassment operations.

l Raids.

l Intervention campaigns.

l Armed conflict involving air, land, maritime, and strategic warfare campaigns and operations.

l Support for law enforcement authorities to counter international criminal activities (terrorism, narcotics trafficking, slavery, and piracy).

l Support for law enforcement authorities to suppress domestic rebellion.

l Support for insurgencies, counterinsurgency, and civil war in foreign countries.

See also civil affairs; humanitarian assistance; military civic action.

military performance specification containers. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Containers that meet specific written standards. Aviation and Troop Command, US Army, procures military performance specification containers for the Army and will perform like services for other Department of Defense components on request. Also called MILSPEC container.

military personnel, Army (MPA). The funding appropriation for military pay and allowances.

military platform. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A side-loading platform generally at least 300 meters/1000 feet long for military trains.

military posture. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The military disposition, strength, and condition of readiness as it affects capabilities.

military projection operations. See land, sea, or aerospace projection operations.

military property. [DSMC] Government-owned property designed for military operations. It includes end items and integral components of military weapons systems, along with the related peculiar support equipment which is not readily available as a commercial item. It does not include government material, special test equipment, special tooling, or facilities.

military qualification standards (MQS). The system for establishing the standards and responsibilities for the professional development, training, and education of officers at appropriate levels/ grades to execute our warfighting doctrine.

military qualification standards (MQS) manual. [TR 350-70] MQS manuals list all common, shared, and branch-specific critical tasks for commissioned officers. Officers refer to the MQS manuals to determine critical tasks, professional knowledges, and special emphasis areas required to successfully perform their jobs. These manuals also provide reference courses and job aids to assist in task performance and self-development. They include:

l MQS I Manual of Common Tasks (Precommisioning Requirements). Provides the basic requirements each individual must meet before commissioning.

l MQS II Manual of Common Tasks for Lieutenants and Captains. Concentrates on common critical tasks for all company-grade officers.

l MQS II branch manuals (lieutenants and captains). Focus on tasks that qualify the company-grade officers in a given branch.

l MQS III Leader Development Manual (majors and lieutenant colonels). Provides additional tasks for field-grade officers.

Note: MQS manuals will be phased out and replaced by OFS products.

military requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An established need justifying the timely allocation of resources to achieve a capability to accomplish approved military objectives, missions, or tasks. See also objective force level.

military resources. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Military and civilian personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies under the control of a DoD component.

Military Sealift Command (MSC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The U.S. Transportation Command's component command responsible for designated sealift service. See also transportation component command.

Military Sealift Command- (MSC-) controlled ships. Those ships assigned by the MSC for a specific operation. They may be MSC nucleus fleet ships, contract-operated MSC ships, MSC-controlled time or voyage-chartered commercial ships, or MSC-controlled ships allocated by the Maritime Administration to MSC to carry out DoD objectives.

Military Sealift Command force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The Military Sealift Command (MSC) force common-user sealift consists of three subsets: the Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force, common-user ocean transportation, and the special mission support force. These ship classes include government-owned ships (normally civilian manned) and ships acquired by MSC charter or allocated from other government agencies. See also common-user sealift; Military Sealift Command.

military service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A branch of the Armed Forces of the United States, established by act of Congress, in which persons are appointed, enlisted, or inducted for military service, and which operates and is administered within a military or executive department. The military services are: the United States Army, the United States Navy, the United States Air Force, the United States Marine Corps, and the United States Coast Guard.

military service school or course. A school or course that presents a curriculum developed and approved by a military service to meet a specified training requirement of that service.

military standard requisitioning and issue procedure(MILSTRIP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A uniform procedure established by the Department of Defense for use within the Department of Defense to govern requisition and issue of materiel within standardized priorities.

military standard transportation and movement procedures(MILSTAMP).[JP 1-02] (DoD) Uniform and standard transportation data, documentation, and control procedures applicable to all cargo movements in the Department of Defense transportation system.

military strategy. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The art and science of employing the armed forces of a nation to secure the objectives of national policy by the application of force or the threat of force. See also strategy.

military support to civil authorities (MSCA). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those activities and measures taken by the Department of Defense to foster mutual assistance and support between the Department of Defense and any civil government agency in planning or preparedness for, or in the application of resources for response to, the consequences of civil emergencies or attacks, including national security emergencies.

military symbol. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A graphic sign used, usually on map, display or diagram, to represent a particular military unit, installation, activity, or other item of military interest.

military technician (MILTECH). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Federal civilian employee providing full-time support to a National Guard, Reserve, or Active Component organization for administration, training, and maintenance of the Selected Reserve.

military traffic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Department of Defense personnel, mail, and cargo to be, or being, transported.

Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The U.S. Transportation Command's component command responsible for military traffic, continental United States air and land transportation, and common-user water terminals. See also transportation component command.

military training. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The instruction of personnel to enhance their capacity to perform specific military functions and tasks; the exercise of one or more military units conducted to enhance their combat readiness. See also military education.

military utility. [DSMC] The military worth of a system performing its mission in a competitive environment including versatility (or potential) of the system. It is measured against the operational concept, operational effectiveness, safety, security, and cost/worth. Military utility estimates form a rational basis for making management decisions.

millisecond. One-thousandth of a second.

MILVAN. Military-owned demountable container, conforming to United States and international standards, operated in a centrally controlled fleet for movement of military cargo.

MILVAN chassis. The compatible chassis to which the MILVAN is attached by coupling the lower four standard corner fittings of the container to compatible mounting blocks in the chassis to permit road movement.

mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In land mine warfare, an explosive or other material, normally encased, designed to destroy or damage ground vehicles, boats, or aircraft, or designed to wound, kill, or otherwise incapacitate personnel. It is designed to be detonated by the action of its victim, by the passage of time, or by controlled means.

l In naval mine warfare, an explosive device laid in the water with the intention of damaging or sinking ships or of deterring shipping from entering an area. The term does not include devices attached to the bottoms of ships or to harbor installations by personnel operating underwater, nor does it include devices which explode immediately on expiration of a predetermined time after laying.

See also land mine warfare; mine warfare.

mine clearance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The process of removing all mines from a route or area.

mine countermeasures. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All methods for preventing or reducing damage or danger from mines.

mine defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The defense of a position, area, etc., by land or underwater mines. A mine defense system includes the personnel and equipment needed to plant, operate, maintain, and protect the minefields that are laid.

mine disposal. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The operation by suitably qualified personnel designed to render safe, neutralize, recover, remove, or destroy mines.

mine hunting. Employment of sensor and neutralization systems, whether air, surface, or subsurface, to locate and dispose of individual mines. Mine hunting is conducted to eliminate mines in a known field when sweeping is not feasible or desirable, or to verify the presence or absence of mines in a given area. See also minesweeping.

mine row. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A single row of mines or clusters. See also mine strip.

mine spotting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the process of visually observing a mine or minefield.

mine strip. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, two parallel mine rows laid simultaneously six meters or six paces apart. See also mine row.

mine warfare. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The strategic, operational, and tactical use of mines and mine countermeasures. Mine warfare is divided into two basic subdivisions: the laying of mines to degrade the enemy's capabilities to wage land, air, and maritime warfare; and the countering of enemy-laid mines to permit friendly maneuver or use of selected land or sea areas.

mine warfare chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000 or larger (preferably 1:25,000 or larger) designed for planning and executing mine warfare operations, either based on an existing standard nautical chart, or produced to special specifications.

mine warfare forces (naval). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Navy forces charged with the strategic, operational, and tactical use of naval mines and their countermeasures. Such forces are capable of offensive and defensive measures in connection with laying and clearing mines.

mine warfare group.[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A task organization of mine warfare units for the conduct of minelaying and/or mine countermeasures in maritime operations.

mine weapons. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The collective term for all weapons which may be used in mine warfare.

mineable waters. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Waters where naval mines of any given type may be effective against any given target.

mined area. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An area declared dangerous due to the presence or suspected presence of mines.

minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l In land warfare, an area of ground containing mines emplaced with or without a pattern.

l In naval warfare, an area of water containing mines laid with or without a pattern.

See also land mine warfare; mine; mine warfare.

minefield breaching. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, the process of clearing a lane through a minefield under tactical conditions. See also minefield lane.

minefield density. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, the average number of mines per meter of minefield front, or the average number of mines per square meter of minefield.

minefield lane. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A marked lane, unmined, or cleared of mines, leading through a minefield.

minefield marking. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Visible marking of all points required in laying a minefield and indicating the extent of such minefields.

minefield record. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A complete written record of all pertinent information concerned on a minefield, submitted on a standard form by the officer in charge of the laying operations.

minefield report. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An oral, electronic, or written communication concerning mining activities, friendly or enemy, submitted in a standard format by the fastest secure means available.

minehunting. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Employment of sensor and neutralization systems, whether air, surface, or subsurface, to locate and dispose of individual mines. Minehunting is conducted to eliminate mines in a known field when sweeping is not feasible or desirable, or to verify the presence or absence of mines in a given area. See also minesweeping.

minesweeping. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The technique of clearing mines using either mechanical, explosive, or influence sweep equipment. Mechanical sweeping removes, disturbs, or otherwise neutralizes the mine; explosive sweeping causes sympathetic detonations in, damages, or displaces the mine; and influence sweeping produces either the acoustic and/or magnetic influence required to detonate the mine. See also mine hunting.

minewatching. In naval mine warfare, the mine countermeasures procedure to detect, record, and, if possible, track potential minelayers and to detect, find the position of, and/or identify mines during the actual minelaying.

minimize. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A condition wherein normal message and telephone traffic is drastically reduced in order that messages connected with an actual or simulated emergency shall not be delayed.

minimum acceptable operational performance requirement (MAOPR). [DSMC] See threshold.

minimum acceptable operational requirement. The value for a particular parameter that is required to provide a system capability that will satisfy the validated mission need. Also known as the performance threshold.

minimum aircraft operating surface. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The minimum surface on an airfield which is essential for the movement of aircraft. It includes the aircraft dispersal areas, the minimum operating strip, and the taxiways between them. See also minimum operating strip.

minimum attack altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lowest altitude determined by the tactical use of weapons, terrain consideration, and weapons effects which permits the safe conduct of an air attack and/or minimizes effective enemy counteraction.

minimum buy. [DSMC] The purchase of material in standard bulk quantities even though the contract requirement is less than the standard quantity. This is done when price does not increase proportionately for quantities less than the standard quantity.

minimum crossing altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lowest altitude at certain radio fixes at which an aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher minimum en route instrument flight rules altitude.

minimum descent altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The lowest altitude to which descent shall be authorized in procedures not using a glide slope, until the required visual reference has been established. See also minimum descent height.

minimum descent height. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The lowest height to which descent shall be authorized in procedures not using a glide slope, until the required visual reference has been established. See also minimum descent altitude.

minimum essential equipment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That part of authorized allowances of Army equipment, clothing, and supplies needed to preserve the integrity of a unit during movement without regard to the performance of its combat or service mission. Items common within this category will normally be carried by or accompany troops to the port and will be placed aboard the same ships with the troops. As used in movement directives, minimum essential equipment refers to specific items of both organizational and individual clothing and equipment.

minimum essential requirement. [TR 350-70] Actions, processes, or products that are essential to the Systems Approach to Training (SAT) process to ensure mission-focused, task-based, efficient and effective training.

minimum normal burst altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The altitude above terrain below which air defense nuclear warheads are not normally detonated.

minimum nuclear safe distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The sum of the radius of safety and the buffer distance.

minimum nuclear warning time. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The sum of system reaction time and personnel reaction time.

minimum obstruction clearance altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The specified altitude in effect between radio fixes on very high frequency omnirange airways, off-airway routes, or route segments, which meets obstruction clearance requirements for the entire route segment, and that assures acceptable navigational signal coverage only within 22 miles of a very high frequency omnirange.

minimum operating strip. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A runway which meets the minimum requirements for operating assigned and/or allocated aircraft types on a particular airfield at maximum or combat gross weight. See also minimum aircraft operating surface.

minimum range. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Least range setting of a gun at which the projectile will clear an obstacle or friendly troops between the gun and the target.

l Shortest distance to which a gun can fire from a given position.

minimum reception altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lowest altitude required to receive adequate signals to determine specific very high frequency omnirange/tactical air navigation fixes.

minimum required accomplishments. Necessary tasks that must be completed during an acquisition phase prior to the next milestone decision review. Applies to all acquisition categories and highly sensitive classified programs.

minimum residual radioactivity weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nuclear weapon designed to have optimum reduction of unwanted effects from fallout, rainout, and burst site radioactivity. See also salted weapon.

minimum safe altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The altitude below which it is hazardous to fly owing to presence of high ground or other obstacles.

minimum-altitude bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Horizontal or glide bombing with the height of release under 900 feet. It includes masthead bombing, which is sometimes erroneously referred to as skip bombing. See also skip bombing.

minimum-risk level(MRL). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specific altitude or altitude block that allows homebound aircraft to return in a homebound direction without lateral restrictions.

minimum-risk route(MRR). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A temporary corridor of defined dimensions recommended for use by high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft that presents the minimum known hazards to low-flying aircraft transiting the combat zone.

minor control. See photogrammetric control.

minor installation. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In the Air Force, a facility operated by an active, reserve, or Guard unit of at least squadron size that does not otherwise satisfy all the criteria for a major installation. This category includes Air Force stations; air stations; Air Reserve stations; and Air Guard stations. Examples of minor installations are Active, Reserve, or Guard flying operations that are located at civilian-owned airports. See also installation complex; major installation; other activity; support site.

minor port. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A port having facilities for the discharge of cargo from coasters or lighters only. See also port.

Minuteman. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A three-stage, solid propellant, ballistic missile which is guided to its target by an all-inertial guidance and control system. The missiles are equipped with nuclear warheads and designed for deployment in hardened and dispersed underground silos. With the improved third stage and the post-boost vehicle, the Minuteman III missile can deliver multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles and their penetration aids to multiple targets. Designated as LGM-30.

misfire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l Failure to fire or explode properly.

l Failure of a primer or the propelling charge of a round or projectile to function wholly or in part.

Mishap Database (MDB). The Army Safety Management Information (ASMIS) database. It is designed to be user friendly and conversational with a wide variety of computer terminals or minicomputers via A- voice-grade telephone lines. It provides for rapid access of information from safety offices throughout the Army. The system requires user identification code and password. ASMIS consists of data recorded from:

l DA Forms 285.

l Preliminary reports of aviation mishaps (PRAM).

l DA Forms 2397.

l Federal Employees Compensation Act Data.

l Aviation flying hours.

l DA Forms 2398.

l Safety library.

missed approach. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An approach which is not completed by landing.

missed approach procedure. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The procedures to be followed if, after an instrument approach, a landing is not effected and occurring normally:

l When the aircraft has descended to the decision height/altitude and has not established visual contact.

l When directed by air traffic control to pull up or to go around again.

missile assembly-checkout facility. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A building, van, or other type structure located near the operational missile launching location and designed for the final assembly and checkout of the missile system.

missile control system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system that serves to maintain attitude stability and to correct deflections. See also missile guidance system.

missile destruct. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Intentional destruction of a missile or similar vehicle for safety or other reasons.

missile destruct system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which, when operated by external command or preset internal means, destroys the missile or similar vehicle.

missile guidance system. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system which evaluates flight information, correlates it with target data, determines the desired flight path of a missile, and communicates the necessary commands to the missile flight control system.

missile intercept zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That geographical division of the destruction area where surface-to-air missiles have primary responsibility for destruction of airborne objects. See also destruction area.

missile monitor. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile, electronic, air defense fire-distribution system for use at Army air defense group, battalion, and battery levels. It employs digital data to exchange information within the system and provides means for the Army air defense commander to monitor actions of the units and take corrective action when necessary. It automatically exchanges information with adjacent missile monitor systems when connected with them by data links.

missile release line. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The line at which an attacking aircraft could launch an air-to-surface missile against a specific target.

missing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A casualty status for which the United States Code provides statutory guidance concerning missing members of the military services. Excluded are personnel who are in an absent without leave, deserter, or dropped-from-rolls status. A person declared missing is categorized as follows:

l beleaguered. The casualty is a member of an organized element that has been surrounded by a hostile force to prevent escape of its members.

l besieged. The casualty is a member of an organized element that has been surrounded by a hostile force for compelling it to surrender.

l captured. The casualty has been seized as the result of action of an unfriendly military or paramilitary force in a foreign country.

l detained. The casualty is prevented from proceeding or is restrained in custody for alleged violation of international law or other reason claimed by the government or group under which the person is being held.

l interned. The casualty is definitely known to have been taken into custody of a nonbelligerent foreign power as the result of and for reasons arising out of any armed conflict in which the Armed Forces of the United States are engaged.

l missing. The casualty is not present at his or her duty location due to apparent involuntary reasons and whose location is unknown.

l missing in action (MIA). The casualty is a hostile casualty, other than the victim of a terrorist activity, who is not present at his or her duty location due to apparent involuntary reasons and whose location is unknown.

See also casualty category; casualty status.

missing in action. See missing.

mission. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefor.

l In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit; a task.

l The dispatching of one or more aircraft to accomplish one particular task.

2[TR 350-70]

l The commander’s expression of what the unit must accomplish and for what purpose. (FM 101-5-1)

l A series of related tasks that comprise the major capabilities and/or requirements imposed on a unit by its parent organization or table(s) of organization and equipment. Examples: Defend in sector, conduct a hasty attack, and delay. Missions may be imposed to support the parent unit.

5[DSMC] The objective or task, together with the purpose, which clearly indicates the action to be taken.

mission analysis. [TR 350-70] Mission analysis identifies unit organizational and functional structure, develops a mission matrix, derives a mission by echelon list, and identifies critical collective tasks as well as individual (leader) tasks performed in direct support of the mission.

mission area. [DSMC] A segment of the defense mission as established by the Secretary of Defense. Each DoD component has mission areas (e.g., Navy – antisubmarine warfare, Army – ground combat, etc.) for which it must equip its forces.

mission area analysis (MAA). 1[TRADOC] MAA is an assessment of the capability of a force to perform within a particular battlefield or functional area. MAA is designed to discover deficiencies in doctrine, organizations, training, and materiel, and to identify means of correcting these deficiencies. MAA stresses a doctrinal solution first, then training solutions, then organizational solutions, and, finally, materiel solutions. MAA also provides a basis applying advanced technology to future Army operations. 2[DSMC] The process by which warfighting deficiencies are determined, technological opportunities for increased system effectiveness and/or cost reduction are assessed, and mission needs identified.

mission area deficiency statement (MADS). A MADS identifies technology needed to support military construction, base development, installation operations, or installation maintenance and repair, and military engineering activities.

mission area development plan (MADP). The MADP transitions the MAA corrective actions to specific projects with milestone schedules so that resources can be applied to the elimination of the MAA deficiency. Each mission area proponent (TRADOC school) publishes an MADP annually. The MADP contains sections on materiel, doctrinal, organizational, and training corrective actions.

mission area materiel plan (MAMP). An MAMP is a fully integrated multi-appropriation effort, jointly conducted by AMC and TRADOC, to systematically develop a prioritized long-range research, development, and acquisition (RDA) plan for the acquisition of materiel systems in response to user requirements.

mission capable (MC). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Material condition of an aircraft indicating it can perform at least one and potentially all of its designated missions. Mission capable is further defined as the sum of full mission capable and partial mission capable. See also full mission capable; partial mission capable; partial mission capable, maintenance; partial mission capable, supply.

mission critical computer resources (MCCR). [DSMC] Computer resources whose function, operation, or use: involves intelligence activities; involves cryptologic activities related to national security; involves command and control of military forces; involves equipment which is an integral part of a weapon or weapons system; or is critical to direct fulfillment of military or intelligence missions.

mission critical system. [TP 71-9] A system whose operational effectiveness and operational suitability are essential to successful completion or to aggregate residual combat capability. If this system fails, the mission likely will not be completed. Such a system can be an auxiliary or supporting system, as well as a primary mission system.

mission cycle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The mission cycle, as it pertains to targeting, is a decision making process used by commanders to employ forces. Within the cycle there are six general mission steps: detection, location, identification, decision, execution, and assessment.

mission element. A mission element is a segment of a mission area critical to the accomplishment of the mission area objectives and corresponding to a recommendation for a major system capability as determined by a DoD Component.

mission equipment. [DSMC] Any item which is a functional part of a system or subsystem and is required to perform mission operations.

mission essential materiel. 1That materiel which is authorized and available to combat, combat support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces to accomplish their assigned missions. 2For the purpose of sizing organic industrial facilities, that service designated materiel authorized to combat, combat support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces and activities, including Reserve and National Guard activities, which is required to support approved emergency and/or war plans, and where the materiel is used to:

l Destroy the enemy or his capacity to continue war.

l Provide battlefield protection of personnel.

l Communicate under war conditions.

l Detect, locate, or maintain surveillance over the enemy.

l Provide combat transportation and support of men and materiel.

l Support training functions, but is suitable for employment under emergency plans to meet purposes enumerated above.

mission essential task list (METL). [TR 350-70] A compilation of collective mission essential tasks which must be successfully performed if an organization is to accomplish its wartime mission(s).

mission need. A statement of operational capability required to perform an assigned mission or to correct a deficiency in existing capability to perform the mission.

mission need analysis. [DSMC] Assesses alternatives in an operational context, identifying what force capabilities would be gained (or foregone) by pursuing any of a designated set of alternatives. Assesses the strengths and weaknesses of a military force when confronting a postulated threat in a specified scenario or set of circumstances (such as force structures, geographic location, and environmental conditions).

mission need determination (MND). [DSMC] The process by which DoD Components determine deficiencies in current capabilities and opportunities to provide new capabilities in terms of nonmateriel solutions and/or materiel solutions. The process that leads to a mission need statement.

mission need statement (MNS). [DSMC] A nonsystem specific statement of operational capability need prepared in accordance with the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum of Policy (IAW CJCS MOP) 77. Developed by DoD components and forwarded to the operational validation authority for validation and approval. Approved MNSs go to the milestone decision authority for a determination on whether or not to convene a Milestone 0 review.

mission needs statement (MNS). [TR 350-70] A broad statement of mission need for a deficiency which can only be satisfied by a materiel solution. A MNS will be prepared for all Army acquisition programs regardless of acquisition category.

mission order. [TR 350-32] Instrument which tells study agency to begin training effectiveness analysis. Approved Fiscal Year TSP is mission order for all studies contained therein. For unprogrammed training effectiveness analysis, DCST will issue mission orders as required.

mission outlines. Graphic portrayals of the relationships between critical wartime missions and the tasks supporting those missions.

mission reliability. The probability that the system will perform mission essential functions for a period of time under the conditions stated in the mission profile.

mission report. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A standard report containing the results of a mission and significant sightings along the flight route.

mission review report (photographic interpretation). [JP 1-02] (DoD) An intelligence report containing information on all targets covered by one photographic sortie.

mission specific data sets (MSDS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Further densification of global geospatial foundation data. Information created to support specific operations, operation plans, training or system development. Information conforms to established DoD data specifications. See also geospatial information and services.

mission support plan. This is a statement by the gaining MACOM that identifies how they plan to logistically support a new item/system.

mission training plan (MTP). [TR 350-70] Provides comprehensive training and evaluation outlines, and exercise concepts and related training management aids to assist field commanders in the planning and execution of effective unit training. It provides units a clear description of "what" and "how" to train to achieve wartime mission proficiency.

mission type order. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Order issued to a lower unit that includes the accomplishment of the total mission assigned to the higher headquarters.

l Order to a unit to perform a mission without specifying how it is to be accomplished.

mission-oriented items. Items for which requirements computations are based upon the assessment of enemy capabilities expressed as a known or estimated quantity of total targets to be destroyed. See also combination mission/level of effort-oriented items; level of effort-oriented items.

mission-essential materiel. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l That materiel which is authorized and available to combat, combat support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces to accomplish their assigned missions.

l For the purpose of sizing organic industrial facilities, that Service-designated materiel authorized to combat, combat support, combat service support, and combat readiness training forces and activities, including Reserve and National Guard activities, which is required to support approved emergency and/or war plans, and where the materiel is used to:

l Destroy the enemy or his capacity to continue war.

l Provide battlefield protection of personnel.

l Communicate under war conditions.

l Detect, locate, or maintain surveillance over the enemy.

l Provide combat transportation and support of men and materiel.

l Support training functions, but is suitable for employment under emergency plans to meet purposes enumerated above.

mixed. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that the rounds fired resulted in an equal number of air and impact bursts.

mixed air. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that the rounds fired resulted in both air and impact bursts with a majority of the bursts being airbursts.

mixed bag. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a collection of mines of various types, firing systems, sensitivities, arming delays and ship counter settings.

mixed graze. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a spotting, or an observation, by a spotter or an observer to indicate that the rounds fired resulted in both air and impact bursts with a majority of the bursts being impact bursts.

mixed minefield. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A minefield containing both antitank and antipersonnel mines. See also minefield.

mix-up, caution. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning mixture of friendly and hostile aircraft.

mnemonics. [TR 350-70] A technique such as a formula or rhyme used as a memory aid.

mobile defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Defense of an area or position in which maneuver is used with organization of fire and utilization of terrain to seize the initiative from the enemy.

mobile inshore undersea warfare (MIUW) unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A Navy surveillance unit that provides seaward security to joint logistics over-the-shore operations from either a port or harbor complex or unimproved beach sites. The mobile inshore undersea warfare unit is equipped with mobile radar, sonar, and communications equipment located within a mobile van. See also joint logistics over-the-shore operations.

mobile mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine designed to be propelled to its proposed laying position by propulsion equipment like a torpedo. It sinks at the end of its run and then operates like a mine. See also mine.

mobile support group (naval). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Provides logistic support to ships at an anchorage; in effect, a naval base afloat although certain of its supporting elements may be located ashore.

mobile training team(MTT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A team consisting of one or more U.S. military or civilian personnel sent on temporary duty, often to a foreign nation, to give instruction. The mission of the team is to train indigenous personnel to operate, maintain, and employ weapons and support systems, or to develop a self-training capability in a particular skill. The National Command Authorities may direct a team to train either military or civilian indigenous personnel, depending upon host nation requests.

mobility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission.

mobility analysis. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An in-depth examination of all aspects of transportation planning in support of operation plan and operation order development.

mobility echelon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A subordinate element of a unit that is scheduled for deployment separately from the parent unit.

mobility system support resources. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those resources that are required to: a. complement the airlift and sealift forces, and/or b. perform those work functions directly related to the origination, processing, or termination of a movement requirement.

mobilization. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The act of assembling and organizing national resources to support national objectives in time of war or other emergencies. See also industrial mobilization.

l The process by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency. This includes activating all or part of the Reserve Components as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel. Mobilization of the Armed Forces includes but is not limited to the following categories:

l Selective mobilization. Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and/or the President to mobilize Reserve Component units, individual ready reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a domestic emergency that is not the result of an enemy attack.

l Partial mobilization. Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress (up to full mobilization) or by the President (not more than 1,000,000 for not more than 24 consecutive months) to mobilize Ready Reserve Component units, individual reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.

l Full mobilization. Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to mobilize all Reserve Component units in the existing approved force structure, all individual reservists, retired military personnel, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security. Reserve personnel can be placed on active duty for the duration of the emergency plus six months.

l Total mobilization. Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to organize and/or generate additional units or personnel, beyond the existing force structure, and the resources needed for their support, to meet the total requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.

mobilization base. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The total of all resources available, or which can be made available, to meet foreseeable wartime needs. Such resources include the manpower and material resources and services required for the support of essential military, civilian, and survival activities, as well as the elements affecting their state of readiness, such as (but not limited to) the following: manning levels, state of training, modernization of equipment, mobilization materiel reserves and facilities, continuity of government, civil defense plans and preparedness measures, psychological preparedness of the people, international agreements, planning with industry, dispersion, and standby legislation and controls.

mobilization exercise. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An exercise involving, either completely or in part, the implementation of mobilization plans. See also exercise.

mobilization reserves. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Not to be used. See war reserves.

mobilization site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designated location where a Reserve Component unit or individual mobilizes or moves after mobilization for further processing, training, and employment. This differs from a mobilization station in that it is not necessarily a military installation. See also mobilization; mobilization station; Reserve Components.

mobilization staff officer. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The action officer assigned the principle responsibility or additional duties related to Reserve Component mobilization actions. See also mobilization; Reserve Components.

mobilization station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The designated military installation to which a Reserve Component unit or individual is moved for further processing, organizing, equipping, training, and employment and from which the unit or individual may move to an aerial port of embarkation or seaport of embarkation. See also mobilization; mobilization site; Reserve Components.

mock-up. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A model, built to scale, of a machine, apparatus, or weapon, used in studying the construction of, and in testing a new development, or in teaching personnel how to operate the actual machine, apparatus, or weapon. 2A three-dimensional training aid designed to represent operational equipment. It may be a scaled or a cutaway model and may be capable of disassembly or operational simulation.

mode (identification, friend or foe). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The number or letter referring to the specific pulse spacing of the signals transmitted by an interrogator.

mode of instruction. Method of presenting training. The instructional mode may be individualized (self-pacing) or group (block scheduling).

mode of transport. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The various modes used for a movement. For each mode, there are several means of transport. They are:

l Inland surface transportation (rail, road, and inland waterway).

l Sea transport (coastal and ocean).

l Air transportation.

l Pipelines.

model. 1[TR 350-70] A physical, mathematical, or otherwise logical representation of a system, entity, phenomenon, or process. 2A model is a representation of an actual or conceptual system that involves mathematics, logical expressions, or computer simulations that can be used to predict how the system might perform or survive under various conditions or in a range of hostile environments.

model, physical. A static or dynamic training aid, which is representative of operational equipment, or one or more of the parts, assemblies, or systems in which all spatial and sequential relationships are presented.

model types. [TR 5-11]

l Physical model – a physical representation of the real world object as it relates to symbolic models in the form of simulators.

l Mathematical model – a series of mathematical equations or relationships that can be discretely solved. This includes modeling and simulation using techniques of numerical approximation to solve complex mathematical functions for which specific values cannot be derived (e.g., integrals).

l Procedural model – an expression of dynamic relationships of a situation expressed by mathematical and logical processes. These models are commonly referred to as simulations.

moderate damage. See nuclear damage (sense 2).

moderate risk (nuclear). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A degree of risk where anticipated effects are tolerable, or at worst a minor nuisance. See also degree of risk (nuclear); emergency risk (nuclear);negligible risk (nuclear).

modernization. See military capability.

modernization resource information submission. The data a MACOM enters into the Modernization Resource Information System to receive resources required to support a new system.

Modernization Resource Information System (MRIS). [TR 350-70] The resource programming process which provides the MACOM with a method of identifying resources required to support a new system.

modification. [DSMC] A configuration change to a produced configuration item. Any modification that is of sufficient cost and complexity that it could itself qualify as an acquisition category (ACAT) I or ACT IA program, must be considered a separate acquisition program.

modification center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An installation consisting of an airfield and of facilities for modifying standard production aircraft to meet certain requirements which were not anticipated at the time of manufacture.

modified table of organization (MTOE). Identifies personnel (by grade and skill) and equipment for each standard organization unit (by unit identification code).

modify. In artillery, an order by the person authorized to make modifications to a fire plan.

modular. Consisting of independent units that are part of a total structure.

modular construction. The positioning of modules or groups of information within a training program.

modular units. Units comprised of multiple capabilities; depending on the requirement, modules can be added or subtracted from the unit or force package.

modularity. [TP 525-5] A force design methodology that establishes a means to provide interchangeable, expandable, and tailorable force elements.

modularization. The design and construction of a system comprised of modules.

modulation. Modifying characteristics of a waveform.

module. 1[TR 350-70]A grouping of lessons in an approved formal training course. Synonymous with annex and subcourse. A module includes one or more training media/ methods or a combination thereof. 2[DoD] A standalone instructional unit that is designed to satisfy one or more learning objectives. A separate component complete within itself that can be taught, measured, and evaluated for a change or bypassed as a whole; one that is interchangeable with others, used for assembly into units of differing size, complexity, or function. A module consists of one or more lessons. See course, instructional unit, and lesson. Also called annex or subcourse. 3[DSMC] An independently compilable software component made up of one or more procedures or routines or a combination of procedures and routines.

modify. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery, an order by the person authorized to make modifications to a fire plan.

moment. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air transport, the weight of a load multiplied by its distance from a reference point in the aircraft.

monitoring. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l The act of listening, carrying out surveillance on, and/or recording the emissions of one's own or allied forces for the purposes of maintaining and improving procedural standards and security, or for reference, as applicable.

l The act of listening, carrying out surveillance on, and/or recording of enemy emissions for intelligence purposes.

l The act of detecting the presence of radiation and the measurement thereof with radiation measuring instruments. Also called radiological monitoring.

monitoring service. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The general surveillance of known air traffic movements by reference to a radar scope presentation or other means, for the purpose of passing advisory information concerning conflicting traffic or providing navigational assistance. Direct supervision or control is not exercised, nor is positive separation provided.

montage. A composite picture made by bringing together into a single composition a number of different pictures or parts of pictures and arranging these, as by superimposing one on another, so that they form a blended whole while remaining distinct.

moored. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Lying with both anchors down or tied to a pier, anchor buoy, or mooring buoy.

moored mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A contact or influence-operated mine of positive buoyancy held below the surface by a mooring attached to a sinker or anchor on the bottom. See also mine.

mopping up. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The liquidation of remnants of enemy resistance in an area that has been surrounded or isolated, or through which other units have passed without eliminating all active resistance.

mortar. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A muzzle-loading, indirect fire weapon with either a rifled or smooth bore. It usually has a shorter range than a howitzer, employs a higher angle of fire, and has a tube, length of 10 to 20 calibers. See also gun; howitzer.

mortuary affairs. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Covers the search for, recovery, identification, preparation, and disposition of remains of persons for whom the Services are responsible by status and Executive Order. See also joint mortuary affairs office.

mosaic. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An assembly of overlapping photographs that have been matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the surface of the Earth. See also controlled mosaic; semi-controlled mosaic; uncontrolled mosaic.

motivation step. A segment of a lesson introduction in which a presenter provides specific reasons why students need to learn the information being presented.

motivational device. A design element that causes and sustains interest or regulates activity for the purpose of causing the student to perform in a desired way.

motorized unit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A unit equipped with complete motor transportation that enables all of its personnel, weapons, and equipment to be moved at the same time without assistance from other sources.

mounting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l All preparations made in areas designated for the purpose, in anticipation of an operation. It includes the assembly in the mounting area, preparation and maintenance within the mounting area, movement to loading points, and subsequent embarkation into ships, craft, or aircraft if applicable.

l A carriage or stand upon which a weapon is placed.

mounting area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A general locality where assigned forces of an amphibious or airborne operation, with their equipment, are assembled, prepared, and loaded in shipping and/or aircraft preparatory to an assault. See also embarkation area.

movement control. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines of communications.

l An organization responsible for the planning, routing, scheduling, and control of personnel and cargo movements over lines of communications. Also called movement control center.

See also non-unit-related cargo; non-unit-related personnel.

movement control center. See movement control.

movement control post. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The post through which the control of movement is exercised by the commander, depending on operational requirements.

movement control team (MCT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Movement control teams (MCTs) are Army units that decentralize the execution of movement responsibilities on an area basis or at key transportation nodes. The mission of the MCTs is movement control of personnel and materiel and the coordination of bulk fuel and water transportation at pipeline and production take-off points. To this end, the MCTs contribute to the development of procedures, documents, and practices to facilitate local movement. Their role is to expedite, coordinate, and monitor traffic moving through the transportation system. MCTs are tailored to meet the anticipated workload. Other Service movement requirements that exceed organic capability will be requested through the Army MCTs. The movement control center is the higher headquarters for the MCTs and is located at corps level.

movement credit. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The allocation granted to one or more vehicles in order to move over a controlled route in a fixed time according to movement instructions.

movement directive. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The basic document published by the Department of the Army or the Department of the Air Force, or jointly, which authorizes a command to take action to move a designated unit from one location to another.

movement group. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those ships and embarked units that load out and proceed to rendezvous in the objective area.

movement order. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An order issued by a commander covering the details for a move of the command.

movement plan. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In amphibious operations, the naval plan providing for the movement of the amphibious task force to the objective area. It includes information and instructions concerning departure of ships from loading points, the passage at sea, and the approach to and arrival in assigned positions in the objective area.

movement report control center. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The controlling agency for the entire movement report system. It has available all information relative to the movements of naval ships and other ships under naval control.

movement report system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system established to collect and make available to certain commands vital information on the status, location, and movement of flag commands, commissioned fleet units, and ships under operational control of the Navy.

movement requirement. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A stated movement mode and time-phased need for the transport of units, personnel, and/or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination.

movement restriction. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A restriction temporarily placed on traffic into and/or out of areas to permit clearance or prevention of congestion.

movement schedule. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A schedule developed to monitor or track a separate entity whether it is a force requirement, cargo or personnel increment, or lift asset. The schedule reflects the assignment of specific lift resources (such as an aircraft or ship) that will be used to move the personnel and cargo included in a specific movement increment. Arrival and departure times at ports of embarkation, etc., are detailed to show a flow and workload at each location. Movement schedules are detailed enough to support plan implementation.

movement table. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A table giving detailed instructions or data for a move. When necessary it will be qualified by the words road, rail, sea, air, etc., to signify the type of movement. Normally issued as an annex to a movement order or instruction.

moving havens. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Restricted areas established to provide a measure of security to submarines and surface ships in transit through areas in which the existing attack restrictions would be inadequate to prevent attack by friendly forces. See also moving submarine haven; moving surface ship haven.

moving map display. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A display in which a symbol, representing the vehicle, remains stationary while the map or chart image moves beneath the symbol so that the display simulates the horizontal movement of the vehicle in which it is installed. Occasionally the design of the display is such that the map or chart image remains stationary while the symbol moves across a screen. See also projected map display.

moving mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The collective description of mines, such as drifting, oscillating, creeping, mobile, rising, homing, and bouquet mines.

moving submarine haven. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Established by submarine notices, surrounding submarines in transit, extending 50 miles ahead, 100 miles behind, and 15 miles on each side of the estimated position of the submarine along its stated track. See also moving havens.

moving surface ship haven. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Established by surface ship notices, and will normally be a circle with a specified radius centered on the estimated position of the ship or the guide of a group of ships. See also moving havens.

moving target indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A radar presentation which shows only targets which are in motion. Signals from stationary targets are subtracted out of the return signal by the output of a suitable memory circuit.

MSC-controlled ships. [JP 1-02] (DoD) See Military Sealift Command-controlled ships.

Multi-mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT). An MATT provides over the horizon threat warning, mission electronic order of battle updates, and targeting for airborne users through TRAP, TADIX-B, and TIBS.

multi-modal. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In transport operations, a term applied to the movement of passengers and cargo by more than one method of transport.

multi-service doctrine. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more services in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by two or more services, and is promulgated in multiservice publications that identify the participating services, e.g., Army-Navy doctrine. See also combined doctrine; joint doctrine; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures.

multi-spectral imagery. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The image of an object obtained simultaneously in a number of discrete spectral bands.

multilevel instruction. Training that has various degrees of difficulty and strategy.

multimedia. [TR 350-70] As a general term, multimedia is the use of more than one media to achieve a specific purpose or objective. The term is used primarily to refer to a technology combining text, still and animated images, video, audio, and other forms of computer data that can be manipulated and used to convey information in a useful, educational, entertaining, realistic, or more easily understood manner. Multimedia is delivered on a multimedia work-station/personal computer via network, hard disc, floppy disc, or CD-ROM.

multimedia package. [TR 350-70] A self-contained instructional unit using more than one presentation medium.

multination. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more nations or coalition partners. See also alliance; coalition.

multinational doctrine. [TR 350-70] Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. It is ratified by participating nations.

multinational force. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A force composed of military elements of nations who have formed a temporary alliance for some specific purpose.

multiple drill. See multiple unit training assemblies.

multiple inactive duty training periods. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Two scheduled inactive duty training periods performed in one calendar day, each at least four hours in duration. No more than two inactive duty training periods may be performed in one day.

multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A reentry vehicle carried by a delivery system which can place one or more reentry vehicles over each of several separate targets. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

multiple independently targeted reentry vehicle (MIRV). A payload for a ballistic missile consisting of multiple, independently guided warheads or decoys.

multiple reentry vehicle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The reentry vehicle of a delivery system which places more than one reentry vehicle over an individual target. See also maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle; reentry vehicle.

multiple screen. Use of more than one display screen, simultaneously or alternately.

multiple unit training assemblies. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Two or more unit training assemblies executed during one or more consecutive days. No more than two unit training assemblies may be performed in one calendar day.

multiple warning phenomenology. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Deriving warning information from two or more systems observing separate physical phenomena associated with the same events to attain high credibility while being less susceptible to false reports or spoofing.

multiple-choice test. A type of selection test in which the student is asked to choose for each test item the answer(s) that is most correct.

multiplexer. A device that allows several devices to share one channel of communication.

multiservice doctrine. [TR 350-70] Fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or three services of the same nation in coordinated action toward a common objective. Two or three services ratify it and normally promulgate it in joint service publications that identify the participating services; e.g., Army-Navy doctrine.

multiservice test and evaluation (T&E). [DSMC] T&E conducted by two or more DoD components for systems to be acquired by more than one DoD component, or for a DoD component's systems that have interfaces with equipment of another DoD component.

multitasking. The ability to permit simultaneous processing of more than one task.

multitrack audio tape recorder. An audio recording machine capable of recording several discrete audio tracks onto audio tape.

multitrack course. [TR 350-70] A course that employs more than one track or channel of instruction. Course content, degree of instruction, and presentation may vary to accommodate students with different aptitudes, skill, or knowledges; or resource constraints.

multiyear procurement (MYP). [DSMC] A method of competitively purchasing up to 5 years requirements in one contract which is funded annually as appropriations permit. If necessary to cancel the remaining quantities in any year, the contractor is paid an agreed upon portion of the unamortized nonrecurring start-up costs. Approved by the Congress, this is an exception to DoD Full Funding Policy.

munition. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A complete device charged with explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, initiating composition, or nuclear, biological or chemical material for use in military operations, including demolitions. Certain suitably modified munitions can be used for training, ceremonial or nonoperational purposes. Also called ammunition. (Note: In common usage, munitions (plural) can be military weapons, ammunition, and equipment.). See also explosive ordnance.

munitions. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Materiel used in war, especially weapons and ammunition. See also explosive ordnance; munition.

music. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a term meaning electromagnetic jamming.

mutable. The capability of silencing the audio output.

mutual support. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) That support which units render each other against an enemy, because of their assigned tasks, their position relative to each other and to the enemy, and their inherent capabilities. See also close support; direct support; support.

muzzle brake. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device attached to the muzzle of a weapon which utilizes escaping gas to reduce recoil.

muzzle compensator. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A device attached to the muzzle of a weapon which utilizes escaping gas to control muzzle movement.

muzzle velocity. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The velocity of a projectile with respect to the muzzle at the instant the projectile leaves the weapon.