Index Military Definitions

hachuring. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of representing relief upon a map or chart by shading in short disconnected lines drawn in the direction of the slopes.

half duplex. Transmission that can occur in only one direction at a time.

half thickness. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Thickness of absorbing material necessary to reduce by one-half the intensity of radiation which passes through it.

half-life. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The time required for the activity of a given radioactive species to decrease to half of its initial value due to radioactive decay. The half-life is a characteristic property of each radioactive species and is independent of its amount or condition. The effective half-life of a given isotope is the time in which the quantity in the body will decrease to half as a result of both radioactive decay and biological elimination.

half-residence time. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) As applied to delayed fallout, it is the time required for the amount of weapon debris deposited in a particular part of the atmosphere to decrease to half of its initial value.

halftone. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Any photomechanical printing surface or the impression therefrom in which detail and tone values are represented by a series of evenly spaced dots in varying size and shape, varying in direct proportion to the intensity of the tones they represent. See also halftone screen.

halftone screen. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A series of regular spaced opaque lines on glass, crossing at right angles, producing transparent apertures between intersections. Used in a process camera to break up a solid or continuous tone image into a pattern of small dots. See also halftone.

handbook. A document prepared specifically to provide guidance information. Handbooks are used for the presentation of general information, procedural and technical use data, or design information related to commodities, processes, practices, and services.

handling. [DSMC] The coordination and integration of all operations embracing packaging, protection, and movement of material by available equipment for short distances.

handling (ordnance). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Applies to those individuals who engage in the breakout, lifting, or repositioning of ordnance or explosive devices in order to facilitate storage or stowage, assembly or disassembly, loading or downloading, or transporting. See also assembly; downloading; loading; ordnance.

handover. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The passing of control authority of an aircraft from one control agency to another control agency. Handover action may be accomplished between control agencies of separate services when conducting joint operations or between control agencies within a single command and control system. Handover action is complete when the receiving controller acknowledges assumption of control authority.

handover line. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A control feature, preferably following easily defined terrain features, at which responsibility for the conduct of combat operations is passed from one force to another.

handover/crossover. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In evasion and recovery operations, the transfer of evaders between two recovery forces. See also evader; evasion; evasion and recovery; recovery; recovery operations.

hands-on. [TR 350-70] Student practice or testing on actual equipment, simulators, and training aids.

hands-on performance test. [TR 350-70] Performance test that requires students to prove competency by using actual equipment, materials, simulators/simulations, or training aids to perform the required learning objective. Performance tests include written tests that require the student to write in the performance of the job task, e.g., complete a form; compute.

hang fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An undesired delay in the functioning of a firing system.

hang-up. An unwanted repetition of an audio/ video sequence, program, or courseware due to a hardware malfunction, control software error, or media problem.

harassing (air). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The attack of any target within the area of land battle not connected with interdiction or close air support. It is designed to reduce the enemy's combat effectiveness.

harassing fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire designed to disturb the rest of the enemy troops, to curtail movement, and, by threat of losses, to lower morale. See also fire.

harassment. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An incident in which the primary objective is to disrupt the activities of a unit, installation, or ship, rather than to inflict serious casualties or damage.

harbor. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A restricted body of water, an anchorage, or other limited coastal water area and its mineable water approaches, from which shipping operations are projected or supported. Generally, a harbor is part of a base, in which case the harbor defense force forms a component element of the base defense force established for the local defense of the base and its included harbor.

harbor defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The defense of a harbor or anchorage and its water approaches against external threats such as:

l Submarine, submarine-borne, or small surface craft attack.

l Enemy minelaying operations.

l Sabotage. The defense of a harbor from guided or dropped missiles while such missiles are airborne is considered to be a part of air defense.

See also port security.

hard beach. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A portion of a beach especially prepared with a hard surface extending into the water, employed for the purpose of loading or unloading directly into or from landing ships or landing craft.

hard copy. Information printed on paper.

hard data. [TR 350-70] Data acquired through precise and accurate measurement.

hard disk. A memory storage device using a magnetically coated, rigid disk. An inflexible magnetic disk with greater storage capacity than a floppy disk, used as a mass storage medium.

hard missile base. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A launching base that is protected against a nuclear explosion.

hard port. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Alter heading to magnetic heading indicated, turning to the port in a tight turn (three digit group), or alter heading indicated number of degrees to the port in a tight turn (one or two digit group with word degrees).

hard skills. Skills to perform where job requirements are well defined in terms of actions to be taken and expected outcomes.

hard starboard. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Alter heading to magnetic heading indicated, turning to the starboard in a tight turn (three digit group), or alter heading indicated number of degrees to the starboard in a tight turn (one or two digit group with the word degrees).

hardened site. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A site, normally constructed under rock or concrete cover, designed to provide protection against the effects of conventional weapons. It may also be equipped to provide protection against the side effects of a nuclear attack and against a chemical or a biological attack.

HARDMAN. [TR 350-70] Acronym for hardware versus manpower methodology, a six-step analytical model that estimates the projected manpower, personnel, and training requirements of a baseline comparison or notional system design. This analysis is generally conducted prior to milestone I of the acquisition process during the Concept Exploration and Definition phase of the life cycle.

HARDMAN II. A U.S. Army Research Lab computer-based analytic approach for early estimation of manpower, personnel, and training for a new system.

HARDMAN III. Six software components used to determine manpower requirements for a system.

hardness. [DSMC] See nuclear hardness.

hardstand. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A paved or stabilized area where vehicles are parked.

l Open ground area having a prepared surface and used for the storage of materiel.

hardware. 1 [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l The generic term dealing with physical items as distinguished from its capability or function such as equipment, tools, implements, instruments, devices, sets, fittings, trimmings, assemblies, subassemblies, components, and parts. The term is often used in regard to the stage of development, as in the passage of a device or component from the design stage into the hardware stage as the finished object.

l In data automation, the physical equipment or devices forming a computer and peripheral components.

See also software. 3[DSMC] Combat: Weapons, combat equipment, and support equipment.

hardware transportability. The ease with which equipment can be transferred from site to site.

harmful appreciations. See appreciations.

harmonization. 1[JP 1-02] (DoD) The process and/or results of adjusting differences or inconsistencies to bring significant features into agreement. 2[DSMC] Refers to the process, or results, of adjusting differences or inconsistencies in the qualitative basic military requirements of the United States, its allies, and other friendly countries. It implies that significant features will be brought into line so as to make possible substantial gains in terms of the overall objectives of cooperation (e.g., enhanced utilization of resources, standardization, and compatibility of equipment). It implies especially that comparatively minor differences in requirements should not be permitted to serve as a basis for the support of slightly different duplicative programs and projects.

Harpoon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An all-weather, anti-ship cruise missile capable of being employed from surface ships (RGM-84), aircraft (AGM-84A) or submarines (UGM-84). The missile is turbojet powered and employs a low level cruise trajectory. Terminal guidance is active radar. A 500-pound conventional warhead is employed.

Harrier. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A single-engine, vectored thrust, turbojet, vertical and/or short takeoff and landing light attack aircraft, designed to operate from land bases and naval vessels in a close air support role. Capable of carrying a variety of conventional and/or nuclear weapons. Designated as AV-8.

hasty attack. 1Result of a meeting engagement — launched with the forces at hand and with minimum preparation to destroy the enemy before he is able to concentrate of establish a defense. 2[JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land operations, an attack in which preparation time is traded for speed in order to exploit an opportunity. See also deliberate attack.

hasty breaching. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)The rapid creation of a route through a minefield, barrier, or fortification by any expedient method.

hasty breaching (land mine warfare). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The creation of lanes through enemy minefields by expedient methods such as blasting with demolitions, pushing rollers or disabled vehicles through the minefields when the time factor does not permit detailed reconnaissance, deliberate breaching, or bypassing the obstacle.

hasty crossing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The crossing of an inland water obstacle using the crossing means at hand or those readily available, and made without pausing for elaborate preparations. See also deliberate crossing.

hasty defense. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A defense normally organized while in contact with the enemy or when contact is imminent and time available for the organization is limited. It is characterized by improvement of the natural defensive strength of the terrain by utilization of foxholes, emplacements, and obstacles. See also deliberate defense.

hatch. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An opening in a ship's deck giving access to cargo holds.

hatch list. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A list showing, for each hold section of a cargo ship, a description of the items stowed, their volume and weight, the consignee of each, and the total volume and weight of materiel in the hold.

havens (moving). See moving havens.

Hawk (homing all the way killer). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mobile air defense artillery, surface-to-air missile system that provides non-nuclear, low to medium altitude air defense coverage for ground forces. Designated as MIM-23.

Hawkeye. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin turboprop, multi-crew airborne early warning and interceptor control aircraft designed to operate from aircraft carriers. It carries a long-range radar and integrated computer system for the detection and tracking of airborne targets at all altitudes. Designated as E-2.

hazard. [TR 350-70] Any actual or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death of personnel; damage to or loss of equipment (or) property; or mission degradation. (FM 101-5-1) Example: River crossing hazards might include water depth, current, hypothermia, fatigue, debris on or under the water, weather, and the soldiers swimming ability. See also injury; risk.

hazard communication (HAZCOM). [TR 350-70] The requirement to inform personnel occupationally exposed to hazardous materials of the potential hazards and their training to prevent chemically related occupational illnesses and injuries.

hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance (HERO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The danger of accidental actuation of electro-explosive devices or otherwise electrically activating ordnance because of RF electromagnetic fields. This unintended actuation could have safety (premature firing) or reliability (dudding) consequences. See also electromagnetic radiation; HERO SAFE ordnance; HERO UNSAFE ordnance; ordnance.

Head Dancer. Boeing EC-135K, a TDCA aircraft.

head of agency. [DSMC] In DoD, the Secretary of Defense (SECDEF), and the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force are heads of agencies. Subject to the direction of the SECDEF, the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition & Technology), the Director of Defense Procurement, and the directors of the defense agencies have been delegated authority to act as head of agency for their respective agencies (i.e., to perform functions under the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) or DoD FAR Supplement reserved to an agency head), except for such actions that by terms of statute, or any delegation, must be exercised within the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Title 10 U.S.C.167 provides the Commander-in-Chief, Special Operations Command with head of agency authority similar to that of the service secretaries.

head of contracting activity (HCA). [DSMC] Agency head authorized to contract for supplies and services. May be delegated to major command heads within an agency. Title is by virtue of position. See contracting activity.

head of the agency. Head of the agency (also called agency head) means the Secretary, Attorney General, Administrator, Governor, Chairperson, or other chief official of an executive agency, unless otherwise indicated, including any deputy or assistant chief official of an executive agency; and the term authorized representative means any person, persons, or board (other than the contracting officer) authorized to act for the head of the agency or Secretary.

head of the contracting activity. Head of the contracting activity includes the official who has overall responsibility for managing the contracting activity.

head-up display. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A display of flight, navigation, attack, or other information superimposed upon the pilot's forward field of view. See also horizontal situation display.

heading. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, a code meaning, "My, or bogey's, magnetic course is ."

heading crossing angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In air intercept, the angular difference between interceptor heading and target heading at the time of intercept.

heading hold mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In a flight control system, a control mode which automatically maintains an aircraft heading that exists at the instant of completion of a maneuver.

heading indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which displays heading transmitted electrically from a remote compass system.

heading select feature. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A flight control system feature which permits selection or preselection of desired automatically controlled heading or headings of an aircraft.

heads up. In air intercept, a code meaning, "Enemy got through (part or all)," or, "I am not in position to engage target."

health hazard (HH). An existing or likely condition, inherent to the operation or use of materiel, that can cause death, injury, acute or chronic illness, disability, and/or reduced job performance of personnel by exposure to:

l Shock/recoil.

l Vibration.

l Noise (including steady state, impulse, and blast overpressure).

l Humidity.

l Toxic gasses.

l Toxic chemicals.

l Ionizing or non-ionizing radiation (including X-rays, gamma rays, magnetic fields, microwaves, radio waves, and high intensity light).

l Lasers.

l Heat and cold

l Oxygen deficiency.

l Blunt/sharp trauma.

l Pathogenic microorganisms.

health hazard assessment (HHA). HHA is the application of biomedical knowledge and principles to identify, evaluate, and control the risks to the health and effectiveness of personnel who test, use, or service Army systems.

health hazards (MANPRINT domain). The inherent conditions in the use, operation, maintenance, repair, support, storage, and disposal of a system (e.g., acoustical energy, biological substances, chemical substances, oxygen deficiency, radiation energy, shock, temperature extremes, trauma, and vibration) that can cause death, injury, illness, disability, or reduce job performance of personnel.

health hazards domain assessment A report which identifies potential health hazards that may be associated with the development, acquisition, operation, and maintenance of Army systems. The purpose is to preserve and protect the humans who will operate, maintain and support the equipment; enhance total system effectiveness, reduce system retrofit needed to eliminate health hazards; reduce readiness deficiencies attributable to health hazards; and reduce personnel compensation. CHPPM prepares the health hazards domain assessment

health service logistics support (HSLS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A functional area of logistics support that supports the joint force surgeon's health service support mission. It includes supplying Class VIII medical supplies (medical materiel to include medical peculiar repair parts used to sustain the health service support system), optical fabrication, medical equipment maintenance, blood storage and distribution, and medical gases. See also health service support; joint force surgeon.

health service support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) All services performed, provided, or arranged by the Services to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel. These services include, but are not limited to, the management of health services resources, such as manpower, monies, and facilities; preventive and curative health measures; evacuation of the wounded, injured, or sick; selection of the medically fit and disposition of the medically unfit; blood management; medical supply, equipment, and maintenance thereof; combat stress control; and medical, dental, veterinary, laboratory, optometric, medical food, and medical intelligence services.

health services. The logistical function of promoting, improving, conserving, or restoring the mental or physical well-being of military personnel.

heartburn appeal. [DSMC] An appeal issue that seeks to reverse or amend a decision by a Congressional committee adversely affecting the budget. In particular it is an appeal issue identified as being of major concern to the Secretary of Defense, that is addressed to the chairperson of the next committee scheduled to mark up the budget request. Also, any specific negative reaction to a proposal.

heavy antitank weapon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A weapon capable of operating from ground or vehicle, used to defeat armor and other material targets.

heavy artillery. See field artillery.

heavy drop. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A system of delivery of heavy supplies and equipment by parachute.

heavy-lift cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l Any single cargo lift, weighing over 5 long tons, and to be handled aboard ship.

l In Marine Corps usage, individual units of cargo that exceed 800 pounds in weight or 100 cubic feet in volume.

See also cargo.

heavy-lift ship. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A ship specially designed and capable of loading and unloading heavy and bulky items. It has booms of sufficient capacity to accommodate a single lift of 100 tons.

height. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The vertical distance of an object, point, or level above the ground or other established reference plane. Height (above ground level) may be indicated as follows:

l Very low – less than 500 feet.

l Low – 500 to 2,000 feet.

l Medium – 2,000 to 25,000 feet.

l High – 25,000 to 50,000 feet.

l Very high – More than 50,000 feet.

height datum. See altitude datum.

height delay. See altitude delay.

height hole. See altitude hole.

height of burst. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The vertical distance from the Earth's surface or target to the point of burst. See also optimum height of burst; safe burst height; types of burst.

helical. A type of videotape recorder in which the tape wraps around the head drum in a spiral or helical configuration. The videotape system employs two or more video heads mounted on opposite sides of a revolving drum. The video head drum spins at one frame per revolution, so each head scans one field per revolution. Helical scan achieves the high head-to-tape speeds needed for video recording by moving both the tape and the video heads.

helicopter approach route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The track or series of tracks along which helicopters move to a specific landing site or landing zone. See also helicopter lane; helicopter retirement route.

helicopter assault force. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A task organization combining helicopters, supporting units, and helicopter-borne troop units for use in helicopter-borne assault operations.

helicopter break-up point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A control point at which helicopters returning from a landing zone break formation and are released to return to base or are dispatched for other employment.

helicopter control officer (HCO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) In nonaviation facility ships, the helicopter control officer will be responsible for the supervision and direction of launching and landing operations and for servicing and handling of all embarked helicopters. Helicopter control officers will be graduates of the helicopter indoctrination course unless they are designated helicopter pilots.

helicopter control station (HCS). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A shipboard aircraft control tower, or, on ships not equipped with a control tower, the communications installation that serves as such. On all Coast Guard cutters, the helicopter control station is located in the pilot house. See also station.

helicopter departure point. See departure point.

helicopter direction center. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In amphibious operations, the primary direct control agency for the helicopter group/unit commander operating under the overall control of the tactical air control center.

helicopter drop point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated point within a landing zone where helicopters are unable to land because of the terrain, but in which they can discharge cargo or troops while hovering.

helicopter external air transport (HEAT) certification categories. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Three categories of equipment suitability for HEAT. The services assign individual items of equipment to the appropriate categories, which are as follows:

l certified. Those items of equipment and their associated rigging procedures which have completed a certification process comprised of engineering analysis, static load testing (in accordance with applicable military standards), validating rigging procedures, evaluating successful flight tests, and the issuance of a certification statement.

l suitable. Those items of equipment and their associated rigging procedures that have not been certified, but have demonstrated acceptable static lift and flight characteristics during flight testing by the U.S. Army Airborne and Special Operations Test Board.

l prohibited. Those items of equipment and their associated rigging procedures that are prohibited from helicopter external air transport as determined by each service.

helicopter landing site. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A designated subdivision of a helicopter landing zone in which a single flight or wave of assault helicopters land to embark or disembark troops and/or cargo.

helicopter landing zone. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A specified ground area for landing assault helicopters to embark or disembark troops and/or cargo. A landing zone may contain one or more landing sites.

helicopter lane. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A safety air corridor in which helicopters fly to or from their destination during helicopter operations. See also helicopter approach route; helicopter retirement route.

helicopter retirement route. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The track or series of tracks along which helicopters move from a specific landing site or landing zone. See also helicopter approach route; helicopter lane.

helicopter support team. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A task organization formed and equipped for employment in a landing zone to facilitate the landing and movement of helicopter-borne troops, equipment and supplies, and to evacuate selected casualties and enemy prisoners of war.

helicopter team. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The combat-equipped troops lifted in one helicopter at one time.

helicopter transport area. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Areas to the seaward and on the flanks of the outer transport and landing ship areas, but preferably inside the area screen, for launching and/or recovering helicopters.

helicopter wave. See wave.

helipad. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A prepared area designated and used for takeoff and landing of helicopters. (Includes touchdown or hover point.)

heliport. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A facility designated for operating, basing, servicing, and maintaining helicopters.

helping relationship. Face-to-face interactions in which an instructor applies effective human relations skills to assist a student or group of students attain a goal or goals.

herbicide. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A chemical compound that will kill or damage plants. See also anticrop agent; antiplant agent.

Hercules. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A medium range troop and cargo transport designed for airdrop or AirLand delivery into a combat zone as well as conventional airlift. This aircraft is equipped with four turboprop engines, and integral ramp and cargo door. The D model is ski equipped. The E model has additional fuel capacity for extended range. Designated C130. The inflight tanker configurations are designated KC-130 and HC-130, which is also used for the aerial rescue mission. The gunship version is designated AC-130.

HERO. See hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance.

HERO SAFE ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any ordnance item that is percussion initiated, sufficiently shielded or otherwise so protected that all electro-explosive devices contained by the item are immune to adverse effects (safety or reliability) when the item is employed in its expected radio frequency environments, provided that the general hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance requirements defined in the hazards from electromagnetic radiation manual are observed. See also electromagnetic radiation; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance; HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance; HERO UNSAFE ordnance; ordnance.

HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices proven by test or analysis to be adversely affected by radio frequency energy to the point that the safety and/or reliability of the system is in jeopardy when the system is employed in its expected radio frequency environment. See also electromagnetic radiation; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance; HERO SAFE ordnance; HERO UNSAFE ordnance; ordnance.

HERO UNSAFE ordnance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices that has not been classified as HERO SAFE or HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance as a result of a hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance (HERO) analysis or test is considered HERO UNSAFE ordnance. Additionally, any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices, including those previously classified as HERO SAFE or HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance, which has its internal wiring exposed; when tests are being conducted on that item that result in additional electrical connections to the item; when electro-explosive devices having exposed wire leads are present and handled or loaded in any but the tested condition; when the item is being assembled or disassembled; or when such ordnance items are damaged causing exposure of internal wiring or components or destroying engineered HERO protective devices. See also electromagnetic radiation; hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance; HERO SAFE ordnance; HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance; ordnance.

hertz (Hz). The standard unit of frequency. A measure of frequency or bandwidth. Cycles per second. One Hz is equal to one cycle per second.

heuristic. [TR 350-70] The solution of a problem identified by trial and error, evaluating each step towards a final result.

heuristic routine. A problem solving approach, not a direct step-by-step procedure, but a trial-and-error approach frequently involving the act of learning.

hide (out of). [DSMC] Means of funding program, perhaps not planned or scheduled, out of existing service funds without receiving any outside help from the Congress or OSD.

hierarchical. [TP 525-5] Arranged in the standard military organization of units; characterized by a vertical hierarchy of information flow and decision making.

hierarchical organization. [DSMC] The classical or traditional type of organization with one person in charge (program manager (PM)) of functional areas (budget, engineering, logistics, etc.) which can be further broken into sub-elements. For example: The PM is at the bottom of the hierarchical ladder; the PM reports up the chain to a program executive officer (PEO); the PEO reports up to the service acquisition executive (SAE); and the SAE reports to the Defense Acquisition Executive (DAE) who is at the top of the organizational structure.

high. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A height between 25,000 and 50,000 feet.

high airburst. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The fallout safe height of burst for a nuclear weapon that increases damage to or casualties on soft targets, or reduces induced radiation contamination at actual ground zero. See also types of burst.

high altitude. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Conventionally, an altitude above 10,000 meters (33,000 feet). See also altitude.

high altitude bombing. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Horizontal bombing with the height of release over 15,000 feet.

high altitude burst. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The explosion of a nuclear weapon which takes place at a height in excess of 100,000 feet (30,000 meters). See also types of burst.

high altitude low opening parachute technique (HALO). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A method of delivering personnel, equipment, or supplies from airlift aircraft which must fly at altitudes above the threat umbrella.

high altitude superpressure powered aerostat (HASPA). Navy program for a high-altitude, remotely controlled airship for surveillance and data relay purposes.

high angle. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order or request to obtain high angle fire.

high angle fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Fire delivered at angles of elevation greater than the elevation that corresponds to the maximum range of the gun and ammunition concerned; fire, the range of which decreases as the angle of elevation is increased.

high definition television (HDTV). Any variety of video formats offering higher resolution than current National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) broadcast standard.

high density signal. A signal containing many cues. A low density signal contains few cues.

high driver task (HDT). A task identified by task criteria analysis as being costly in manpower and training resources. The primary objective of early comparability analysis (ECA) is to aid combat developers in identifying high drivers requiring a design change so that these tasks can be reduced in number, or completely eliminated from new system design. Information from tasks derived from predecessor or reference systems are the key to determining the impact these tasks have on Army MPT resources.

high explosive cargo. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Cargo such as artillery ammunition, bombs, depth charges, demolition material, rockets, and missiles. See also cargo.

high level architecture (HLA). [TR 350-70] Department of Defense-directed standards for M&S (models and simulations), compliant with the Defense Information Infrastructure common operating environment (COE) and direct data link interconnectivity (DDLI). It prescribes certain functional elements, data interchange formats, and ability to use common communications service. HLA enables interoperation between compliant M&S- and COE-compliant C4ISR systems.

high oblique. See oblique air photograph.

high risk tasks. Critical operation or maintenance procedures that have a high potential for performance shortfall and a corresponding adverse impact on overall system performance if personnel are not trained to perform the tasks to standard. These tasks are typically difficult to train because they are exceptionally complex and require a high degree of skill, have either a high frequency of inadequate performances, or any combination of the above.

high speed submarine. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A submarine capable of submerged speeds of 20 knots or more.

high value asset control items. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Items of supply identified for intensive management control under approved inventory management techniques designed to maintain an optimum inventory level of high investment items. Also called hi-value asset control items.

high velocity drop. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A drop procedure in which the drop velocity is greater than 30 feet per second (low velocity drop) and lower than free drop velocity. See also airdrop.

high-altitude missile engagement zone. See weapon engagement zone.

high-density airspace control zone (HIDACZ). [JP 1-02] (DoD) Airspace designated in an airspace control plan or airspace control order, in which there is a concentrated employment of numerous and varied weapons and airspace users. A high-density airspace control zone has defined dimensions, which usually coincide with geographical features or navigational aids. Access to a high-density airspace control zone is normally controlled by the maneuver commander. The maneuver commander can also direct a more restrictive weapons status within the high-density airspace control zone.

high-payoff target (HPT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A target whose loss to the enemy will significantly contribute to the success of the friendly course of action. High-payoff targets are those high-value targets, identified through wargaming, which must be acquired and successfully attacked for the success of the friendly commander's mission. See also high-value target; target.

high-risk personnel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Personnel who, by their grade, assignment, symbolic value, or relative isolation, are likely to be attractive or accessible terrorist targets. See also antiterrorism.

high-risk-of-capture personnel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) US personnel whose position or assignment makes them particularly vulnerable to capture by hostile forces in combat, by terrorists, or by unfriendly governments. See also hostile; terrorist.

high-value target (HVT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A target the enemy commander requires for the successful completion of the mission. The loss of high-value targets would be expected to seriously degrade important enemy functions throughout the friendly commander's area of interest. See also high-payoff target; target.

high-water mark. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Properly, a mark left on a beach by wave wash at the preceding high water. It does not necessarily correspond to the high-water line. Because it can be determined by simple observation, it is frequently used in place of the high-water line, which can be determined only by a survey. When so used, it is called the high-water line.

higher levels of learning. Those levels of learning above the knowledge level that may be considered as the practical application of concepts and principles to complex real problems.

highlighting. Bringing attention to something by accentuating it through a variety of means such as color, and inverse mode.

highly sensitive classified program. An acquisition special access program established in accordance with DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, and managed in accordance with DoD Directive 0-5205.7, Special Access Program Policy, and DoDD 5000.1.

hill shading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of representing relief on a map by depicting the shadows that would be cast by high ground if light were shining from a certain direction.

hinterland, far. [JP 1-02] (DoD) That region surrounding a beach or terminal operation to the extent that it has characteristics that affect the operation--normally within 100 miles.

hinterland, near. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The area of land within an operational area of a specific beach or terminal operation--usually within 5 miles.

hit. [DSMC] Move by the Congress or comptroller to reduce the service or activity budget, usually by percentage of total obligation authority or a set amount.

hoist. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In helicopters, the mechanism by which external loads may be raised or lowered vertically.

hold. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO)

l A cargo stowage compartment aboard ship.

l To maintain or retain possession of by force, as a position or an area.

l In an attack, to exert sufficient pressure to prevent movement or redisposition of enemy forces.

l As applied to air traffic, to keep an aircraft within a specified space or location which is identified by visual or other means in accordance with air traffic control instructions.

hold fire. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In air defense, an emergency order to stop firing. Missiles already in flight must be prevented from intercepting, if technically possible.

holdee. See transient.

holding anchorage. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An anchorage where ships may lie:

l If the assembly or working anchorage, or port, to which they have been assigned is full.

l When delayed by enemy threats or other factors from proceeding immediately on their next voyage.

l When dispersed from a port to avoid the effects of a nuclear attack.

See also assembly anchorage; emergency anchorage; working anchorage.

holding attack. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An attack designed to hold the enemy in position, to deceive him as to where the main attack is being made, to prevent him from reinforcing the elements opposing the main attack, and/or to cause him to commit his reserves prematurely at an indecisive location.

holding pattern mode. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Automatic control of an aircraft to fly the programmed holding pattern.

holding point. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A geographically or electronically defined location used in stationing aircraft in flight in a predetermined pattern in accordance with air traffic control clearance. See also orbit point.

holding position. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A specified location on the airfield, close to the active runway and identified by visual means, at which the position of a taxiing aircraft is maintained in accordance with air traffic control instructions.

holiday. An unintentional omission in imagery coverage of an area. See also gap (imagery).

holdover. [TR 350-70] Soldier status referring to those graduates detained following course completion for causes such as lack of orders, lack of clearance, medical problems, or judicial proceedings.

holiday. [JP 1-02] (DoD) An unintentional omission in imagery coverage of an area. See also gap (imagery)

hollow charge. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A shaped charge producing a deep cylindrical hole of relatively small diameter in the direction of its axis of rotation.

hologram. A three-dimensional image produced by a system that uses lasers.

home assignment sheet. [TR 350-70] A document that describes the assignment of work a student must complete outside of regular class hours. It can be a simple reading assignment, some kind of worksheet, or even a practical assignment where the student must produce a product. Home assignments are subject to testing.

home recovery mission profile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A mission profile that involves the recovery of an aircraft at its permanent or temporarily assigned operating base.

home station. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The permanent location of active duty units and Reserve Component units (e.g., location of armory or reserve center). See also active duty; Reserve Components.

homing. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The technique whereby a mobile station directs itself, or is directed, towards a source of primary or reflected energy, or to a specified point.

homing adapter. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A device which, when used with an aircraft radio receiver, produces aural and/or visual signals which indicate the direction of a transmitting radio station with respect to the heading of the aircraft.

homing guidance. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A system by which a missile steers itself towards a target by means of a self-contained mechanism which is activated by some distinguishing characteristics of the target. See also active homing guidance; guidance; passive homing guidance; semi-active homing guidance.

homing mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a mine fitted with propulsion equipment that homes on to a target. See also mine.

hook. A procedure used by an air controller to electronically direct the data processing equipment of a semiautomatic command and control system to take a specified action on a specific radar blip or symbol.

horizon. [JP 1-02] (DoD) In general, the apparent or visible junction of the Earth and sky, as seen from any specific position. Also called the apparent, visible, or local horizon. A horizontal plane passing through a point of vision or perspective center. The apparent or visible horizon approximates the true horizon only when the point of vision is very close to sea level.

horizontal action mine. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In land mine warfare, a mine designed to produce a destructive effect in a plane approximately parallel to the ground.

horizontal alignment of tasks. [TR 350-70] The identification of critical individual tasks that are performed by different ranks serving in the same organizational level such as the platoon sergeant and the lieutenant in a platoon, the first sergeant and the captain in a company.

horizontal alignment of training. [TR 350-70] Training is horizontally aligned when tasks selected for training are relevant to duties, responsibilities, and missions assigned to soldiers at a specific organizational level, notwithstanding the rank or status of the individuals being trained. For example, an officer, warrant officer, or noncommissioned officer at a given organizational level may primarily perform the task, but other leaders require the same skills and knowledge to assist or supervise task performance.

horizontal blanking. The time period during which the video monitor display is blank for horizontal retracement. See blanking.

horizontal blanking interval. The time required for the picture-forming beam of a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to return from the end of a scan line to the start of the next scan line. See blanking and horizontal blanking.

horizontal error. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The error in range, deflection, or in radius, which a weapon may be expected to exceed as often as not. Horizontal error of weapons making a nearly vertical approach to the target is described in terms of circular error probable. Horizontal error of weapons producing elliptical dispersion pattern is expressed in terms of probable error. See also circular error probable; delivery error; deviation; dispersion error.

horizontal loading. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Loading of items of like character in horizontal layers throughout the holds of a ship. See also loading.

horizontal situation display. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An electronically generated display on which navigation information and stored mission and procedural data can be presented. Radar information and television picture can also be displayed either as a map overlay or as a separate image. See also head-up display.

horizontal situation indicator. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) An instrument which may display bearing and distance to a navigation aid, magnetic heading, track/course and track/course deviation.

horizontal stowage. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The lateral distribution of unit equipment or categories of supplies so that they can be unloaded simultaneously from two or more holds.

horizontal sync. The pulse used to synchronize the horizontal scan of the video monitor.

horizontal technology integration. [TP 71] The application of common technology solutions across multiple systems to improve the warfighting capability of the total force. It represents the holistic process of developing, integrating, and fielding of common or multi-use technologies, hardware, and software into different types of weapons and information systems that fight together as units or task forces.

horn. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, a projection from the mine shell of some contact mines which, when broken or bent by contact, causes the mine to fire.

Hornet. JP 1-02] (DoD) A twin-engine supersonic, fighter/attack aircraft. The C (single-seat) and D (dual-seat) models have an all-weather intercept, identify and destroy capability. The Hornet is equipped with an electronic self-protection jammer, and is both air-to-air and air-to-ground capable. I t is designed to operate from both land bases and aircraft carriers. Designated as F/A-18.

hospital. JP 1-02] (DoD) A medical treatment facility capable of providing inpatient care. It is appropriately staffed and equipped to provide diagnostic and therapeutic services, as well as the necessary supporting services required to perform its assigned mission and functions. A hospital may, in addition, discharge the functions of a clinic.

host country. JP 1-02] (DoD) A nation in which representatives or organizations of another state are present because of government invitation and/or international agreement.

host nation. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nation which receives the forces and/or supplies of allied nations and/or NATO organizations to be located on, to operate in, or to transit through its territory.

host nation assistance. See host nation support.

host nation support. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, times of crisis, emergencies, or war; assistance provided during war is based upon agreements mutually concluded between nations.

hostage. JP 1-02] (DoD) A person held as a pledge that certain terms or agreements will be kept. (The taking of hostages is forbidden under the Geneva Conventions, 1949.)

hostile. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A contact positively identified as enemy. See also bogey; friendly.

hostile acts. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Basic rules established by higher authority for defining and recognizing hostile acts by aircraft, submarines, surface units, and ground forces will be promulgated by the commanders of unified or specified commands, and by other appropriate commanders when so authorized.

hostile casualty. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A person who is the victim of a terrorist activity or who becomes a casualty in action. In action characterizes the casualty as having been the direct result of hostile action, sustained in combat or relating thereto, or sustained going to or returning from a combat mission provided that the occurrence was directly related to hostile action. Included are persons killed or wounded mistakenly or accidentally by friendly fire directed at a hostile force or what is thought to be a hostile force. However, not to be considered as sustained in action and not to be interpreted as hostile casualties are injuries or death due to the elements, self-inflicted wounds, combat fatigue, and except in unusual cases, wounds or death inflicted by a friendly force while the individual is in an absent-without-leave, deserter, or dropped-from-rolls status or is voluntarily absent from a place of duty. See also casualty; casualty type; nonhostile casualty.

hostile environment. See operational environment.

hostile track. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The classification assigned to a track which, based upon established criteria, is determined to be an enemy threat.

hot photo interpretation report (HOTPHOTOREP). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A preliminary unformatted report of significant information from tactical reconnaissance imagery dispatched prior to compilation of the Initial photo interpretation report. It should pertain to a single objective, event, or activity of significant interest to justify immediate reporting.

hot report. Not to be used. See joint tactical air reconnaissance/surveillance mission report.

hot spot. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) Region in a contaminated area in which the level of radioactive contamination is considerably greater than in neighboring regions in the area.

Hound Dog. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A turbojet-propelled, air-to-surface missile designed to be carried externally on the B-52. It is equipped with a nuclear warhead and can be launched for either high or low altitude attacks against enemy targets, supplementing the internally carried firepower of the B-52. Designated as AGM-28B.

hovering. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A self-sustaining maneuver whereby a fixed, or nearly fixed, position is maintained relative to a spot on the surface of the Earth or underwater.

hovering ceiling. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) The highest altitude at which the helicopter is capable of hovering in standard atmosphere. It is usually stated in two figures: hovering in ground effect and hovering out of ground effect.

howitzer. [JP 1-02] (DoD)

l A cannon which combines certain characteristics of guns and mortars. The howitzer delivers projectiles with medium velocities, either by low or high trajectories.

l Normally a cannon with a tube length of 20 to 30 calibers; however, the tube length can exceed 30 calibers and still be considered a howitzer when the high angle fire zoning solution permits range overlap between charges.

See also gun; mortar.

hue. A particular variety of a color; shade; tint. Hue is improperly adjusted if a picture is bluish, greenish, or reddish.

Huey. See Iroquois.

human factors. A body of scientific facts about human characteristics. The term covers all biomedical and psychosocial considerations; it includes, but is not limited to, principles and applications in the areas of human engineering, anthropometrics, personnel selection, training, life support, job performance aids, and human performance evaluation.

human factors engineering. The comprehensive integration of human characteristics (including limitations or constraints) into system definition, design, development, and evaluation to optimize total system performance (the human-machine system).

human factors engineering analysis (HFEA). HFEA is one of the seven MANPRINT (manpower and personnel integration) domains. HFEA is performed in support of acquisition milestone reviews, to identify any problems in MANPRINT which may be sufficiently critical to preclude the system from preceding into the next phase of the acquisition process. A secondary objective is to identify MANPRINT concerns which, while not critical in terms of program decisions, are resolvable, and must be addressed during the subsequent phase of the acquisition cycle.

human factors engineering domain assessment. A report prepared by ARL-HRED that reviews the status of human factors engineering as the system approaches the end of a life cycle phase. A major purpose of the report is to identify any design flaws which, taken singularly or collectively, may be so objectionable that, if not remedied, might warrant a decision not to transition to the next phase. It will also identify issues and concerns that, while not critical, should be resolved to enhance total system operational effectiveness.

human intelligence (HUMINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources.

human performance. The ability of actual users and maintainers to meet the system’s performance standards, including reliability and maintainability, under the conditions in which the system will be employed.

human requirements integration. [TP 71] The holistic process of developing future, force-oriented requirements based upon approved warfighting concepts, warfighting experimentation/analysis and future operational capabilities.

human resources intelligence (HUMINT). [JP 1-02] (DoD) The intelligence information derived from the intelligence collection discipline that uses human beings as both sources and collectors, and where the human being is the primary collection instrument.

human systems integration. [DSMC] A disciplined, unified, and interactive approach to integrate human considerations into system design to improve total system performance and reduce costs of ownership. The major categories of human considerations are manpower, personnel, training, human factors engineering, safety, and health.

humanitarian and civic assistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Assistance to the local populace provided by predominantly U.S. forces in conjunction with military operations and exercises. This assistance is specifically authorized by title 10, United States Code, section 401, and funded under separate authorities. Assistance provided under these provisions is limited to:

l Medical, dental, and veterinary care provided in rural areas of a country.

l Construction of rudimentary surface transportation systems.

l Well drilling and construction of basic sanitation facilities.

l Rudimentary construction and repair of public facilities. Assistance must fulfill unit training requirements that incidentally create humanitarian benefit to the local populace.

See also humanitarian assistance.

humanitarian assistance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Programs conducted to relieve or reduce the results of natural or manmade disasters or other endemic conditions such as human pain, disease, hunger, or privation that might present a serious threat to life or that can result in great damage to or loss of property. Humanitarian assistance provided by U.S. forces is limited in scope and duration. The assistance provided is designed to supplement or complement the efforts of the host nation civil authorities or agencies that may have the primary responsibility for providing humanitarian assistance.

hung weapons. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Those weapons or stores on an aircraft that the pilot has attempted to drop or fire but could not because of a malfunction of the weapon, rack or launcher, or aircraft release and control system.

hunter track. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) In naval mine warfare, the track to be followed by the hunter (or sweeper) to ensure that the hunting (or sweeping) gear passes over the lap track.

hydrofoil patrol craft. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A patrol combatant, missile, fast surface patrol craft, capable of quick reaction and offensive operations against major enemy surface combatants. Designated as PHM.

hydrogen bomb. See thermonuclear weapon.

hydrographic chart. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A nautical chart showing depths of water, nature of bottom, contours of bottom and coastline, and tides and currents in a given sea or sea and land area.

hydrographic reconnaissance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Reconnaissance of an area of water to determine depths, beach gradients, the nature of the bottom, and the location of coral reefs, rocks, shoals, and manmade obstacles.

hydrographic section (beach party). [JP 1-02] (DoD) A section of a beach party whose duties are to clear the beach of damaged boats, conduct hydrographic reconnaissance, assist in removing underwater obstructions, act as stretcher bearers, and furnish relief boat crews.

hydrography. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The science which deals with the measurements and description of the physical features of the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, and their adjoining coastal areas, with particular reference to their use for navigational purposes.

hyperbaric chamber. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A chamber used to induce an increase in ambient pressure as would occur in descending below sea level, in a water or air environment. It is the only type of chamber suitable for use in the treatment of decompression sickness in flying or diving. Also called compression chamber; diving chamber.

hyperbolic navigation system. [JP 1-02] (DoD) A radio navigation system which enables the position of an aircraft equipped with a suitable receiver to be fixed by two or more intersecting hyperbolic position lines. The system employs either a time difference measurement of pulse transmissions or a phase difference measurement of phase-locked continuous wave transmissions. See also Decca; loran.

hyperfocal distance. [JP 1-02] (DoD) The distance from the lens to the nearest object in focus when the lens is focused at infinity.

hypergolic fuel. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Fuel which will spontaneously ignite with an oxidizer, such as aniline with fuming nitric acid. It is used as the propulsion agent in certain missile systems.

hypersonic. [JP 1-02] (DoD) Of or pertaining to speeds equal to, or in excess of, five times the speed of sound. See also speed of sound.

hyperstereoscopy. Stereoscopic viewing in which the relief effect is noticeably exaggerated, caused by the extension of the camera base. Also called exaggerated stereoscopy.

Hypertext Mark Up Language (HTML). [TP 25-71] A set of codes that form the standard of documents capable of being transported on the World Wide Web and read by a browser. The codes are used to identify the different parts of a document, specify the appearance of text and graphics, and form links between related topics. HTML is a subset of the Standard General Markup Language (SGML). HTML was originally developed at the CERN Institute in Switzerland and continues to undergo further development by a working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force.

hypsometric tinting. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) A method of showing relief on maps and charts by coloring in different shades those parts which lie between selected levels. Sometimes referred to as elevation tint; altitude tint; layer tint.