Title: "Gulf Crisis: Chronology for January, 1991." AR-118 provides an abbreviated version. (910205)
02/11/91 * (Spanish coming) JANUARY 1991 CHRONOLOGY OF THE GULF CRISIS (Short version of chronology of 2/6) (1,710)
WASHINGTON -- Following is the January 1-31, 1991, chronology of key events in the gulf crisis.
Jan. 1 -- Iraq rejects Egypt's demand that it withdraw from Kuwait.
Jan. 2 -- NATO authorizes deployment of aircraft to Turkey to help deter Iraqi threat.
Jan. 3 -- The foreign ministers of Pakistan, Iran and Turkey, during meeting in Islamabad, call for total withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
Jan. 8 -- President Bush calls Secretary of State James Baker's upcoming meeting with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz "perhaps the final chance" to resolve the conflict peacefully.
-- President Bush ask Congress to adopt resolution stating that it "supports the use of all necessary means to implement U.N. Security Council Resolution 678." (The resolution, adopted Nov. 29, demands that Iraq withdraw from Kuwait and states that unless Iraq does so by Jan. 15, member states are authorized "to use all necessary means" to assure that the resolution is complied with.)
Jan. 9 -- Baker and Aziz hold talks in Geneva which last over six hours. At a news conference afterwards, Baker states that "Regrettably...I heard nothing that suggested to me any Iraqi flexibility." He also says Aziz refused to accept a letter from President Bush to Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
-- President Bush, in a press conference, says he will "continue to try to reach out" to Saddam Hussein. "But if Saddam doesn't move, U.N. resolution 678 will be fully complied with."
-- Jamaica's Prime Minister Manley, in an address to the Jamaican parliament, says Jamaica and other CARICOM states have consistently supported U.N. resolutions concerning Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and continue to do so.
Jan. 10 -- The State Department announces that American diplomats will leave Baghdad by chartered aircraft Jan. 12.
GE 2 ARF118 Jan. 12 -- The U.S. Congress -- by a 250-183 vote in the House and 52-47 in the Senate -- passes a joint resolution that gives President Bush full authority to use U.S. armed forces to drive Iraqi forces out of occupied Kuwait to gain compliance with the U.N. resolutions.
Jan. 13 -- U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar meets with Saddam Hussein. After more than three hours of talks, Perez de Cuellar says there was no progress in persuading Iraq to pull out of Kuwait by Jan. 15.
-- Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, meeting with Secretary of State Baker in Cairo, indicates he is prepared to join in offensive action against Iraq if necessary. This follows an earlier commitment by Saudi King Fahd.
Jan. 14 -- Iraq's 250-member National Assembly votes by acclamation to go to war rather than bow to United Nations' demands to pull out of Kuwait.
-- The 12 foreign ministers of the European Community states decide unanimously not to send a last-minute peace mission to Baghdad. They agree to discourage individual initiatives.
-- Hamid Algabid, secretary general of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, renews appeals from Jidda to Saddam Hussein to conform to the dictates of Islam and avoid war.
-- Yemen proposes a six-point peace initiative in Arab capitals, which, however, it does not push in the United Nations.
-- French diplomats circulate a peace initiative calling for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait with guarantees that it would not be attacked afterward. U.N. forces would be used to maintain the peace. It reportedly says once an agreement on a timetable for withdrawal has been reached, the U.N. Security Council should make an "active contribution" to resolve other Mideast problems, including the convening of an international peace conference.
-- U.S. Ambassador Thomas Pickering criticizes the French proposal because the United States is "not in favor of steps that create artificial linkage" or go contrary to the 12 UNSC resolutions already adopted.
-- Pleas for peace are also directed at Iraq from the Organization for African Unity, Bangladesh, and Austria.
-- Turkey "temporarily suspends" its embassy operations in Baghdad and its ambassador returns to Turkey. Iraq unilaterally closes the Habur border gate with Turkey.
GE 3 ARF118 Jan. 15 -- Ambassador Pickering states that the "pause for good will" to allow Iraq one final opportunity to comply has come to an end.
-- U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar makes a final appeal to Iraqi president Saddam Hussein "to turn the course of events away from catastrophe."
-- French Prime Minister Michel Rocard accuses Baghdad of turning down all offers of dialogue and says the time has come to use force to dislodge Iraq from Kuwait.
Jan. 16 -- The liberation of Kuwait begins as the coalition of Kuwaiti, Saudi, U.S., French and British air forces begin operation Desert Storm with massive bombing raids on military targets in Iraq and Kuwait. The focus is military targets such as communications systems, airports, transportation systems, military installations, and nuclear and chemical weapons facilities.
-- Ambassador Pickering tells the U.N. Security Council that the goal of the allied strike is to liberate Kuwait, not to destroy or dismember Iraq.
Jan. 17 -- Allied forces commander Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, says the combined forces have launched 1,200 air missions into Iraq and Kuwait and confirms that Iraq launched seven Scud surface-to-surface missiles against Israel and one against Saudi Arabia. The missiles, carrying conventional high explosive warheads, were aimed at population centers, not military targets. Jan. 18 -- President Bush condemns Iraqi Scud missile attacks against civilians and promises an all-out effort to destroy Iraqi missile sites.
-- Iraqi officials display captured British and American airmen on television. Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), a former prisoner of war in Vietnam, says the airmen's statements were "obviously made under duress."
Jan. 19 -- The U.S. announces it is sending Patriot air defense units to assist Israel in its defense against missile attacks from Iraq.
-- The State Department delivers a diplomatic note to Khalid J. Shewayish, the Iraqi charge d'affaires, reminding Baghdad of its obligation under the 1949 Geneva Conventions not to mistreat prisoners. Washington also promises to provide "humane and safe detention and medical care" to captured Iraqi soldiers.
Jan. 21 -- Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney says Iraq's plan to use captured allied airmen as human shields is a violation of international law and a war crime.
GE 4 ARF118 -- Under Secretary of State Robert Kimmett summons the Iraqi charge d'affaires and warns Iraq that any effort to hold allied prisoners of war at military targets in Iraq will constitute a war crime and that individuals responsible will be personally liable and subject to prosecution.
Jan. 22 -- Iraqi Scud missiles fired at civilian areas of Tel Aviv kill three and injure 90 Israelis.
-- Heads of foreign affairs ministries of the 12 European Community (EC) states voice profound concern at Iraq's "unscrupulous" use of prisoners of war as human shields.
Jan. 23 -- The White House says allied air forces have struck a production facility for biological weapons disguised by Iraq to look like a baby milk factory.
Jan. 24 -- The Nestle Corporation says baby formula was never produced at a Baghdad factory bombed by warplanes from the multinational forces.
Jan. 25 -- Responding to reports of a massive outpouring of oil from Iraqi-held facilities in the Persian Gulf, Defense Department spokesman Pete Williams says Iraq's deliberate spilling of crude oil in the gulf "is clearly an act of environmental terrorism."
-- White House spokesman Marlin Fitzwater says Iraq deliberately released the oil over several days from tank farms in Kuwait. He says the spill is several times larger than the 11-million-gallon Exxon Valdez tanker spill off Alaska. The gulf spill threatens Saudi Arabia's ports, refineries and desalinization plants.
Jan. 26 -- President Bush orders a team of U.S. government oil pollution and environmental experts to Saudi Arabia to help the Saudis minimize the environmental damage from the oil slick.
Jan. 27 -- The allied air campaign is forcing Iraq's air force into Iran, says Gen. Schwarzkopf. He states that in the previous 24 hours, more than 39 Iraqi aircraft have fled to Iran.
-- The U.S. Air Force carries out a precision bombing operation in Kuwait to put out an oil fire and stop the control mechanism that allows oil to be pumped into the Gulf.
Jan. 28 -- Iran officially informs U.N. Secretary General Perez de Cuellar that until the end of hostilities in the Persian Gulf, it will not allow Baghdad the use of Iraqi military planes and personnel that have entered Iranian territory. If there is an emergency landing of aircraft
GE 5 ARF118 from either side on Iranian territory, the aircraft will be seized and held until the termination of hostilities. -- The United Nations World Health Organization calls Iraq's discharge of oil into the Gulf "an environmental disaster of unprecedented proportions..... The most imminent danger appears to be the threat to a major source of water supply for the countries of the region who depend on desalination of the sea water for their daily water supply."
Jan. 29 -- The Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly adopts a resolution which strongly condemns Iraq's attacks on Israel, treatment of prisoners of war, and discharge of oil into the gulf.
-- Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Bessmertnykh, in a statement following discussions in Washington, say "a cessation of hostilities would be possible if Iraq would make an unequivocal commitment to withdraw from Kuwait." Such a commitment, they say, "must be backed by immediate, concrete steps leading to full compliance with the Security Council resolutions."
-- President Bush, in his State of the Union address, says the 28-nation coalition opposing Iraqi aggression is "on course," and "Iraq's capacity to sustain war is being destroyed." But he stresses, "We do not seek the destruction of Iraq, its culture, or its people."
Jan. 30 -- The Department of Defense says that between 80 and 90 Iraqi aircraft, 65 percent of them military, have now flown into Iran.
-- Germany offers Israel a 500-million-dollar defense package that includes medicines and medical equipment, Patriot missiles, gear to counter poison gas, and financial help in building two submarines in German shipyards.
Jan. 31 -- Saudi Arabian and Qatari troops, backed by U.S. artillery and air strikes, retake the coastal town of Khafji from invading Iraqi forces.
File Identification: 02/05/91, PO-207; 02/05/91, EU-205; 02/05/91, NE-208; 02/11/90, AR-118; 02/06/91, AX-301; 02/06/91, PX-301; 02/06/91, AR-310; 02/09/91, NA-606; 02/08/91, NA-512
Product Name: Wireless File
Product Code: WF
Keywords: OPERATION DESERT STORM; PEACEKEEPING FORCES; MILITARY STRATEGY; BUSH, GEORGE/Foreign Relations: Near East & South Asia; IRAQ-US RELATIONS; DIPLOMATIC COMMUNICATIONS; ARAB NATIONS-US RELATIONS; ARAB NATIONS-IRAQ RELATIONS; MISS
Document Type: CHR
Thematic Codes: 1NE
Target Areas: EU; NE; AF; AR; EA
PDQ Text Link: 171325; 172045