MARCH 1996

Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a major initiative introduced by NATO at the January 1994 Brus- sels Summit.

The Partnership is working to expand and intensify political and military cooperation throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and build strengthened relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation and commitment to democratic principles that underpin the Alliance.

It offers participating states the possibility of strengthening their relations with NATO in accordance with their own individual interests and capabilities. NATO will also consult with any active participant in the Partnership if that Partner perceives a direct threat to its territorial integrity, political independence, or security. The states participating in the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) and other member countries of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) able and willing to contribute, were invited to join the NATO member states in this Partnership in January 1994. Twenty-six states 1 have since accepted this invitation and in most cases, detailed Individual Partnership Programmes have been agreed and are being implemented. Four of these countries—Austria, Finland, Malta and Sweden—are not members of the NACC but participate in NACC deliberations on PfP issues and take part in other NACC activities as observers. At a pace and scope determined by the capacity and desire of the individual participating Partners, NATO is working with its Partners in concrete ways towards creating greater transparency in defence budgeting, improving civil-military relations and promoting democratic control of armed forces; developing joint planning and joint military exercises; and developing the ability of the forces of Partner countries to operate with NATO forces in such fields as peacekeeping, search and rescue and humanitarian operations, and others as may be agreed.


Partnership for Peace has been established within the framework of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and builds on the momentum of cooperation created by the NACC. Partnership for Peace activities are fully coordinated with other activities undertaken in the NACC framework. While PfP focuses in particular on practical, defence-related and military cooperation activities, the NACC pro vides a forum for broad consultations on political and security related issues as well as for practical cooperation on security-related economic questions, information and scientific and environmental matters. Moreover, a fundamental difference between the NACC and PfP is that the NACC is a multilateral forum while PfP focuses on cooperation between NATO and individual partners. The NACC Work Plan sets down cooperation activities designed for all NACC members. The Partnership Work Programme is developed by NATO as a “menu” of potential cooperative activities from which PfP Partners may select according to their own specific, individual interests.

Each PfP Partner jointly develops with NATO an Individual Partnership Programme (IPP) listing specific cooperation activities agreed between NATO and that Partner, drawn from the Partnership Work Programme.


Concrete objectives of the Partnership include: facilitating transparency in national defence planning and budgeting processes; ensuring democratic control of defence forces;

maintaining the capability and readiness to contribute to operations under the authority of the U.N. and/or the responsibility of the OSCE; developing cooperative military relations with NATO, for the purpose of joint planning, training and exercises in order to strengthen the ability of PfP participants to undertake missions in the fields of peacekeeping, search and rescue, humanitarian operations, and others as may subsequently be agreed; developing, over the longer term, forces that are better able to operate with those of the members of the North Atlantic Alliance.

Active participation in the Partnership for Peace will play an important role in the evolutionary process of including new members in NATO. Alliance governments have stated that they “expect and would welcome” the addition of new members to the Alliance “as part of an evolutionary process taking into account political and security developments in the whole of Europe”. Article 10 of the Washington Treaty provides for the inclusion in NATO of other European states in a position to further the principles of the Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area.


In accordance with the invitation issued by NATO at the beginning of 1994, countries wishing to participate in PfP sign a Framework Document in which they affirm their commitment to the preserva tion of democratic societies and the maintenance of the principles of international law; to fulfil in good faith the obligations of the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of the Universal Declara tion on Human Rights; to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state; to respect existing borders; and to settle disputes by peaceful means. They also reaffirm their commitment to the Helsinki Final Act and all subsequent CSCE/OSCE documents and to the fulfillment of the commitments and obligations they have undertaken in the field of disarmament and arms control.


After signing the Framework Document, each Partner then submits its own, individual Presentation Document to NATO. Developed with the assistance of NATO authorities if desired, this docu ment indicates the scope, pace and level of participation in cooperation activities with NATO sought by the Partner (for example, joint planning, training and exercises).

The Presentation Document also identifies steps to be taken by the Partner to achieve the political goals of the Partnership as well as military and other assets that might be made available by the Partner for Partnership activities. It serves as a basis for developing an agreed Individual Partnership Programme (IPP), between the Partner and NATO, which details cooperation activities with each Partner. IPPs have been agreed between NATO and most PfP partners and are being implemented. Partners undertake to make available personnel, assets, facilities and capabilities necessary and appropriate for carrying out the agreed Partnership Programme; to fund their own participation in Partnership activities; and to share the burdens of mounting exercises in which they take part. PfP funding guidelines agreed by NATO stipulate that, for an interim period, to alleviate the burden on the Partners from their participation in Partnership activities, assistance could be made available by the Alliance if required.


A Political-Military Steering Committee (PMSC) meets as the working forum for Partnership for Peace, under the chairmanship of the Deputy Secretary General of NATO, in different configurations. Meetings of NATO allies with individual Partners examine, as appropriate, questions pertaining to that country's Individual Partnership Programme. Meetings with all NACC/PfP Partners also take place to address common issues relating to Partnership for Peace; to provide the necessary transparency on Individual Partnership Programmes; and to consider the Partnership Work Programme. To facilitate cooperation activities, NACC Partner countries and other PfP participating states have been invited to send permanent liaison officers to NATO Headquarters and to a separate Partnership Coordination Cell (PCC) at Mons (Belgium), where the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is located.

Most PfP countries have designated Liaison Officers to NATO, who work in office facilities provided for them in the Manfred Wrner Wing at NATO Headquarters in Brussels. Many PfP countries have also appointed Liaison Officers to the Coordination Cell. The Partnership Coordination Cell is responsible, under the authority of the North Atlantic Council, for coordinat ing joint military activities within the Partnership for Peace and for carrying out the military planning necessary to implement the military aspects of the Partnership Programmes, notably, the preparation of PfP exercises. The Cell is headed by a Director with responsibilities which include consultation and coordination with NATO's military authorities on matters directly related to the PCC's work. Detailed operational planning for military exercises is the responsibility of the military commands conducting the exercise. Three PfP exercises were held in autumn 1994 and 11 land and sea exercises in 1995, five in Partner countries. These exercises are designed to improve practical military cooperation and common capabilities in the areas on which PfP focuses and help to develop interoperability between the forces of NATO Allies and Partner countries. They also have an important political role. A large number of nationally sponsored exercises in the spirit of PfP are also taking place. A PfP Status of Forces Agreement, defining the legal status of NATO and Partner military forces when present on each other's territory, is now open for signature by Partner countries. 179


The Political-Military Steering Committee/Ad Hoc Group on Cooperation in Peacekeeping (PMSC/ AHG), which operates in the NACC/PfP framework, serves as the main forum for consultations on political and conceptual issues related to peacekeeping, and for the exchange of experience and the discussion of practical measures for cooperation. The PMSC/AHG reports periodically to NACC/PfP Foreign Ministers on these matters. Ireland, as an interested OSCE member state with specific experience in peacekeeping, also participates in the work of the group and actively contributes to it. A repre sentative of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office regularly attends the meetings of the Group and a representative of the United Nations has also participated in its activities.

DEFENCE-RELATED AND MILITARY COOPERATION MATTERS Among the defence and military-related matters addressed in PfP, are:

  • Civil-military relations and the democratic control of armed forces
  • Allies and Partners attach importance to improving civil-military relations and enhancing democratic control of defence establishments and armed forces in the new democracies in Central and Eastern Europe. A number of activities have therefore been undertaken aimed at these objectives, including ensuring transparency and appropriate Parliamentary oversight and public scrutiny of decision-making re lated to defence issues, and developing civilian expertise on security questions.


    Cooperation programmes on topics related to defence procurement programme management, materiel and technical standardization, technical research, air defence and communications and infor mation systems interoperability, are developed by the Conference of National Armaments Directors (CNAD), the NATO Air Defence Committee (NADC) and the NATO Communications and Informa tion Systems Committee (NACISC). Specific activities include meetings of multinational expert teams, the provision of technical documentation, workshops, seminars and other joint meetings.


    NATO's Committee for European Airspace Coordination (CEAC) meets in regular plenary sessions with specialists from PfP Partner countries and other nations to focus on civil-military coordina tion of air traffic management. Partner country representatives also take part in working groups, seminars and workshops held under the auspices of CEAC.


    The Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee meets with PfP Partners to oversee a programme of practical cooperation activities (seminars, workshops and exchanges of information) in the field of civil emergency planning and humanitarian assistance. Cooperation Partners also have the opportunity of exchanging technical expertise in the field of civil emergency planning through their participation in other committees responsible to the SCEPC. Emphasis is placed on the development of emergency legislation; disaster preparedness covering the entire spectrum of disaster prevention, mitigation, response and recovery and promotion of effec tive civil-military cooperation.


    NATO's Military Committee holds annual meetings at Chiefs of Staff level with NACC/PfP Partners and also meets at Military Representative level. The first meeting of the Military Committee in Cooperation Session took place in April 1992. It represented an important milestone in the partnership process and resulted in a military work plan designed to develop cooperation and assist Coopera tion Partners with the process of restructuring their armed forces. Activities in the framework of the Military Cooperation programme have since been subsumed under the Partnership for Peace.


    Scientists from Cooperation Partner countries have participated in the scientific and environmental programmes of the Alliance since 1992.

    In 1993 measures were taken by the North Atlantic Council to make these programmes more relevant to activities involving Cooperation Partners, singling out in particular scientific fields having a special bearing on security. As a result of these developments, scientists from NATO and Cooperation Partner countries are now engaged in NATO-sponsored activities designed to address issues such as the dismantling of weapons of mass destruction, military-related environmental degradation, and the conversion of military industries to civilian purposes.

    Representatives of Cooperation Partner countries also meet on an annual basis with the NATO Science Committee and the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society.


    In January 1995 a Planning and Review Process (PARP) was introduced within PfP, based on a biennial planning cycle, designed to advance interoperability and increase transparency among Allies and Partners. The first cycle of this process, in which 14 Partner states participated (Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slov enia, Sweden and Ukraine), was completed in spring 1995. The Planning and Review Process provides an important tool for enhancing interoperability between Partners and NATO member states in the areas of peacekeeping, humanitarian missions, and search and rescue operations. It also contributes to transparency in defence planning.


    1 Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan.

    Note that Turkey recognises the Republic of Macedonia with its constitutional name.

    This text is not a formally agreed NATO document and does not therefore necessarily represent the official opinion or position of individual member governments on all policy issues discussed