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Peace Operations: U.S. Costs in Support of Haiti, Former Yugoslavia, Somalia, and Rwanda (Letter Report, 03/06/96, GAO/NSIAD-96-38).

Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the
estimated costs of U.S. agencies' support of United Nations (U.N.) peace
operations in Haiti, former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Somalia for fiscal
years (FY) 1992 through 1995.

GAO found that support costs included expenditures for: (1) direct
participation of U.S. military forces in peacekeeping operations; (2)
the U.S. share of U.N. peacekeeping assessments; and (3) humanitarian
and related assistance. GAO also found that the: (1) Department of
Defense's incremental costs to support the peace operations were about
$3.4 billion; (2) Department of State's costs were about $1.8 billion;
(3) Agency for International Development's costs were about $1.3
billion; and (4) Departments of Justice, Commerce, Treasury,
Transportation, and Health and Human Services reported a total of about
$26 million in incremental costs to support peace operations.

--------------------------- Indexing Terms -----------------------------

 REPORTNUM:  NSIAD-96-38
     TITLE:  Peace Operations: U.S. Costs in Support of Haiti, Former 
             Yugoslavia, Somalia, and Rwanda
      DATE:  03/06/96
   SUBJECT:  International cooperation
             International organizations
             Foreign military assistance
             Foreign economic assistance
             Warfare
             Foreign aid programs
             International relations
             Developing countries
             Civil rights
             Disaster relief aid
IDENTIFIER:  Yugoslavia
             Haiti
             Rwanda
             Somalia
             Bosnia
             Croatia
             Macedonia
             
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Cover
================================================================ COVER


Report to the Majority Leader,
U.S.  Senate

March 1996

PEACE OPERATIONS - U.S.  COSTS IN
SUPPORT OF HAITI, FORMER
YUGOSLAVIA, SOMALIA, AND RWANDA

GAO/NSIAD-96-38

Peace Operations

(711124)


Abbreviations
=============================================================== ABBREV

  DOD - Department of Defense
  USAID - United States Agency for International Development
  UNMIH - United Nations Mission in Haiti
  UNPROFOR - United Nations Protection Force
  UNAMIR - U.N.  Assistance Mission for Rwanda
  UNOMUR - U.N.  observer mission in Uganda-Rwanda
  UNITAF - Unified Task Force
  UNOSOM - U.N.  operations in Somalia

Letter
=============================================================== LETTER


B-265939

March 6, 1996

The Honorable Robert Dole
Majority Leader
United States Senate

Dear Senator Dole: 

As requested, we are providing you information on U.S.  agencies'
estimated costs for their support of U.N.  peace operations in Haiti,
the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Somalia for fiscal years 1992
through 1995.\1

For this report, we define peace operations as actions taken in
support of U.N.  resolutions designed to further peace and security,
including observers; monitors; traditional peacekeeping; preventive
deployment; peace enforcement; security assistance; the imposition of
sanctions; and the provision, protection, and delivery of
humanitarian relief.\2


--------------------
\1 The U.N.  peace operations are the U.N.  Mission in Haiti; U.N. 
Protection Force for former Yugoslavia; U.N.  Assistance Mission in
Rwanda; and U.N.  Operations in Somalia .  As of March 31, 1995, U.N. 
operations in the former Yugoslavia were divided into three separate
operations for Bosnia, Croatia, and Macedonia. 

\2 This definition is based on DOD's definition of peace operations
in the Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense to the President and
the Congress, February 1995, p.  22; and Joint Tactics, Techniques,
and Procedures, Department of Defense, Joint Publication 3-07, 3,
April 29, 1994. 


   BACKGROUND
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :1

U.S.  agencies' costs in support of peace operations are paid from
their congressional appropriations.  These costs include expenditures
for (1) direct participation of U.S.  military forces, (2) the U.S. 
share of U.N.  peacekeeping assessments, and (3) humanitarian and
related assistance.  The Departments of Defense (DOD) and State are
the two lead agencies responsible for planning and implementing U.S. 
participation in peace operations.  The U.S.  Agency for
International Development (USAID) is the primary agency responsible
for providing humanitarian assistance, including food donated by the
Department of Agriculture.  USAID provides humanitarian assistance
through the United Nations and private organizations.  The
Departments of Justice, Commerce, Treasury, Transportation, and
Health and Human Services are also involved in activities in support
of peace operations.  The agencies' specific actions related to the
four peace operations are presented in appendix I. 


   RESULTS IN BRIEF
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :2

From fiscal years 1992 through 1995, the incremental cost reported by
U.S.  government agencies for support of U.N.  peace operations in
Haiti, the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Somalia was over $6.6
billion\3 (see
table 1).  The United Nations has reimbursed the United States $79.4
million for some of these costs. 



                                Table 1
                
                   Reported U.S. Costs for Support of
                 Selected U.N. Peace Operations (Fiscal
                             Years 1992-95)

                         (Dollars in millions)


                                                                 1992-
Country                           1992    1993    1994    1995      95
------------------------------  ------  ------  ------  ------  ------
Haiti                            $79.7  $130.4  $530.8  $875.8  $1,616
                                                                    .7
Former Yugoslavia                126.7   408.7   959.0   692.5  2,186.
                                                                    9\
Rwanda                            22.1    24.8   261.4   265.4   573.7
Somalia                           92.9  1,124.   913.3    92.1  2,223.
                                             8                       1
======================================================================
Total                           $321.4  $1,688  $2,664  $1,925  $6,600
                                            .7      .5      .8      .4
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Note:  As of August 1995, the United Nations had reimbursed the
United States $79.4 million for its participation in these
operations. 

From fiscal years 1992 through 1995, DOD's incremental costs to
support the four operations were about $3.4 billion,\4 the State
Department's were about $1.8 billion, and USAID's were about $1.3
billion (including $556 million for commodities and transportation). 
The Departments of Justice, Commerce, Treasury, Transportation, and
Health and Human Services reported incremental costs of which totaled
about $91 million.  Figure 1 shows the percentage distribution of
agency costs from fiscal years 1992 through 1995. 

   Figure 1:  Distribution of U.S. 
   Agency Costs in Support of
   Selected Peace Operations
   (fiscal years 1992-95)

   (See figure in printed
   edition.)


--------------------
\3 The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (P.L.  101-508)
defined incremental costs for Operation Desert Shield as those costs
that would not have been incurred except for the operation.  DOD uses
that definition for other incremental cost assessments.  For other
agencies, expenses such as salaries, which would be paid regardless
of the employees' work-related activities, are excluded from the $6.6
billion. 

\4 It is not possible to provide DOD's final costs for these
operations.  As we have reported previously, DOD's financial systems
cannot reliably determine costs of specific operations.  Data on
obligations are generated by individual military units that report up
the chain of command.  The individual services then use various
management information systems to identify incremental costs, but an
overall system is not in place to capture actual incremental costs. 


   AGENCY COMMENTS
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :3

The Department of State, DOD, and USAID generally agreed with this
report, but each offered some technical and editorial suggestions,
which we have incorporated where appropriate.  DOD's written comments
are reprinted in appendix II; State and USAID provided oral comments. 


   SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
------------------------------------------------------------ Letter :4

We met with officials from DOD, the Departments of State,
Agriculture, Justice, Commerce, Transportation, and Health and Human
Services; USAID; and the U.S.  Mission to the United Nations to
obtain information on the costs in support of the four peace
operations.  We obtained DOD's reported incremental costs for the
four operations from fiscal years 1992 through 1995.  We also
reviewed data supporting DOD's request for supplemental
appropriations.  For the other agencies and departments, we used a
data collection instrument to obtain the cost information, including
funds obligated and transferred through lead agencies.  We also
obtained budget reports and documents from State Department officials
and from finance officials at the U.N.  Controller's Office and the
Department of Peacekeeping Operations. 

At all the agencies, we discussed with officials how they budgeted
and accounted for peace operations' costs.  In addition, we reviewed
other GAO reports that previously reported cost data for peace
operations.  In some cases, the cost data we obtained from
participating agencies changed from amounts previously reported
because agencies update their costs as more information becomes
available.  We did not verify the accuracy of the costs reported;
however, a forthcoming report will address issues concerning the
consistency, accuracy, and reliability of DOD's incremental costs
related to contingency operations. 

We did our review from February to November 1995 in accordance with
generally accepted government auditing standards. 


---------------------------------------------------------- Letter :4.1

We are sending copies of this report to appropriate congressional
committees; the Secretaries of Defense, State, Agriculture, Treasury,
Transportation, Justice, Commerce, and Health and Human Services; the
Administrator, U.S.  Agency for International Development; the
Director, Office of Management and Budget; and the Secretary General
of the United Nations.  Copies will also be made available to others
upon request. 

Please contact me at (202) 512-4128 if you or your staff have any
questions concerning this report.  The major contributors to this
report were Tetsuo Miyabara, Joseph C.  Brown, and Elizabeth Nyang. 

Sincerely yours,

Harold J.  Johnson
Associate Director
International Relations and Trade Issues


U.S.  AGENCIES' PARTICIPATION IN
FOUR PEACE OPERATIONS
=========================================================== Appendix I


   HAITI
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:1

In September 1991, a military junta forced the elected President of
Haiti into exile and many Haitians fled the country amidst widespread
human rights abuses.  In response, the United Nations passed several
resolutions, including an international trade embargo on Haiti and a
U.N.  mission to monitor human rights.  In September 1993, following
a negotiated agreement for a return to democratic rule, the U.N. 
Security Council authorized the United Nations Mission in Haiti
(UNMIH), to facilitate the transition, train and monitor the Haitian
police, and modernize the armed forces.  However, UNMIH, which was to
have included 567 police monitors, 700 military construction
personnel, and a small military training unit, was prevented from
landing in Haiti, and the international community responded by
tightening enforcement of the embargo.  Subsequently, a
U.N.-sanctioned, U.S.-led multinational force launched Operation
Uphold Democracy in September 1994.  The multinational force achieved
its mission in January 1995, establishing a secure environment in
Haiti and allowing the exiled President to return.  In March 1995, an
expanded UNMIH, which included a 6,000-troop force, replaced the
multinational force.  The reported incremental costs to the U.S. 
government for support of these activities from fiscal years 1992
through 1995 was over $1.6 billion (see
table I.1). 



                               Table I.1
                
                   Costs of Peace Operations in Haiti
                         (Fiscal Years 1992-95)

                         (Dollars in millions)


                                                                 1992-
Agency                            1992    1993    1994    1995      95
------------------------------  ------  ------  ------  ------  ------
DOD                               $9.3    $2.8  $372.1  $568.7  $952.9
State                              2.7    15.2    18.1    78.6   114.6
 (U.S. assessment for
 UNMIH)                            (0)     (0)   (0.5)  (51.9)  (52.4)
                                                            \a
USAID                             66.0   111.6   123.9   187.6   489.1
Other\b                            1.7     0.8    16.7  40.9\c    60.1
======================================================================
Total                            $79.7  $130.4  $530.8  $875.8  $1,616
                                                                    .7
----------------------------------------------------------------------
Note:  Amounts do not include the costs to aid Haitian migrants in
the United States. 

\a This figure includes $81,000 in assessments billed by the United
Nations in fiscal year 1994 but paid in fiscal year 1995.  As of the
end of fiscal year 1995, U.S.  assessments were paid in full. 

\b Other agencies included the Departments of Health and Human
Services, Transportation (primarily the Coast Guard), Justice,
Commerce, and Treasury. 

\c This figure includes $28.3 million transferred from DOD for
operations in Haiti. 

From fiscal years 1992 through 1995, the Department of Defense's (
DOD) incremental costs of $952.9 million were for the multinational
force, UNMIH, and related U.N.  resolutions.  Following U.N. 
resolutions authorizing an international embargo on Haiti in 1993,
DOD helped enforce the embargo and supported migrant processing
operations at the U.S.  naval base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.  During
the early phases of Operation Uphold Democracy, DOD continued
enforcing the embargo and following the landing on Haiti, established
and maintained civic order, searched for and seized weapons,
conducted civil affairs programs, trained troops from other nations
in peacekeeping duties, repaired roads, and coordinated the return of
about 14,000 Haitians from the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. 

The State Department reported costs of $114.6 million during fiscal
years 1992 through 1995, including the U.S.  assessment for UNMIH
($52.4 million).  An estimated $16 million was used to assist Haitian
victims and refugees and provide grants to private voluntary
organizations for distribution in Haiti.  The State Department also
provided support to multinational force contingents that could not be
provided through section 506 of the Foreign Assistance Act (drawdown
of defense articles and services). 

The U.S.  Agency for International Development (USAID) suspended its
assistance programs to Haiti after the September 1991 coup, but on
November 10, 1991, it reactivated the feeding programs and health
services through private voluntary organizations.  USAID also helped
fund the Department of Justice's International Criminal Investigative
Training Assistance Program to train the Haitian police force and
provided funding for the joint Organization of American States/United
Nations International Civilian Mission in Haiti which monitors human
rights issues. 

The Departments of Justice, Commerce, Treasury, Transportation, and
Health and Human Services provided direct and indirect support to the
peace operation in Haiti.  For example, the Department of Justice
provided funds for programs to train judges and strengthen the
criminal justice system and to help with migration emergencies and
refugee processing.  Under the Department of Transportation, the
Coast Guard played an active role in interdicting Haitian refugees. 
The Department of Health and Human Services provided health care
services to Haitian refugees at the U.S.  Guantanamo Bay Naval Base
in Cuba and conducted limited follow-up health services in Florida. 


   FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:2

U.N.  peace operations in the former Yugoslavia were authorized by
the U.N.  Security Council in February 1992 to facilitate a peaceful
resolution to the crisis.  The United Nations Protection Force
(UNPROFOR) initially monitored the cease-fire in Croatia and provided
humanitarian assistance in Bosnia.  In October 1992, the United
Nations designated Bosnia a no-fly zone and in mid-1993 mandated
UNPROFOR to deter attacks against six safe areas in Bosnia.  The
reported incremental costs to the U.S.  government to support these
objectives from fiscal years 1992 through 1995 was $2.19 billion (see
table I.2).  This does not include costs related to the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization Implementation Force deployment. 



                               Table I.2
                
                  Costs of Peace Operations in Former
                   Yugoslavia (Fiscal Years 1992-95)

                         (Dollars in millions)


                                                                 1992-
Agency                            1992    1993    1994    1995      95
------------------------------  ------  ------  ------  ------  ------
DOD\a                             $5.8  $138.8  $292.0  $347.4  $784.0
State                            110.0   141.3   547.1   249.6  1,048.
 (includes U.S. assessment for                                       0
 UNPROFOR)                      (76.4)  (70.1)  (459.7  (179.8
                                                     )     )\b  (786.0
                                                                     )
USAID                             10.9   126.9   116.9    93.4   348.1
Other\c                              0     1.7     3.0     2.1     6.8
======================================================================
Total                           $126.7  $408.7  $959.0  $692.5  $2,186
                                                                    .9
----------------------------------------------------------------------
\a As of August 1995, the United Nations had reimbursed DOD $16.2
million for its participation in U.N.  peace operations in former
Yugoslavia. 

\b This figure includes $153.7 million in assessments billed by the
United Nations in fiscal year 1994 but paid in fiscal year 1995.  As
of the end of fiscal year 1995, outstanding U.S.  assessments for
UNPROFOR were $599.7 million.  These costs are not included in this
report. 

\c Other agencies include the Departments of Transportation and
Treasury. 

DOD reported incremental costs of $784 million in the former
Yugoslavia from fiscal years 1992 through 1995 for humanitarian
airdrops over Bosnia, operation of a hospital in Croatia, and airlift
of food, clothing, and medical supplies to Sarajevo.  As a member of
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States also
incurred peacekeeping costs for enforcing the no-fly zone over Bosnia
and launching air strikes against parties that attacked safe areas or
fired on U.N.  peacekeepers.  These costs are included in the table
I.2.  However, munitions expended during these operations are not
included in incremental costs and they were not included by DOD when
it developed its requests for supplemental appropriations. 

Of State's reported $1.05 billion costs for support of U.N.  peace
operations in the former Yugoslavia through fiscal year 1995,
approximately $786 million was for the U.S.  assessment for UNPROFOR. 
The State Department also provided funds for international and
nongovernmental organizations, such as the U.N.  High Commissioner
for Refugees, the International Organization for Migration, Doctors
without Borders, and the International Rescue Committee, to aid
conflict victims and refugees in former Yugoslavia. 

From fiscal years 1992 through 1995, USAID costs in the former
Yugoslavia were $348.1 million for food and humanitarian assistance
and the support of humanitarian organizations.  The Coast Guard
helped enforce the U.S.-sanctioned maritime embargo operations in the
Adriatic and Ionian seas.  The Department of Treasury also provided
support for sanctions in the former Yugoslavia. 


   RWANDA
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:3

U.N.  relief operations in Rwanda began in July 1992, and the U.N. 
Security Council authorized a U.N.  observer mission in Uganda-Rwanda
(UNOMUR), along the Uganda-Rwanda border in June 1993 to monitor the
movement of military supplies.  The mission was terminated in
September 1994.  In subsequent resolutions, the Security Council
established the U.N.  Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) and
authorized it to act as an intermediary between the warring parties
and help provide security for civilians and relief operations. 
UNAMIR I was established in October 1993 to facilitate the August
1993 peace settlement.  It was replaced by UNAMIR II in June 1994
following the outbreak of violence in April 1994.  The reported
incremental cost to U.S.  government agencies for actions supporting
U.N.  peace operations in Rwanda from fiscal year 1992 through 1995
was $574 million (see table I.3). 



                               Table I.3
                
                  Costs of Peace Operations in Rwanda
                         (Fiscal Years 1992-95)

                         (Dollars in millions)


                                                                 1992-
Agency                            1992    1993    1994    1995      95
------------------------------  ------  ------  ------  ------  ------
DOD\a                               $0    $1.0  $106.7   $36.4  $144.1
State                                0       0    61.1   169.4   230.5
 (includes UNOMUR and UNAMIR
 assessments)                      (0)     (0)  (34.0)  (75.5)  (109.5
                                                            \b       )
USAID                             22.1    23.8    93.6    59.6   199.1
Other agencies                       0       0       0       0       0
======================================================================
Total                            $22.1   $24.8  $261.4  $265.4  $573.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------
\a As of August 1995, the United Nations had reimbursed DOD $10.6
million for its participation in U.N.  peace operations in Rwanda. 

\b As of the end of fiscal year 1995, outstanding U.S.  assessments
for UNAMIR were $25.4 million.  These costs are not included in this
report. 

From fiscal years 1992 through 1995, USAID costs amounted to $199
million primarily for the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to
provide emergency funding for food, seed and tools, health, water,
and sanitation for the war-affected population in Rwanda.  This
assistance was provided primarily through international relief
organizations such as the World Food Program, the International
Committee of the Red Cross, and Catholic Relief Services, which
carried out many of the day-to-day relief operations. 

The Department of State's costs were $230.5 million for fiscal years
1994 through 1995, with about $110 million for the U.S.  assessment. 
State's Bureau for Population, Refugees and Migration also provided
funds to the International Organization for Migration, International
Committee of the Red Cross, International Rescue Committee, and U.N. 
High Commissioner for Refugees for camps in Rwanda. 

During 1994, DOD airlifted, on a reimbursable basis, U.N.  troop
contingents and their supplies and equipment to Rwanda in support of
UNAMIR II.  It also airlifted emergency relief supplies for U.N. 
agencies and nongovernmental organizations as well as 2,000 troops to
the region in support of humanitarian relief.  These DOD activities
cost about $107 million.  From fiscal years 1992 through 1995, DOD's
reported incremental costs were $144.1 million. 


   SOMALIA
--------------------------------------------------------- Appendix I:4

The first operation in Somalia authorized by the U.N.  Security
Council was Operation Provide Relief, which was a humanitarian
mission that ran from April 1992 through December 1992.  This
operation was followed by the U.S.-led Unified Task Force's (UNITAF)
Operation Restore Hope, which ran from December 1992 to May 1993 and
combined humanitarian relief with limited military action aimed at
providing security for U.N.  personnel and humanitarian organizations
throughout Somalia.  According to DOD, UNITAF created a secure
environment and subsequently transferred operations back to the
United Nations when the U.N.  operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) II was
authorized by the Security Council in May 1993.  As part of the
mission, U.S.  forces continued providing logistical support.  The
United States also maintained a quick reaction force to support
UNOSOM II.  All U.S.  forces supporting UNOSOM II were withdrawn in
March 1994.  The United Nations terminated the UNOSOM II operation in
March 1995, with help from the United States to withdraw the
remaining U.N.  troops.  The reported incremental cost to U.S. 
government agencies from fiscal years 1992 through 1995 in support of
U.N.  peace operations in Somalia was $2.2 billion (see table I.4). 



                               Table I.4
                
                  Costs of Peace Operations in Somalia
                         (Fiscal years 1992-95)

                         (Dollars in millions)


                                                                 1992-
Agency                            1992    1993    1994    1995      95
------------------------------  ------  ------  ------  ------  ------
D0D\a                             $1.6  $943.1  $528.0   $49.4  $1,522
                                                                    .1
State                             26.6    61.7   332.8    16.9   438.0
 (U.S. assessment for UNOSOM)
                                   (0)  (40.9)  (330.9  (16.9)  (388.7
                                                     )      \b       )
USAID                             64.7   103.7    44.9    25.8   239.1
Other agencies                       0    16.3     7.6       0    23.9
======================================================================
Total                            $92.9  $1,124  $913.3   $92.1  $2,223
                                            .8                      .1
----------------------------------------------------------------------
\a As of August 1995, the United Nations had reimbursed DOD $52.6
million for its participation. 

\b Assessments billed by the United Nations in fiscal year 1994 but
paid in fiscal year 1995.  As of the end of fiscal year 1995,
outstanding U.S.  assessments for UNOSOM were $94 million.  These
costs are not included in this report. 

DOD reported incremental costs of approximately $1.5 billion for
UNITAF's military intervention, logistical support as part of UNOSOM
II, support for UNOSOM II during the operation, and assistance in the
withdrawal of
UNOSOM II.  Because Somalia lacked basic infrastructure, DOD
refurbished or built housing facilities, ports, and other
infrastructure.  DOD also launched a military airlift from Mombasa,
Kenya, to deliver food to sites in Somalia.  In March 1995, U.S. 
troops helped UNOSOM II withdraw from Somalia at an estimated cost of
$22 million. 

The State Department's reported costs from fiscal years 1992 through
1995 for U.N.  operations in Somalia was $438 million, of which
$388.7 million was for the U.S.  assessment for UNOSOM.  State also
provided assistance to internally displaced and other conflict
victims within Somalia. 

USAID reported costs of $239.1 million for fiscal years 1992 through
1995 for medical and food assistance.  The agency supported several
relief activities, including food distribution, health and nutrition,
water and sanitation, agriculture and livestock, and mine clearance. 
USAID assistance also supported efforts to establish a police and
judicial system in Somalia. 




(See figure in printed edition.)Appendix II
COMMENTS FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF
DEFENSE
=========================================================== Appendix I


*** End of document. ***