[Mission Area Plans]

RETURN TO PART ONE


Theater Battle Management

4. Mission Area Plan. The MAP summarizes and uses the products of the MAA and MNA processes to identify key technologies and weapons systems modernization efforts required to correct known deficiencies. The MAP products are modernization roadmaps, mission area leveraging technologies summaries, and recommended updates to procedures and tactics. The MAP is the primary planning document for acquisition strategies, national and Air Force laboratory efforts, and industrial Independent Research and Development (IR&D) programs, providing a focus for limited investment dollars. This ensures the required technologies are developed and matured as quickly as possible. The MAP office of primary responsibility (OPR) will conduct an annual review to ensure the effective integration of aircraft and weapons technologies into our force structure.

4a. Pros and Cons of Changing the Strategy, Tactics, Techniques, or Procedures. Deficiencies in TBM arise primarily from technological advances in potential adversary systems, increasing requirements for joint and combined operations, and high capacity voice and data communications. U.S. forces have adapted strategies, procedures, and tactics to meet these challenges and have realized some gains in dealing with the new challenges. It is unlikely that many more gains can be realized using these techniques, since most of the deficiencies in this mission area are due to technical limitations of current equipment that cannot be overcome by non-material solutions. An area with much promise is modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S is necessary to ensure the integration of TBM systems within the Air Force, between sister services, and between allied forces, and to allow decision makers to train in an environment where nobody gets hurt when an incorrect decision is made. Some efforts are being made at this time that incorporate M&S. Joint Systems Training Exercises (JSTEs), Blue and Green Flags, and the United States Air Forces Europe (USAFE) Warrior Preparation Center are some examples of M&S in operation today. For example, during Blue Flags, computers (AWSIMS and TEXIS) allow decision makers to see the effects and outcomes of their decisions by receiving immediate feedback. To fully realize the capabilities of M&S, much more emphasis will need to be placed on acquiring M&S capabilities that depict the whole of the battlespace, with emphasis on the synergistic effects of joint operations. Also, the emerging field of information warfare will have a big impact on TBM, since TBM depends on the flow of information, and M&S efforts will have to take this into account.

4b. Pros and Cons of Increasing Quantities in Terms of Manpower, Equipment, or Other Support. Budgetary constraints all but eliminate considering increasing levels of manpower, equipment, and support. Furthermore, such increases would not solve many of the current deficiencies. Currently planned fielding of equipment will solve some of the deficiencies, but increasing beyond currently planned end-strength figures provides diminishing returns in solving most deficiencies. Further erosion in authorized end strengths and weapons systems procurement budgets mandates a qualitative-based investment approach.

4c. Pros and Cons Associated with Modifying or Modernizing Existing Equipment. Existing inventory items and their inherent growth potential allows a near-to-mid-term modification/modernization plan. Weapons systems procurement standards have imposed strict requirements on industry which facilitate simplified modifications to existing designs. However, in some cases, modernization of an existing weapon system is not cost effective and it is more cost effective to replace it with commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment.

4d. Pros and Cons Associated with Developing and Acquiring a New Capability. Purchasing of new capabilities is envisioned to meet far-term needs. The chief advantage of this approach is that it allows for the incorporation of innovative technologies which are absent for incorporation in near-to-mid-term modification/modernization activities. A full-blown developmental approach when acquiring new systems is not well suited for meeting near-to-mid- term needs as the typical development cycle exceeds five years.

4e. Selected Solutions Rationale. The two-phased solution stated above calls for near-to-mid-term modification/modernization activities combined with the acquisition of new systems for the far-term. This phasing scheme acknowledges the fact that at some point further modifications to existing platforms/systems is not cost effective or practical.

4.1. Weapons System/Capability Modernization Roadmaps. The core systems for this MAP are divided into functional areas. Note: The "Status" column indicates whether a program is currently funded or not and, if funded, funding is expected until the program is completed. Also, two identified deficiencies are procedural in nature and cannot be fixed by material means. While listed in chapter three, they are not listed under any system in this chapter. They are: 16. AOC & JFACC unable to exert control over scarce recce and surveillance assets, and, 61. SOF and conventional forces unable to fully interoperate.

4.1.1. Air Operations Center (AOC).

4.1.1.1. Contingency Theater Automated Planning System (CTAPS). CTAPS is an evolutionary acquisition program to develop an open-systems architecture to automate the Air Operations Center (AOC), Air Support Operations Center (ASOC), and provides automated inputs to the wing/unit-level command and control planning and execution functions. The CTAPS architecture will connect command and control (force-level) to C2IPS and Wing Command and Control System(s) (WCCS) (unit-level) throughout the TACS and become the main planning/execution tool of the JFACC. CTAPS is required to operate in secure mode, but may be releasable to coalition partners. Security guards must be in place to ensure security integrity between CTAPS and unclassified or US only systems. The characteristics of CTAPS include automated planning and execution of the ATO and an ability to conduct and manage dynamic current operations. CTAPS is portable on CAF standard workstations and servers. International Standards Organization (ISO) 3-to-1 shelters house the communications, computing, and local area components of the AOC. Near-term enhancements at the force level include: Advanced Planning System (APS), JFACC Planning Tool (JPT), the Combat Intelligence System (CIS) (functionalities incorporate ICM, RAAP, and Constant Source), Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual (JMEM), Joint Message Analysis and Processing System (JMAPS), CAF Weather Software Package (CAFWSP), Joint Operational Tracking System (JOTS), Computer Assisted Force Management System/X (CAFM/X), C2IPS Interface and WCCS Interface. CTAPS will continue to be upgraded to support force/unit level planning and execution. Near term upgrades add capability to CTAPS AOC. Mid term capabilities will provide situational awareness [Battlefield Situation Display (BSD)] capability including theater missile defense awareness and an automated ASOC with connectivity to the AOC and unit level communications. Force level Execution (FLEX) software will replace CAFMS/X and provide enhanced support to AOC combat operations. A direct interface with AFMSS, COMPASS, and TAMPS will also be needed for collaborative planning and joint operations. Modification to comply with evolving Common Operating Environment (COE) and joint architecture standards will be required. In the far term, evolving technology will need to be incorporated into all levels of joint/combined force planning and execution to provide the Air Force and other services with the capability to meet future contingencies. (see Figure 4-1, 4-2)

4.1.1.1.1. NATO Air Command and Control System (ACCS) Interface. CTAPS interfaces to NATO's C4I system(s) and is a candidate for a partial solution to the NATO ACCS requirements.

4.1.1.1.2. External Interfaces. Global Command and Control System (GCCS) will provide warfighters of the Joint Task Force (JTF) Commander, the National Command Authority, Joint Staff, services, and Defense Agencies a highly mobile, deployable, automated C2 system that provides a fused, real-time true representation of the battlespace. GCCS will be a comprehensive, global system of systems to provide commanders and their staffs with required flexible, tailorable, scaleable, and interoperable command and control automated capabilities, anytime and anywhere. The system will use the Defense Information System Network (DISN) for intersite connectivity and run at the Secret System High level. The system must also work over tactical communication systems for such instances of Power Projection Operations. To effectively command and control military operations, GCCS will be operated in command centers at the theater component force and unit levels as well as at the Pentagon, CINC, and JTF headquarters, and at the deployed service component operations centers, as applicable. In successive releases, GCCS will evolve to include additional capabilities and interconnectivity via common joint interfaces and a common operating environment (COE), that will host common and service unique mission application software built specifically to plan, deploy, sustain, and prosecute national objectives and combat force operations worldwide.

4.1.1.1.3. Automated Planning. Provides additional APS automation to the combat plans division within the AOC for the command and control system architecture in ACC, USAFE, and PACAF to assist in the generation of the ATO. It will use CAF standard workstations and servers already resident in CTAPS. Pre-Planned Product Improvements (P3I) will provide new requirements and software upgrades. The JFACC Planning Tool (JPT) will be integrated to improve high-level theater air planning for joint force commanders.

4.1.1.1.4. CTAPS Remotes. Allows AOC automated interface/information exchange with subordinate and lateral level units.

4.1.1.1.5. Intelligence. The Combat Intelligence System (CIS), integrated into CTAPS, provides a capability to correlate, analyze, store, display, and disseminate multi-source intelligence information derived from near real-time and other collection systems/sources. It will assist in ATO generation and battlefield decision making. For more information, see the CIS Roadmap.

4.1.1.1.6. Weather. CAFWSP provides the capability to track theater weather and display current status and forecasts on maps or in a tabular form to aid in ATO planning. Provides a relational data base of weather products for other CTAPS applications to access in support of the ATO planning and execution process.

4.1.1.1.7. TBM Core Upgrades. Will provide improved Commercial-off-the shelf/Government-off-the-shelf (COTS/GOTS) software to enhance information processing and compatabilities with other TBM systems and the GCCS Common Core. It will develop common Application Program Interfaces (APIs) to build the TBM Common Operating Environment (COE).

4.1.1.1.8. Force Level Execution (FLEX) Module. Will automate the combat operations section of the AOC to assist in the near real-time monitoring and execution of the ATO based on rapidly changing battlefield conditions. FLEX will have the capability to support planning, monitoring, assessment, targeting, and plan modification. FLEX will provide the capability to respond to time critical targets.

4.1.1.1.9. Hardware Upgrades. Will feature continuous technological upgrades of computer processing power in the AOC. Upgrades will include CAF workstations, servers, printers, disk drives, and other peripheral equipment.

4.1.1.1.9.1. Future communications enhancements for the AOC also include a down-sized Modular AOC (MAOC) capability, communications workstation enclosures, upgrades of Wide Area Network (WAN), local area network (LAN)/fiber distribution data interface (FDDI), voice digital switching compatible with joint systems, Tactical Secure Data Communications (TASDAC) installations, a direct interface with the unit-level Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS) for situations when WCCS isn’t available, and upgrades for Theater Deployable Communication (TDC).

4.1.1.1.10. Situational Awareness. A Battlefield Situation Display (BSD) provides a common picture of the battlefield which integrates enemy and friendly orders of battle (OB) with near real-time intelligence, reduces risk of fratricide; and combines the , Command Tactical Information System Digital Decision Display System (CTIS 3DS), Navy JOTS, and JTIDS MAOC Integration (JMI) capabilities. BSD capability will be shared with other services. Theater Missile Defense (TMD) awareness will add capability to view AOR missile defenses. If a point-to-point J-series data link capability is developed, it should be incorporated into the AOC.

 

 

CTAPS Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

NATO ACCS - CTAPS interfaces to NATO C4I system(s).

Partially Funded

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

System Support Hardware/software maintenance/upgrade support.

Hardware Upgrades - Computer processing upgrades including printers, disk drives, and other peripheral equipment.

TBM Core Upgrades - Improved commercial-off-the-shelf/government-off-the-shelf software to enhance information processing, developing and maintaining Application Program Interfaces (API).

Partially Funded

Funded

Funded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

Communications upgrades: Continued technology integration, Theater Deployable Communications compatibility, Wide Area Network (WAN).

Situational Awareness - Battlefield Situation Display (BSD): Composite air-land-sea view of AOR battlefield; includes: JTIDS MAOC Integration (JMI), and Air Force Rescue Coordination Center (AFRCC).

Partially Funded

Funded

 

46. Combat planners unable to produce timely and accurate COAs.

Automated Planning P3I - Pre-Planned Product Improvements: new requirements software/hardware upgrades, integration of JPT, BSD, FLEX, & DBP.

Partially Funded

29. AOC unable to rapidly incorporate BDA into ATO process/cycle.

30. Lack of MC&G global coverage, detail, & currency.

42. ASOCs unable to receive ATO/ITO in a workable manner.

Autonomous CTAPS Remote: Upgrade allows independent processing and improved remote performance.

Funded

33. Lack of responsive, automated, collection/requirements management capability.

36. CIS unable to transfer data within internal applications at the component level.

43. CIS lacks capability to exploit DPPDBs.

Intelligence - Integration of CIS and imagery.

 

Interoperability-Ability to interface joint and other service intelligence systems by using common/standard software packages.

Software integration-Integration of DMA exploitation software.

Funded

 

Funded

 

Funded

05. TBM systems unable to provide/handle Multi-level secure data.

Multi-Level Security (MLS): Manage need-to-know information at all levels.

Partially Funded

20. TBM users unable to utilize WX data due to dissimilar format.

41. WX data unable to be disseminated to end users & other WX systems.

CAF Weather Software Package (CAFWSP): Provides weather data to support ATO planning and mission execution.

Partially Funded

58. TBM systems unable to interoperate well because of different tabular displays.

TMD: Ability to respond to rapid retasking/retargeting missile defenses.

Force Level Execution (FLEX): Combat Operations automation.

Unfunded

Partially Funded

12. TBM systems unable to maintain common multi-source picture.

55. TBM forces unable to maintain friendly force data.

Situational Awareness - Battlefield Situation Display (BSD): Composite air-land-sea view of AOR battlefield; includes: JTIDS MAOC Integration (JMI), and Air Force Rescue Coordination Center AFRCC).

Funded

54. AOC unable to track/locate inserted SOF.

TBD

Unfunded

48. AOC unable to perform nodal analysis.

TBD

Unfunded

19. CTAPS unable to track logistics.

TBD

Unfunded

58. TBM systems unable to interoperate well because of different tabular displays.

Flat Panel Display - Provides common display for all TBM weapons systems .

Unfunded

Figure 4-1

Figure 4-2

4.1.2. Air Support Operations Center (ASOC).

4.1.2.1. The ASOC is normally employed with the Army at corps level or the senior Army tactical field command post as a subordinate function of the AOC. The ASOC receives, coordinates, and processes requests for immediate air support, which are initiated when unexpected requirements flow from a changing tactical situation. The AOC normally delegates scramble and control authority to the ASOC for those immediate or alert close air support (CAS) sorties allocated to the ASOC for support of ground troops. The ASOC fills requests for immediate CAS from its allocated air resources, or may authorize diverts from preplanned CAS sorties when immediate requirements are deemed a higher priority. The ASOC is involved with joint suppression of enemy air defenses (J-SEAD), coordination of reconnaissance requirements (REC/TAR), coordination with Army air defense and airspace activities, and may be involved with air interdiction (AI). Additionally, ASOCs provide operational control, logistics, and administrative support for tactical air control parties (TACPs) organized under it.(see Figure 4-3)

4.1.2.2. The ASOC Program provides a means to digitize the current manual air request process. This integration effort features equipment packaged in a shelter and mounted on a Heavy High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (H-HMMWV). The ASOC modernization automates the critical operations functions of receiving the ATO, receiving air requests and assigning missions based on the ATO, and transmission/dissemination of taskings.

4.1.2.3. The ASOC is currently in the engineering and manufacturing design (EMD) phase. A fully functional prototype was tested in Dec 94. The long term goal is to provide a new automated ASOC that will fully interact electronically with the AOC and unit level planning/execution systems. The funded program develops, procures, installs and maintains a Main and Leap capability for six ASOCs (active duty and Guard). A total of 12 H-HMMWV mounted shelters with external workstations and other support will be procured.

4.1.2.4. The ASOC modernization is an initiative within the CTAPS Program. It features the application of commercial-off-the-shelf and government equipment packaged for a rugged Type V mobility environment. The program includes continuous user evaluation to keep the satisfaction of requirements on-track.

ASOC Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

44. ASOC personnel unable to maintain accurate & timely FEBA and enemy info.

Digitize the air request net with BCT/DCT equipment.

Interface the BCT with the CTAPS LAN at the ASOC.

Develop a CTAPS application software program to process air requests. Utilize CTAPS Battlefield Situation Display.(same as AOC BSD)

Migrate to joint TADIL J message based CAS digital exchange capability.

Funded

 

 

Unfunded

42. ASOCs unable to receive ATO/ITO in a workable manner.

CTAPS

Funded

13. TACPs unable to mark targets covertly or in adverse weather.

TBD

Unfunded

39. TACPs unable to determine precise target locations.

TBD

Unfunded

66. Split ASOC operations strain current communications capability.

TBD

Unfunded

56. GTACS unable to be easily deployed due to size of units.

Design and build a containment/transportation system that can pass a Type V mobility test.

Funded

Figure 4 -3

4.1.3. Wing Operations Center (WOC).

4.1.3.1. Wing Command and Control System (WCCS). WCCS provides an integrated, composite picture of a wing's resources to improve the wing commander's sortie generation and force employment capability. It provides units the automated capability to receive, parse, validate, distribute, and monitor ATO/airspace control order (ACO) taskings. WCCS consolidates individual efforts of ACC, PACAF, AFSOC, and USAFE into a common unit-level command and control system for use throughout the CAF. A future effort will incorporate AMC's unit-level system (C2IPS) requirements into a common Air Force system. Where WCCS is installed, WCCS will be used in lieu of CTAPS remotes.

4.1.3.1.1. Funded program develops, procures, installs, and maintains WCCS at 24 CAF bases through FY01. 15 CAF bases are unfunded beyond the FYDP, prolonging the WCCS scheduled fielding until FY09. WCCS is composed of hardware, software, and related components.

4.1.3.1.2. WCCS is intended to be the hub of unit-level command and control automation. It provides a secure wing command and control capability for operations, weather, intelligence, maintenance, and combat support functional areas through a single system. Electronic interfaces with over 20 unit and force-level systems will eliminate duplicate data entry. Incremental advances in capability are planned with each software version release. Scheduled releases with related capability are shown in Figures 4-4 and 4-5. Planned software functionality improvements will be incorporated in accordance with configuration control procedures.

4.1.3.1.3. WCCS uses commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and government equipment with an open system architecture, meeting TBM standards. Major changes to the baseline equipment suite are incorporated as recommended by the System Program Office (SPO) and approved by the ACC/DRC chaired WCCS Requirements Board. Hardware changes to improve system deployability are in continuous evaluation.

4.1.3.1.4. WCCS is required to operate in the secure mode but must also interface with other unclassified systems. As an interim measure, a security guard is being investigated to ensure security integrity between the system high WCCS and other unclassified systems. Multi-Level Security (MLS) is viewed as the final solution to security requirements.

WCCS Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

27. All TACS lacking lightweight, compact, common displays.

56. GTACS unable to be easily deployed due to size of units.

Improved Deployability - Wireless LAN capability and smaller more transportable user terminals.

Unfunded

51. Units unable to interoperate from squadron to force level.

Version 2.0 - Interfaces with CIS, AFMSS, CAS-B, FAMS, & EIFEL. Upgrade graphics capability.

Funded

65. Forces unable to communicate due to limited secure comm systems.

Security Guard - Unclassified to two way Secret.

Funded

51. Units unable to interoperate from squadron to force level.

Version 3.0 - Interfaces with GCCS, MANPER-B, VIMS, & LOGMOD B.

Version 4.0 - Interfaces with NATO ACCS.

Version 5.0 - Expanded interface functionality WCCS-C2IPS.

Version 6.0 - Force/Unit level migration.

Funded

Unfunded

Unfunded

Unfunded

67. Wings unable to get ATO info prior to ATO publication.

TBD

Unfunded

68. Wings unable to track missions with current C2 structure.

TBD

Unfunded

62. WCCS LAN unable to handle amount of info in future.

TBD

Unfunded

05. TBM systems unable to provide/handle Multi-level secure data.

Multi Level Security; manage secure information at all levels.

Unfunded

Figure 4-4

WCCS Modernization Roadmap

* Partially Funded.

Figure 4-5

 

4.1.3.2. Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS). AFMSS is the common evolutionary unit-level mission planning system for the Air Force, Army, and the U. S. Special Operations Command forces. It provides an automated, rapid, and accurate mission planning capability through the use of common data bases, commercial off-the-shelf software, and hardware. AFMSS has been selected by ASD/C3I as the "best of breed" mission planning system to transition to GCCS by ASD/C3I. AFMSS terminals are unit deployable and come in both a transportable and portable configuration. It performs route calculations and optimization, threat avoidance, prepares the data cartridge for the aircraft, and prepares/prints the combat mission folder for the crew. Each AFMSS loads a Data Transfer Device (DTD) (if applicable) with the mission plan. The DTD is the loaded into the aircraft cockpit to initialize aircraft systems. AFMSS will receive operational, ATO, and weather data from WCCS, CTAPS, and AWDS/Tactical Forecast System (TFS), respectively; threat and imagery data from CIS; and mapping, charting, and geodesy (MC&G) products from he Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). (see Figure 4-6, 4-7)

4.1.3.2.1. AFMSS will replace separate mission planning systems serving individual weapons systems with a single mission planner. For example, AFMSS will replace the Mission Support System IIA, originally fielded to support the F-15/16/111; the F-117 Mission Data Preparation System (MDPS); the B-1 and B-52 MDPS, the B-2 Strategic MDPS, the U-2 TRUMPS, and others.

4.1.3.2.2. Planned improvements will be implemented in block upgrades. Block releases C1.0 and C2.0 in the near-term will provide the majority of the aircraft in the fleet with a single mission planner that provides enhanced processing speed, storage capacity, software applications, transportability, growth potential, graphics (on-screen and hard copy output), timely processing of Tactical Decision Aids, radar propagation forecasts, automated combat mission folder preparation, and terminal guidance planning for advanced ("smart") weapons.

4.1.3.2.3. In the mid-term, Block D1.0 will represent a major re-engineering of the AFMSS to support integration with the TBM Core Systems, UAV mission planning, mission rehearsal systems, and joint simulators. This includes interoperating with the Navy’s Tactical Air Mission Planning System (TAMPS), the Common Operational Modeling, Planning and Simulation Strategy (COMPASS), and the mission rehearsal system POWERSCENE. The concept of operations for mission planning under Block D1.0 will move towards an interactive exchange of mission plans between force and unit level, providing the crewmember the capability to recalculate mission and targeting parameters on the go.

4.1.3.2.4. The modernization roadmap shown below summarizes the salient features of each Block release. A more complete rendition of these features and their impact on individual weapon systems is available from the Mission Planning Roadmap for Combat Air Forces published by HQ ACC/DR-SMO-P, 204 Dodd Blvd, Suite 226, Langley AFB, VA 23665-2777.

 

AFMSS Modernization Roadmap

 

Deficiency

Solution

Status

51. Units unable to interoperate from squadron to force-level.

AFMSS Block Upgrades - Aircraft/Weapons/Electronic (A/W/E) modules integrated into AFMSS throughout the life cycle of the system, existing systems will be added to the baseline and their individual stovepipe systems will end.

Funded

 

 

Block C1.0: A/W/E interface, Flight Planning, CMF, F-15E, B-52, C-130, MH53, EC/KC-135, CMS, 1553 interface, AH-6, C-17, KC-10, MH-6. (FY95 release)

 
 

Block C2.0 & C2.0+: Air Drop Planning, Refueling, Strike Planning, GPS weapons delivery planning, SCSI2 interface, digital chart of the world, A-10, F-15A/D, F-16, B-1, B-2, B-52 (enhanced), GPS crypto keys, AGM-130, F-117, U-2R, F/EF-111, AWACS, J-STARS, Common Low Observable Autorouter (CLOAR). (FY 96 release)

 

 

 

Block D1.0: F-22, JDAM, COMPASS, Compartmented Mode Workstation, WCCS, CTAPS, AWDS/TFS interfaces, GCCS COE compliance.(FY98 release)

Partially Funded

Figure 4 -7

4.1.3.3. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution System (DCAPES). DCAPES supports the Air Force requirement to perform deliberate and crisis action planning and execution. It provides the capability to plan, source, mobilize, deploy, sustain, terminate, redeploy, and reconstitute combat and support forces for joint and multi-national peacetime and wartime operations. DCAPES provides a real-time capability to exchange planning and execution data among major commands and their units, Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), Joint Force Commanders, and warfighting CINCs. It is the planning and execution tool that accesses personnel and resource data and communications systems to assist planners in the allocation and management of combat and combat support forces. This allows planners to ensure personnel and resources are available for employment during theater operations. DCAPES provides an accurate, seamless interface with the Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES) and the Global Command and Control System (GCCS). DCAPES is planned to function in the GCCS common operating environment and is designed to be interoperable with other TBM force and unit level command and control systems. (see Figure 4-8, 4-9)

DCAPES Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

09. Air Force and MAJCOMs unable to perform deliberate and crisis action planning & execution capability.

DCAPES

Unfunded

Figure 4 -8

Figure 4-9

4.1.3.4. Standard Unit Command Post Communications Capability (SUCPCC). SUCPCC will provide CAF wing command posts with a standard system to support wing command post operations. Deficiencies exist in the areas of system reliability, maintainability, standardization, interoperability, and responsiveness due to task overload and information timeliness requirements. Current unit command post configurations are unable to manage either the quantity or the urgency of information dissemination during peacetime, crisis, and wartime operations. SUCPCC will increase system flexibility, interoperability, and provide deployability as well as a growth capability. The system includes voice telephone, UHF/HF/VHF/FM radio, and data communications capability. (see Figure 4-10)

SUCPCC Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

49. Command Posts unable to manage either the quantity or the urgency of information dissemination during crisis and wartime.

SUCPCC

Unfunded

Figure 4 -10

4.1.3.5. Air Combat Command Combat Information System (ACCCIS). ACCCIS will be the single source of the command’s air combat asset status information for senior leaders and force level decision makers at the headquarters level, the numbered air force (NAF) level, and the unit level. It will: provide high level status information not available on SORTS; automate or standardize current non-SORTS asset reporting procedures; and contain applicable information required by various customer CINCs in the execution of their responsibilities. It will reduce, eliminate, consolidate, and standardize ACC Command Post asset status/report data entry requirements and be a key element in the standardization of command post automated hardware and communication systems. At the unit level, it will be a single source of information containing aircraft alert status, alert generation status, and operations status information, as well as location and combat capability of all unit assigned aircraft and aircrews. ACCCIS will receive aircraft and aircrew status information from other systems (i.e.; CAMS, SORTS, etc.) or be capable of processing original information inputs. Selected information will be processed and upchanneled to the parent NAF and HQ ACC for use by Battle Staff directors or Senior Staff leaders. ACCCIS will permit all assigned forces status information to reside in a near real-time force level data base structure. Status information update procedures will include automated reporting of information through standard communication system channels (GCCS, etc.) on the global scale and through local architecture systems (WCCS, etc.) at the unit level. The data base design will ensure built-in transportability and commonalty compliance with open architecture standards and standardize data entry and retrieval, and be able to transmit and receive applicable data to/from supported CINCs to update the various C2 systems, such as NPES II or CTAPS. It will be hosted on existing unit level PC, WCCS, and GCCS systems. It will have the capability to transmit/communicate secret data to the supported NAFs, HQ ACC, or the supported CINCs via a secure data device, a standard communication data line (DISN), and through GCCS connectivity.

 

 

 

4.1.4. Airborne Elements of the Theater Air Control System (AETACS).

4.1.4.1. Follow-On Command and Control Platform. The CINCs, joint task force (JTF) commanders, and their air, land, and naval component commanders have a continuing need for airborne command and control platforms to accomplish battle management (BM) and command and control (C2) functions. Airborne C2 platforms are often the first form of BM/C2 available in a contingency and have significant line-of-sight advantages for organic sensors, communications, and battle management tasks. State-of-the-art computer processors, sensors, combat information systems, and decision aids are making current systems more capable. These airborne C2 platforms include the E-3B/C AWACS, E-4B, E-6 TACAMO, E-8 Joint STARS, EC-130 Compass Call, EC-130 ABCCC, RC-135, EP-3, EC-135 AACC/ACP, and several special use N/EC-135 for "Open Skies" monitoring, Missile Range C3, and other C2 uses. For the most part, these C2 platforms utilize airframes that are over 20 years old. Additionally, current limitations on space and sensor/equipment aboard these platforms forces the U.S. to deploy a large number of different types of C2 platforms for each contingency. Although all of these C2 platforms are based on B707, C-130 or P-3 airframes, there is little commonality in airframes, avionics, communications equipment, processors, or workstation/console displays. Approximately 140 of these high value airborne C2 platforms must be replaced in the time period of 2005 -2020 due to airframe lifetime and increasing RM&S problems associated with aging equipment. A number of far term cost efficiencies accrue to standardizing around a common military platform to serve a multitude of missions with a small number of different modular equipment variations. Following prototyping and proof of concept, theater airborne C2 systems will migrate capabilities toward a follow-on C2 platform with modular designs early in the next decade. This effort is unfunded. (see Figure 4-11)

Figure 4-11

4.1.4.2. Airborne Air Command Center (AACC). The need for an AACC addresses those capabilities required to provide an attack force commander, composite wing commander, or an air component commander with the command and control capabilities required for real-time air battle direction and planning. AACC employment in conventional operations addresses the need to provide theater and air commanders with an en route, initial, and extended capability to plan and direct the employment of air power, while providing communications connectivity with tasking authorities, supported forces, joint and combined command and control elements (as appropriate), and subordinate Air Force elements. The mission need is for a rapidly deployable air command center that supports the air forces component commander's (AFCC) air battle planning and mission direction. This mission is effective upon tasking and must be performed en route to the theater, initially upon arrival, and support extended or alternate command post operations. Current deployable command centers are rapidly deployable but lack an en route and initial operational capability. Deployable command posts are airlift dependent and rely on in-theater deployed communications. These also have a limited alternate command post capability and can support a fluid, forward moving air campaign only through vulnerable communications relays. Cost constraints, availability of airframes, and the robust mission tasking of existing airborne command and control (C2) platforms guide an initial preference for modifying excess EC-135C/J airframes (currently assigned to 55 Wing, Offutt AFB, NE) for the AACC role. (see Figure 4-12, 4-13, 4-14)

4.1.4.2.1. Installation of 10-14 CTAPS Workstations. Interconnecting networks and appropriate CTAPS software, will provide the AACC staff with the capability to perform a defined subset of AOC functions during the enroute and initial phases of a theater deployment and to provide an extension capability to enhance the AOC once it is established in-theater.

4.1.4.2.2. Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). Will provide the necessary communications capability with theater ground forces.

4.1.4.2.3. Combat Intelligence System (CIS). Near real-time information on threat systems and electronic orders of battle (EOB) will be provided via national and theater broadcast systems (i.e.; - TIBS/TDDS (Tactical Data Dissemination System)) to TRE/MATT receivers to update databases). This information will be correlated and displayed for combat operations/planning decision making via CIS terminals and appropriate overlays on battlefield situation displays.

4.1.4.2.4. Satellite Communications (SATCOM). Dedicated voice SATCOM capability will enhance communications in-theater and improve reach back capabilities to tasking authorities.

4.1.4.2.5. JTIDS System. Will provide the AACC battle staff with real time air and ground situational updates from such sensors as the E-3 AWACS and the E-8 Joint STARS.

4.1.4.2.6. HAVE QUICK. Will provide the necessary communications capability with theater air forces.

 

Figure 4-12

AACC Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

JTIDS - Provides air and ground situational displays.

HAVE QUICK - Provides jam resistant comm capability with theater air forces.

Voice SATCOM Radios - Provides dedicated multiple satellite voice links.

SINCGARS - Provides communication capability with theater ground forces.

Unfunded

Unfunded

Unfunded

Unfunded

37. HVAAs unable to receive near real time intel while airborne.

CIS - Correlate and display near real time intelligence data provided on TIBS/TRAP broadcasts via a TRE/MATT receiver.

Unfunded

11. AETACS unable to receive ATO/ACO once airborne.

CTAPS - Provides capability to generate and update air tasking order.

Unfunded

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

Follow-on C2 platform - Adds new generation platform capable of supporting multiple missions.

Unfunded

59. Current EC-135 aircraft unable to meet conventional mission requirements.

TBD

Unfunded

27. All TACS lacking lightweight, compact, common displays.

Flat Panel Display - Provides common display for all TBM weapons systems with common symbology.

Unfunded

Figure 4-13

Figure 4-14

4.1.4.3. Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC). The EC-130E ABCCC is a rapidly deployable airborne C2 center. The system consists of a form fit C2 capsule accommodating an onboard battle staff, inside the cargo bay of a specially configured EC-130E airframe. The ABCCC system has multiple VHF, HAVE QUICK UHF, HF, UHF SATCOM, JTIDS (TADIL J)(receive only), and teletypewriter communications links including multiple automatic relays. The battle staff includes senior operations officers with extensive fighter experience, intelligence analysts, and weapons controllers along with onboard radio operators and a maintenance technician. The two principal CAF ABCCC missions are to perform the functions of an airborne ASOC and to operate as an extension of, or in the absence of, the AOC combat operations division. The ABCCC provides airborne C2 support to other joint and U.S. Air Force (USAF) commands. The ABCCC completed its upgrades with new automated capsules (AN/USC-48) in 1992. Two of the new capsules were successfully employed during Desert Storm. The AN/USC-48 capsule was designed for an active pre-planned product improvement program to capitalize on technological advancements. The ABCCC has a deficiency with its SATCOM antennas. Water intrusion into the antennas through cracks in the seams causes premature failure of the antenna. The current supply of replacement antennas is not keeping up with the demand. Current projected C-130 airframe structural life is approximately 40,000 flying hours, based on "normal" mission profiles. On average (based on past two years), active C-130 aircraft fly approximately 600 hours per year. The critical component for the C-130 fleet is the center wing box, which is structurally more susceptible to the stress of mission profile and payload. Most C-130s will require modernizaton through modification to allow implementation of new technologies. The following need fixing: the electrical system produces unstable voltage, causing four-engine power loss and interface difficulties with newer digital avionics systems; the current analog autopilot is 1940 technology and fast becoming unsupportable due to the lack of replacement parts and a special production line is now required to produce tubes for the current system which are becoming more expensive and less reliable and without an autopilot, the basic crew duty day is reduced from 16 to 12 hours; the C-130 fuel quantity system includes an analog indicator with a MTBF of less than 1600 hours and the fuel tanks also require extensive in-tank maintenance; the C-130 uses a vacuum tube life history recorder for tracking airframe stress and its unreliability has impeded efforts to project airframe longevity and provide a data base for identification of structural fatigue factors prior to failure; and bleed air duct malfunctions have caused safety hazards. (see Figure 4-15, 4-17, 4-18)

4.1.4.3.1. Follow-on C2 platform. The ABCCC, along with other theater airborne C2 systems such as the E-3 AWACS and E-8 Joint STARS, will migrate capabilities toward a follow-on C2 platform between 2007 and 2020. This effort is unfunded. (see Figure 4-16)

4.1.4.3.2. IDM Integration. The IDM is an airborne modem to exchange digital messages in support of air/ground operations. The IDM is compatible with the handheld Digital Communications Terminal (DCT) and larger Battlefield Communications Terminal (BCT). The CAF will equip all A/OA-10, E-8, and air-to-ground F-16 aircraft with the IDM. All CAF ground based Forward Air Controllers and ASOCs will be equipped with the DCT or BCT. The CAF objective is to digitize the entire air-to-ground coordination communications net using the DCT/BCT/IDM systems. The BCT/DCT/IDM equipment is planned to migrate to a joint TADIL J message based CAS digital exchange capability. The ABCCC, by virtue of its mission as an airborne ASOC, must be interoperable with this net. This effort is unfunded.

4.1.4.3.3. UHF SATCOM Modifications. The ABCCC has three UHF SATCOM radios for BLOS communications. This SATCOM capability must be improved to accommodate the JCS directed 5 Kilohertz and 25 Kilohertz as well as Demand Assigned Multiple Access standards. A 5khz DAMA modem is required to meet the JCS mandate. This effort is unfunded.

4.1.4.3.4. Integration of the AN/ARC-222 Anti-jam VHF SINCGARS Compatible Radio. The ABCCC currently has eight VHF-AM/FM radios to coordinate air/ground operations with land forces and Air Force ground liaisons. The U.S. Army and Marines are acquiring over 100,000 VHF-FM frequency hopping SINCGARS radios as the standard forward battle area voice communications system. The ABCCC must integrate SINCGARS compatible radios to maintain interoperability. The Air Force has developed the ARC-222 radio as a standard form fit replacement to the ARC-186 radio for select aircraft. The ARC-222 has full VHF AM/FM clear and secure capability as well as SINCGARS wave form compatibility. The ABCCC ARC-222 integration effort will consist of replacing four of the current eight VHF AM/FM ARC-186 radios with four ARC-222s and new adaptive antennas. Some degree of co-site interference cancellation is required. This effort is funded.

4.1.4.3.5. JTIDS Integration. This was the first major modification to the AN/USC-48 capsule. The AN/URC-107 JTIDS Class 2 radio/data link terminal has been integrated into the capsule providing TADIL-J message standard interoperability with other suitably equipped participants. The JTIDS system provides the ABCCC battle staff with real time updates on their displays from the E-3 AWACS, the E-8 Joint STARS, and ground TACS units, dramatically improving battlestaff overall situation awareness. Software integration concentrates on receipt of air situation data, including Theater Missile Defense related TADIL-J messages, with growth toward ground situation data and transmit capability. The ABCCC/JTIDS concept of operations requires a full transmit and full TADIL J message set implementation. Additional software development is required to reach this goal. This effort is not funded.

4.1.4.3.6. Reception of National Technical Means (NTM) data (TIBS/TRAP). The ABCCC does not possess a capability to receive and display NTM data. A short-term solution is to implement Multi-Source Tactical System (MSTS) in a stand-alone configuration. A long-term solution is for an integrated Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT). An integrated capability will provide integrated threat data to all consoles and provide the ability to target TELs. An integrated demonstration was provided in Roving Sands 95.

4.1.4.3.7. Fully Integrated GPS. AFMC has provided funding for GPS, integrated into the inertial navigation equipment onboard the EC-130E. GPS integration into the mission computer is required to maintain an accurate JTIDS Precise Position Location Information (PPLI) and provide SINCGARS/HAVE QUICK GPS Time Of Day (TOD).

Figure 4-15

 

 

Proposed ABCCC Migration

Figure 4-16

ABCCC Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

JTIDS Full CONOPS - Upgrade ABCCC to full JTIDS message set and ERV

Anti-jam VHF - Integrate SINCGARS radios into ABCCC capsule.

IDM - Add IDM capability to ABCCC.

Unfunded

Funded

Unfunded

04. TBM systems’ SATCOM radios do not comply with JCS Directive.

UHF SATCOM - Upgrade SATCOM systems for JCS standard 5-KHz/SBPSK and 5/25-KHz DAMA waveforms

Unfunded

11. AETACS unable to receive ATO/ACO once airborne.

JTIDS - Update JTIDS message set to pass ATO/ACO changes.

GBS - Provide GBS (or similar) capability on ABCCC capsules.

Unfunded

Unfunded

12. TBM systems unable to maintain common multi-source picture.

MATT - Integrate MATT on ABCCC capsules.

Unfunded

14. TACPs unable to communicate with ABCCC and ASOC while dismounted.

ACP - Integrate ACP into ABCCC capsules to provide ALE/Adaptive HF/Anti-jam features.

Unfunded

15. ABCCC unable to interoperate with Army radios.

Anti-jam VHF - Integrate SINCGARS radios into ABCCC capsule.

Funded

17. Lack of capability to access and interface with national-level data bases.

MATT - Integrate MATT on ABCCC capsules.

Unfunded

22. Current imagery comm pipes and data bases unable to move and store large volumes of data.

GBS - Provide GBS (or similar) capability on ABCCC capsules.

Unfunded

27. All TACS lacking lightweight, compact, common displays.

Flat Panel Display - Provide common display for all TBM weapon systems with common symbology.

Unfunded

34. ABCCC unable to efficiently utilize DCT/BCT.

IDM - Add IDM capability to ABCCC.

Unfunded

37. HVAAs unable to receive near real time intel while airborne

MATT - Integrate MATT on ABCCC capsules.

Unfunded

50. HVAAs unable to self protect adequately

ADS/Snowstorm - Integrate chaff/flares/MWS into all EC-130E/ABCCC aircraft.

Unfunded

Figure 4-17

 

Figure 4-18

 

4.1.4.4. Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS). The E-3 AWACS is an airborne radar system optimized to detect air vehicles. The mission of the AWACS is to provide airborne surveillance and warning, and command, control, and communications for strategic and theater operations. It operates in every major theater in the world and passes information via data links (TADIL A, TADIL C, and JTIDS (IJMS)) and voice to other air vehicles as well as command and control facilities. The E-3 AWACS was designed in the 1960s and fielded in the late 1970s. The original mission suite for the first 24 USAF E-3s was named Block 10 and was designed around the AN/APY-1 radar set. The last 10 USAF E-3s were produced with the AN/APY-2 radar set with a dedicated maritime surface detection capability. This version was named Block 15 and was also the baseline of the 18 E-3s acquired by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Subsequent improvements to mission avionics resulted in the current USAF configuration Block 20 and Block 25 for the APY-1 and APY-2 equipped E-3s, respectively. The USAF E-3 will continue to be modernized to preserve the investment in this system while the threat and mission assignment of this platform continues to evolve, based on theater CINC requirements. The modifications described initially include ongoing programs in various states of funding health and then describe other requirements needed to resolve Desert Storm identified operational deficiencies and airframe/avionics sustainability improvements. The far term solution will be a new generation common airframe to support the airborne air and surface surveillance missions. (see Figure 4-19, 4-20, 4-21)

4.1.4.4.1. Follow-on C2 Platform. The AWACS, along with other theater airborne C2 systems such as the ABCCC, Rivet Joint, and E-8 Joint STARS, will migrate mission capabilities toward uniquely outfitted variations of the follow-on C2 platform between 2015 and 2020 (40-45 years of operations). This effort is unfunded.

4.1.4.4.2. Block 30/35 Modifications. The Block 30/35 modernization program consists of a set of integrated improvements to the E-3 to improve surveillance, combat ID (CID), navigation & target location accuracy, computer processing, and digital data link communications. Block 30/35 adds enhanced surveillance and CID capabilities through the addition of an electronic support measures (ESM) passive detection system. The E-3 ESM subsystem passively detects, locates, identifies, and tracks emitting air, ground, and maritime targets. Block 30/35 also equips the E-3 with a Global Positioning System (GPS) Integrated Navigation System (GINS) to improve navigation and the location accuracy of surveillance data displayed and data linked to fire control systems. This effort provides additional modifications to the on-board mission computer for expanded direct and secondary memory storage reserves. Finally, Block 30/35 replaces the E-3's existing JTIDS Class 1 Terminal with a Class 2 Terminal and associated high power amplifier. The E-3's Class 2 implementation will provide full TADIL- J message capabilities, higher data rate capacities, expanded interoperability with Navy, Army, Marine Corps, United Kingdom, Republic of France, and NATO platforms, and significantly improved ECM resistance. Block 30/35 IOC is expected in FY97.

4.1.4.4.3. RSIP. RSIP vastly improves the E-3's radar performance against low RCS targets (cruise missiles and aircraft) and sophisticated jamming threats. It replaces a portion of the E-3's radar subsystem with new hardware and software algorithms for improved radar sensitivity, ECCM, inflight radar maintenance, and reliability and maintainability. RSIP equipped E-3s will be capable of significantly improving their radar signal processing capabilities to deal with threats into the year 2010. A key component of the RSIP program is the addition of programmable adaptive signal processors and parallel general purpose processors in the radar subsystem to support radar sensor reprogrammability and adaptability. RSIP software is being written in Ada using DoD standards to facilitate long term supportability. IOC is projected for FY99.

4.1.4.4.4. Extend Sentry Readiness Program. The E-3, at 25 years old, currently suffers from reliability, maintainability, and availability (RM&A) problems. A detailed analysis has resulted in a readiness program that includes: must-do items in the can’t fix/can’t buy category; availability of items addressing key areas of technology insertion that can greatly increase RM&A: and long standing system deficiencies that result in mission performance short of validated requirements. Extend Sentry consists of 105 programs prioritized by COMACC. When completed in FY01, mission capable rates should increase from 85% to 90%, availability will increase by 2 aircraft, aborts/code 3s should decrease by 135 per year, PDM flow days should be reduced by 210 days per year, equipment maintenance should be reduced by 93,000 hours per year, and combat ID/IFF and other key systems will be more effective.

4.1.4.4.5. Combat ID & IFF Improvement Programs. Several mission critical CID initiatives are underway in various stages of design or production. These initiatives build upon the existing E-3 CID sensor suite. A "top priority" IFF improvement program is underway that will improve IFF system performance and operator effectiveness. These programs generally improve the ability of the E-3 AWACS to provide high confidence and long range identification and to provide surveillance and tracking support, as well.

4.1.4.4.6. Theater Missile Defense. Theater missiles (ballistic, cruise, and air-to-surface) detection and tracking requires both sensor and BM/C4I upgrades to AWACS. A new sensor suite designated the Extended Airborne Global Launch Evaluator (EAGLE), including IR detection, IR tracking, laser ranging and JTIDS dissemination of ballistic missile flight information, is being developed, as well as a supporting JTIDS (TADIL J) TMD message system, and distributive battle management capabilities. The EAGLE’s quick, highly accurate prediction of a ballistic missile’s future position greatly increases the geographic areas that Army and Navy interceptor missiles (i.e., - THAAD and AEGIS SM) can defend; provides accurate launch location information for effective attack of TELstels; and accurate impact point prediction for rapid warning to terminal defenses and ground a limited number of installations. The AF "objective" TMD sensor upgrade system includes growth in EAGLE capabilities to Boost Phase Intercept (BPI) support and integration with RSIP and ESM sensor improvements to provide improved Theater Air Defense detection and tracking capabilities. Associated BM/C4I upgrades in situation awareness and decision aids will allow AWACS to serve as a joint execution node for immediate TMD operations.

4.1.4.4.7. Communication Upgrades. The original E-3 HF, VHF, and UHF SATCOM terminals are RM&A problems, no longer completely support interoperability, and are unable to support the information/data flow on and off the aircraft. Repairs have been deemed not cost effective. All three systems are scheduled for replacement under the Extend Sentry Readiness program. The new solid state HF will include Automatic Link Establishment (ALE), a NORAD "adaptive" HF requirement, that will increase secure interoperability and clear/uninterrupted flow of secure data link/voice BLOS communications. The VHF upgrades will initially involve the replacement of current VHF radios with solid state terminals with increased AM/FM bandwidth for worldwide military/civilian airspace coordination/control. This will lay the framework for upgrade to SINCGARS capability by the turn of the century. The two UHF SATCOM radios will be made compliant with DOD DAMA and ANDVT directives through replacement with a solid state modular terminal with the DAMA modem, ANDVT, and wide band comsec embedded.

4.1.4.4.8. Man Machine Interface (MMI). MMI improvements are designed to provide key information to the operator in a "user friendly" format. This alleviates information saturation and allows the operator to quickly make smart battle management decisions and pass information in a timely manner to the warfighters. It also allows the flexibility to perform multiple missions simultaneously (e.g., surveillance, weapons control, and battle management). Today’s and tomorrow’s TBM responsibilities require the E-3 to process greater amounts of data and information in near real time. In the FY97/98 timeframe, low RM&A cathode ray tubes (CRTs) will be replaced with flat panels with larger viewing areas that are clearer, cheaper, lighter in weight, smaller in size, and have much longer mean time between failure (MTBF). QWERTY keyboards and alarm displays are currently improving MMI. Although currently unfunded, operator workstations will be upgraded with a windows environment that displays CTAPS remote (i.e., ATO, ACO, WX) and intelligence broadcast (i.e., TIBS, TRAP) information and a fused multi-sensor battlespace display (operator can select other windows to display a specific sensor’s data).

4.1.4.4.9. Aircraft Systems. The E-3 aircraft systems currently reflect 1960-70 technology. Safety of flight and operational capabilities will be upgraded and improved to meet 21st century criteria. Additionally, many aircraft systems are rapidly becoming unsustainable. Extend Sentry targets the primary RM&A issues. In the short term, the autopilot, inertial navigation system (INS), and air refueling systems are being upgraded by replacing the present unsustainable, autopilot with a COTS state of the art digital autopilot, replacing the INS with a state of the art INS with an embedded GPS, and improving the air refueling communication system with an interphone connection between the E-3 and the tanker. In the longer term, the cockpit instrument displays need to be upgraded to the "glass cockpit" systems we find in today’s airliners. Takeoff distance could be shortened, thrust available increased, and time on station increased if we upgraded the TF-33 turbofan engines to today’s standards. The cost effectiveness of new engines is dependent on when the E-3 will be replaced with the follow-on command and control platform. Based on today’s plan to replace the E-3 in the 2015-2020 timeframe, new engines are not part of the MAP.

4.1.4.4.10. Self Defense Suite. World-wide E-3 operations today must contend with a proliferated, high technology shoulder fired/mobile IR/EO SAM threat. Today’s post cold war concept of operations also requires more operations from foreign bases and airports. The E-3s self defense capability while taking off, landing and doing approaches can be greatly improved by installing off the shelf automatic warning and flare systems. In the mid to long term the Directed Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) offers a real, but currently unaffordable, solution.

4.1.4.4.11. Computer Processing. Today’s funded Block 30/35 CC2E and the Hard Disk Sub-assembly (HDS) programs increase storage and processing capability to meet the demands of RSIP and block 30/35 upgrades. An incremental programming approach will be used to move AWACS from its current 1970s processing capabilities to an open system architecture. By using the space freed up in each console/workstation by replacing CRTs with flat panels, adjunct processors/emulator technologies can be used to develop a distributive processing upgrade. Eventually a complete processor replacement program will be necessary to assimilate and distribute necessary information by the 2005-2012 time period.

Figure 4-19

 

AWACS Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

Follow-on C2 platform - Adds new generation airframe capable of supporting multi-missions.

Unfunded

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

28. TACS unable to see all targets with current radar.

TMD+ RSIP+Block 30/35 ESM+CID+MMI Sensor Fusion - Provides surveillance and battle management capability against theater missiles and low RCS aircraft in complex coalition warfare scenarios.

Partially Funded

06. AWACS comm will be unable to handle requirements.

Adaptive HF - Automatic link establishment (ALE) compatible HF communications.

Partially

Funded

06. AWACS comm will be unable to handle requirements.

Anti-jam VHF - Joint jam-resistant VHF communications. Provides CAF interoperability with theater command and control/Army component.

Partially

Funded

04. TBM systems’ SATCOM radios do not comply with JCS directive.

UHF Satellite Communications - Upgrades current SATCOM systems for Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal (ANDVT), shaped Bipolar Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation to meet requirements in MJCS 33-87, MJCS-3680.

Partially

Funded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

Block 30/35 JTIDS+Extend Sentry TADIL-A modem+MMI combat information upgrades + Comm upgrades will address this deficiency.

Funded

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

TBMD IRSS/EAGLE+ RSIP + Extend Sentry RM&A programs (including hybrid and WBPKA) expand and improve the reliability of AWACS sensors to clearly detect, track and ID targets.

Partially Funded

02. TACS radars unable to accomplish mission without transmitter fixes/replacement.

Extend Sentry RM&A - Modifications aimed at improving overall weapon system reliability, maintainability, and survivability.

Partially

Funded

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

Computer processing and MMI programs will provide AWACS with the capability to assimilate necessary data/information and distribute information for TBM and weapons control.

Partially Funded

08. TACS unable to positively identify friendlies and hostiles.

28. TACS unable to see all targets with current radar.

Combat Identification + IFF improvements + ESM + TMD(IRSS/EAGLE) +Sensor Fusion - Integrates combat identification (CID) sensor suite for improved high confidence long range identification resolution against threats.

Partially

Funded

 

11. AETACSs unable to receive ATO/ACO once airborne.

MMI + Computer processing improvements will provide a solution for the E-3. A short term solution will insert the capability to assimilate the ATO, ACO and other CTAPS data bases. A mid/long term solution will integrate this capability at each mission crewmembers workstation in a windowed environment.

 

27. All TACS lacking lightweight, compact, common displays.

Flat Panel Display - Provides common display for all TBM weapons systems with common symbology. Replaces diminishing manufacturing capability.

Unfunded

37. HVAAs unable to receive near real time intel while airborne.

MMI Combat information (intel broadcasts) will address this deficiency.

Unfunded

47. TBM systems unable to interoperate well because of different symbologies.

TBD

Unfunded

50. HVAAs unable to self-protect adequately.

Near term off the shelf improvement and far term solution using DIRCM technology base.

Unfunded

Figure 4-20

Figure 4-21

4.1.4.5. Joint STARS. The Joint STARS includes both airborne and ground based segments. The airborne element is the E-8C, a modified Boeing 707 with a bottom-mounted side looking radar. The ground based element is the Army’s Ground Station Module (GSM) located at Echelon Above Corps (EAC), Corps, Divisions, selected brigades, and designated fire support units. The system provides wide and small area surveillance, target and situation development, target acquisition, analysis and attack planning, and limited battle damage assessment (BDA). (see Figure 4-22, 4-23)

4.1.4.5.1. Current program objectives envision completing a baseline system consisting of a full-up radar sub-system, communications sub-system, and operations & control sub-system. The system will detect, locate, and track stationary and moving targets by 2Q FY97.

4.1.4.5.2. Connectivity: UHF, VHF, HF, JTIDS (TADIL-J, including TMD related messages), Surveillance and Control Data Link (SCDL).

4.1.4.5.3. Planned enhancements, partially funded, include expanding connectivity to the Army and Air Force Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) nodes and shooters; developing a robust maritime capability, SATCOM, IDM, and block upgrades to basic system capabilities. Joint STARS will eventually evolve onto a follow-on C2 platform possibly having AWACS-like capabilities, additional command and control responsibilities, significantly upgraded radar surveillance capabilities, and the capability for assuming control for coordination and relay of off-board sensor information into the theater. SCDL is planned to migrate to common data link (CDL). Current fault isolation only isolates to the specific line replaceable item (LRI) with an accuracy rate of 62 percent. This affects ground and inflight troubleshooting and maintenance of the Prime Mission Equipment (PME) and radar. Software deficiencies in the automated tech data do not allow print capability or cross referencing between manuals using fault codes. An insufficient number of line replaceable units exists to support Mobility Readiness Spares Packages, Initial Spares Support Listings, and depot development. The full range of spares will not be available until August, 1998. The jack points on the aircraft do not support the weight of the PME and fuel, requiring defueling and the removal of approximately 4000 lbs of PME when the plane is jacked.

Joint STARS Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

Follow-on C2 platform - Adds new generation airframe capable of supporting multi-role C2 missions.

Re-engine existing aircraft.

Unfunded

Unfunded

28. TACS unable to see all targets with current radar.

Remoted Radar - On unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV): Uses UAVs to provide Joint STARS with spot coverage.

Funded

50. HVAAs unable to self protect adequately.

Install planned Self Defense Suite.

Unfunded

50. HVAAs unable to self-protect adequately.

37. HVAAs unable to receive near real time intel while airborne.

TADIL J/IJMS - Provides Joint STARS with access to surveillance information for use in self-defense.

Unfunded

28. TACS unable to see all targets with current radar.

SEAD/JSEAD Attack Support - Adds ESM to E-8C; improves capability to detect and locate ground targets and threats.

Partially Funded

11. AETACS unable to receive ATO/ACO once airborne.

Automated ATO (AATO) - Provides capability to receive, process, and manipulate ATO while airborne.

Unfunded

10. TACS radar elements unable to passively detect targets.

IR Sensor (for TMD) - Adds surveillance capability to detect and locate theater ballistic missile transporters-erectors-launchers (TELs).

Unfunded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

IDM - Adds capability to transmit targeting information directly to multi-service shooters.

UHF SATCOM - Adds SATCOM capability; facilitates transmission of moving target indicator/synthetic aperture radar (MTI/SAR) battlefield information into the AOC and wing operations center (WOC) via Time Critical Target Aid (TCTA).

VHF SINCGARS - Adds joint jam-resistant VHF radio; enhances C3I interoperability with Army and other joint forces.

Partially Funded

Partially Funded

 

 

Partially Funded

53. Surveillance systems unable to provide 24 hour coverage.

Vector Smart Map Upgrade (VMAP ) - Provides Joint STARS with enhanced vector map products.

Funded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

MTI/SAR to Shooter - Provides capability to send Joint STARS MTI/SAR data directly to multi-service shooters.

Unfunded

08. TACS unable to positively identify friendlies and hostiles.

Automatic Target Recognition - Combines inverse and enhanced SAR technologies to provide automatic target classification and ID capability.

CID - Uses integrated sensor suite to provide identification of ground targets and threats.

Partially Funded

Unfunded

63. AOC unable to receive Joint STARS picture.

Install Ground Data Terminal with interface to Sunsparc work stations in the AOC.

Unfunded

27. All TACS lacking lightweight, compact, common displays.

Flat Panel Display - Provides common display for all TBM weapons systems with common symbology.

Unfunded

Figure 4-22

Figure 4-23

4.1.4.6. E-4B National Airborne Operations Center (NAOC). The primary mission of the NAOC is to provide survivable, rapidly deployable, and highly mobile C4 systems for ensuring continuity of the National Military Command System (NMCS) operations in support of the President, SECDEF, and Chairman, JCS (CJCS) for application of nuclear forces should the primary NMCS facility be rendered inoperable or physically destroyed. In addition, the NAOC may perform non-nuclear missions in support of crisis/conventional operations and conduct military support to civilian authorities as directed by the CJCS. The roles and missions of the NAOC can expect to migrate towards more joint forces and operations in implementation of new and evolving joint warfare strategies and force concepts. The development of a modular, configurable C2 support capability to support Joint Task Force (JTF) command elements is being worked. Also, an expanded role for the Joint Staff in integrating and coordinating operational support to the commands is being looked into. These evolving concepts indicate a future need for NAOC C4 system flexibility, rapid response, and global operation in support of two evolving mission areas. As the distinction between current strategic and theater (non-strategic) nuclear missions blur, a single nuclear mission will emerge as the strategic and non-nuclear force elements are consolidated under a more centralized command structure. In addition, the current crisis/conventional mission will merge into a broader military mission other than a war mission as envisioned in JCS Pub 3-0. (see Figure 4-24)

 

E-4B NAOC Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

HIDAR MMRT, ECCM, Auto ALE Load, Fascinator Chip Upgrade, GEP Network Replacement, TARS, AN/ARC-210, HAVE QUICK, URC-112 Replacement, DAMA, Milstar, Universal Modem, FDMA, SHF DAMA, INMARSAT, LMST(X,C,Ku), AN/ASC-208 (Milstar I), Milstar II, follow-ons, GPS, STU-IIIR, STE, ANDVT, AIRTERM KY-100, Voice switch replacement, SVR, ADP/MPS BIU, NPES II Client/Server Upgrade, DMS (AUTODIN Replacement), Open Systems Network, DISN, GCCS, JDISS, Multi-Media Information Distribution System (MMIDS).

Partially funded

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 4-24

4.1.5. Ground Theater Air Control System (GTACS).

4.1.5.1. Modular Control Equipment (MCE). MCE is a fully automated, command and control system located in the ground-based radar elements of the TACS (Command and Reporting Center/Control and Reporting Element [CRC/CRE]) which provides decentralized execution of air operations and air surveillance. It is normally collocated and connected via fiber optic cable to the Army-Navy/Tactical Radar Search (AN/TPS-75) radar. The MCE interfaces via analog and digital communications and digital TADIL networks with sister service and allied command and control systems, and air defense artillery systems. (see Figure 4-25, 4-26)

4.1.5.1.1. The Pre-Planned Product Improvement (P3I) effort provides ongoing incremental improvements to the MCE baseline system. Current efforts will provide a JTIDS capability using an external JTIDS module (JM) and "TADIL J 86++" software. Additional current P3I efforts will provide direct (digital) connectivity to Tri-service Tactical Communications Program (TRI-TAC) and ground mobile force (GMF) SATCOM communications, SINCGARS radios, and an automated ATO (AATO) capability.

4.1.5.1.2. Four GTACS TAD Missile Tracking System (MTS) prototypes will be built to correlate theater missile information from multiple AN/TPS-75 radars and overlay missile data received from CIS. In the near-term, the MTS will forward missile data to the MCE, through a TADIL B interface, for display on the Operator Console Units (OCUs). Future efforts will involve upgrading MCE software for enhanced processing and display of TMD data.

4.1.5.1.3. Future efforts will involve: an upgrade to JTIDS Reissue 3; addition of TMD message sets; interoperability with the evolving NATO ACCS; addition of an interface to CIS for receipt of intelligence data; receipt and processing of flight plan data; and possible inclusion of IJMS software should the Adaptable Surface Interface Terminal (ASIT) become insupportable while an operational need for IJMS still exists. When a point-to-point J-series data link capability is developed, it should be incorporated into MCE.

4.1.5.1.4. Far term upgrades could include state-of-the-art consoles, integration into open systems architecture, migration to GCCS, and more reliable/supportable components.

MCE Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

24. MCE unable to perform mission without upgrades.

Battle Mgmt Software - Automate TMD functions, threat assessment prioritization, automatic cueing, expand display grid, and integrate overlays.

Forecasted FY 95-97

12. TBM systems unable to maintain common multi-source picture.

TMD Software/Hardware - Correlate inputs from multiple radars/sensors, add TMD displays. Provide threat prioritization/warning. Integrate Intel.

Partially Funded

25. Warfighters unable to obtain theater specific intel products.

National Technical Means (NTM) Integration - Identify, process, and integrate applicable TMD data from selected NTM sources; i.e., Constant Source, Combat Intelligence System, JTIDS.

Partially Funded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

JTIDS Module - Provide external shelter, Class 2H JTIDS terminals.

JTIDS Software/Hardware - Incorporate "TADIL J 86++" software.

TRI-TAC/GMF SATCOM Integration - Provide direct interface with TSC-94A/ TSC-100A; secure voice via DSVT and ANDVT over SATCOM, direct interface with TRC-170.

Partially Funded

Partially

Funded

Partially

Funded

38. Mobile ground radar units unable to communicate with CAS a/c.

SINCGARS - Integrate VRC-89 VHF anti jam and ARC-186 VHF AM Hi-band radios.

Partially

Funded

57. Mobile ground radar units unable to automatically reset filters after link outages.

TBD

Unfunded

56. GTACS unable to be easily deployed due to size of units.

TBD

Unfunded

27. All TACS lacking lightweight, compact, common displays.

Flat Panel Display - Provides common display for all TBM weapons systems.

Unfunded

52. GTACS unable to operate without detection due to emission signatures of its equipment.

TBD

Unfunded

60. GTACS lack laser threat detection warning or countermeasures.

TBD

Unfunded

47. TBM systems unable to interoperate well because of different symbologies.

Migration to GCCS.

Unfunded

58. TBM systems unable to interoperate well because of different tabular displays.

Migration to GCCS.

Unfunded

12. TBM systems unable to maintain common multi-source picture.

TADIL J software upgrade to Reissue 3; intelligence interface.

Unfunded

40. CREs unable to communicate via SHF SATCOM with all necessary end users.

TBD

Unfunded

18. TACS unable to ID aircraft adequately in peacetime.

TBD

Unfunded

Figure 4-25

 

Figure 4-26

4.1.5.2. AN/TPS-75 Radar. A mobile, long range, planar array, three dimensional radar capable of interrogating Mark 10 and 12 systems. This radar is commonly fielded with the MCE. (see Figure 4-27, 4-28)

4.1.5.2.1. Components Upgrades. Near term efforts include replacing the remaining outdated radar components (i.e., - upgrade to magnetic modulator) and adding the ability to detect, track, and predict launch/impact points of theater missiles (4 MTS prototypes funded).

4.1.5.2.1.1. The magnetic modulator (transmitter component) will provide improved equipment reliability/availability. This technology is already in the AN/TPS-70 radar (export version of the AN/TPS-75).

4.1.5.2.1.2. The missile tracker software will be hosted in multi-mission workstations (programmable, raster scan consoles which are form/fit replacements for existing consoles), and will work in conjunction with the correlator.

4.1.5.2.2. Future Upgrades. Future upgrades will improve the radar's reliability and ability to detect low RCS targets. These could include a solid state transmitter, antenna tilt mode (for TMD), low noise amplifiers, sector burst mode, and possible new technologies.

4.1.5.2.2.1. The solid state transmitter replaces the entire transmitter section (1950s technology) with state-of-the-art solid state components to improve performance and reliability (extends radar's life span).

4.1.5.2.2.2. The low noise amplifier provides a 4dB improvement in range performance, especially against small RCS targets.

4.1.5.2.2.3. The sector burst mode changes the transmitted signal to provide a 3-5dB improvement in detection for more consistent radar returns on lower cross sections at longer ranges (requires magnetic modulator upgrade).

4.1.5.2.2.4. ARM Decoy. Survivability will be improved through the addition of ARM Decoys which emulate the AN/TPS-75 signal and lure ARMs away from the radar to a predetermined impact area.

TPS-75 Radar Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

02. TACS radars unable to accomplish mission without transmitter fixes/replacement.

Magnetic Modulator - Upgrade transmitter components to improve reliability.

Unfunded

21. TBM systems unable to meet operational requirements in the future.

Solid State Transmitter - Upgrade to solid state technology.

TACS Improvements (TACSI) - R&M upgrades.

Unfunded

Funded

28. TACS unable to see all targets with current radar.

Low Noise Amplifier - Improve sensitivity, more consistent returns on lower RCSs at longer ranges with more consistency.

Sector Burst Mode - Extend (30%) sensitivity (3.5db) against smaller targets.

Missile Tracker/TMD Software - Integrate theater ballistic missile tracker software to detect & track ballistic missiles, compute launch and impact point, and provide error ellipse. Only four prototypes funded.

Unfunded

Partially Funded

Partially funded

60. GTACS lack laser threat detection warning or countermeasures.

TBD

Unfunded

52. GTACS unable to operate without detection due to emission signatures of its equipment.

ARM Decoy - Field anti-radiation missile (ARM) Decoy (only 16 of 35 systems funded).

Partially Funded

Figure 4-27

Figure 4-28

4.1.5.3. Combat Integration Capability (CIC). The rapid and unanticipated emergence of the theater missile (TM) threat requires that the Theater Air Control System (TACS) be enhanced to increase the decision maker’s situational awareness at all levels and decrease reaction times required to effectively prosecute time-critical targets. The CIC program will develop a rapid and fully deployable theater battle management-compliant battlespace correlation capability. In the near term, CIC will utilize existing upgrades to the Air Operations Center (AOC) and the control and reporting center (CRC) to process and integrate inputs from multiple sensors and intelligence sources (theater and national) into a single battlefield picture for the battle manager - a picture he can respond to in near-real-time. This will permit nearly simultaneous dissemination of a correlated, composite air and ground battle-space situational display for effective counter air execution, offensive and defensive, against time critical targets. In the far term, C4I nodes will have a more common view of the battle situation through dynamic information exchange between data bases in a distributed battle management environment. Decision aids will speed planning and execution by polling those databases and giving prioritized options to battle managers. The following capabilities will be provided in the production CIC which is expected to be fielded in the FY99-00 time frame. (see Figure 4-29)

4.1.5.3.1. Perform rapid situational assessment of the battle space based on the integration of air, surface, space operations and intelligence.

4.1.5.3.2. Correlate/fuse data from active and passive sensors providing sensor/weapons cueing and missile warning.

4.1.5.3.3. Receive intelligence data to monitor enemy order of battle and perform threat assessment.

4.1.5.3.4. Perform weapons coordination for all TMD weapons within the area of operational responsibility.

4.1.5.3.5. Transmit timely and accurate target and threat data to shooters.

4.1.5.3.6. Near real-time modification of weapons engagement zones.

4.1.5.3.7. Threat ranking.

4.1.5.3.8. Semi-autonomous and deliberate weapons assignment.

4.1.5.3.9. Provide multi-sensor/intel data to support combat ID functions and non-cooperative target identification.

Combat Integration Capability Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

07. Lack of updated, populated all- source integrated databases.

CIC multi-source integration will provide a complete database.

Unfunded

08. TACS unable to positively identify friendlies and hostiles.

CIC integrated picture will enhance ID capabilities.

Unfunded

12. TBM systems unable to maintain common multi-source picture.

CIC will merge joint databases.

Unfunded

Figure 4-29

4.1.6. Communications. (see Figure 4-30, 4-31, 4-32, 4-33, 4-34, 4-35, 4-36, 4-37, 4-38)

4.1.6.1. Wing Initial Communications Package (WICP). The WICP delivers the minimum essential communications services needed to support a deployed wing in a package designed to deploy in a single C-141. The WICP is deployed and operated by the wing communications squadron. It supplies the wing commander with world-wide telephone and message service, as well as command and control connectivity to receive the ATO and launch and recover aircraft. WICPs are being developed to support combat-coded HQ ACC wings. It is equipped with message, data, and telephone systems to support local customers. Long-haul connectivity is provided through Ground Mobile Forces (GMF) satellite terminals deployed by combat communications units until Lightweight Multiband Satellite Terminals (LMST) are delivered. Command and control UHF SATCOM access is provided with Hammer Rick communications terminals. WICP will use Theater Deployable Communications (TDC) equipment when TDC is fielded. TDC augments GMF SATCOM with the LMST. TDC also replaces telephone and data equipment. Existing WICP radios remain in the new package.

4.1.6.2. Rapid Initial Communications Kit (Hammer Rick). Provides WICP stand-alone SATCOM through the use of lightweight mobile equipment. The packages provide secure voice message traffic and facsimile to deployed commanders and subordinate forces in the early stages of a contingency. Connectivity is to UHF SATCOM. Planned improvements include addition of demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) equipment (will allow more users to access each satellite) and the ANDVT for more reliable secure voice capabilities.

4.1.6.3. Theater Communications. Provides communications required to support modern TBM C4I systems.

4.1.6.4. Deployable Long Haul Communications Replacement. Program to replace aging, heavy, ground mobile forces' SATCOM terminals and the AN/TRC-170 troposcatter radios.

4.1.6.5. TDC Technology Upgrade. Technology insertion upgrades to modernize and build on the basic capabilities fielded under the TDC program. Primary candidates include Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), Multi-Level-Security (MLS), and SATCOM broadcast.

4.1.6.6. Broadcast SATCOM. Provide SATCOM terminals with data broadcast to multi-cast ATO, Intel, weather, and other information.

4.1.6.7. Long Haul Wideband Upgrades. Life-extension modifications to ground mobile forces satellite terminals (SHF) and the AN/TRC-170 troposcatter radio.

4.1.6.8. Reliable Tactical Air Request Net (RTARN). Provides reliable UHF SATCOM communications capability to enable the TACP to accomplish its mission to assist ground forces in planning, requesting, coordinating, and controlling tactical air power.

4.1.6.9. UHF DAMA Upgrades. Replaces and/or modifies existing (ground and airborne) UHF SATCOM terminals to meet JCS Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) mandate. Historically, UHF SATCOM has been assigned on a dedicated basis to specific user groups (networks). When not in use, the capability is wasted, while other users may have been denied access. With DAMA, multiple users will be able to share a single SATCOM channel or frequency. Each CINC will receive some assured minimum level of support, depending upon the priorities of the network requested. By sharing assets, unused capacity can be distributed to any authorized requesting user. Yet, when required, that capacity can be returned to the higher priority user.

 

Communications Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

56. GTACS unable to be easily deployed due to size of units.

Deployable Long Haul Comm Replacement. Program to replace aging ground mobile forces satellite communications terminals and AN/TRC-170 troposcatter radios.

Unfunded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

TDC Technology Upgrade. Technology insertion upgrades to modernize and build on the basic capabilities fielded under the Theater Deployable Comm program.

Unfunded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

Broadcast SATCOM. Expand SATCOM networks with data broadcast to multicast ATO and other info. Includes TDMA< JAM resistant modem, and high altitude relay.

Unfunded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

Terr. Wideband Modernization//Life Extension. Life Extension mods and efficiency upgrades to AN/TRC-170 troposcatter radio.

Unfunded

14. TACPs unable to communicate with ABCCC & ASOC while dismounted.

GMF SATCOM Modernization/Life Extension. Life-extension mods and efficiency upgrades to ground mobile forces satellite communications terminals.

Unfunded

04. TBM systems’ SATCOM radios do not comply with JCS directive.

UHF DAMA (Ground and Airborne). JCS-mandated replacement of UHF SATCOM terminals to implement Demand Assigned Multiple Access (DAMA) system to stretch the capacity of UHF satellite networks.

Unfunded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

Theater Deployable Communications. Smaller, easily deployable comm packages sized to the activity supported (AOC, CRC, etc.); open systems/commercial standards.

Partially Funded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

Deployable Message Center (STAMPS) Upgrade. Upgrades over-the-counter record communications (i.e. AUTODIN) service at deployed airbases and CRCs. Provides Defense Message System compatibility.

Partially Funded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

Data communications (TASDAC) Upgrade. Upgrades deployable data networks to comply with DISA-mandated routing and security architectures.

Unfunded

40. CREs unable to communicate via SHF SATCOM with all necessary end users.

TBD

Unfunded

66. Split ASOC operations strain current communications capability.

TBD

Unfunded

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

Light Multiband SATCOM. Provide small, easily deployable SATCOM terminal capable of using military (DSCS) or commercial satellite for initial capability.

Partially Funded

Figure 4-30

Figure 4-31

High Mobility Comm Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

14. TACPs unable to communicate with ABCCC & ASOC while dismounted.

GRC-206(V)3 Comm Pallet. On/off road tactical communications central replaces MRC-107/8. Used by TACP, ASOC, CCT, Combat Comm, and WICP.

Funded

56. GTACS unable to be easily deployed due to size of units.

Diesel DC Generators. Required to provide power to the GRC-206 during deployments. Replaces old gasoline powered generators.

Funded

14. TACPs unable to communicate with ABCCC & ASOC while dismounted.

GRC-206(V)5 Phase I. Integrates SINCGARS and ANDVT into the GRC-206(V)3. Radios are funded GFE. Includes HF automated link establishment (ALE).

Funded

14. TACPs unable to communicate with ABCCC & ASOC while dismounted.

GRC-206(V)5 Phase II. Continuation of SINCGARS and ANDVT integration into the GRC-206(V)3. Radios are funded GFE.

Funded

04. TBM systems’ SATCOM radios do not comply with JCS directive.

GRC-206(V)6 SATCOM. Add enhancements to the UHF DAMA SATCOM radios and integrate into the GRC 206(V)5 pallet. Radios unfunded GFE.

Unfunded

14. TACPs unable to communicate with ABCCC & ASOC while dismounted.

Multiband radios. Manpack lightweight UHF DAMA SATCOM, HAVEQUICK, SINCGARS, and HF ALE radios for remote operations.

Unfunded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

DACT. Data Automated Control Terminal - digital burst comm upgrade. Enables VMF/MIL-STD 188-220 and DoD wide interoperability.

Partially Funded

01. AOR TBM forces have increasingly limited ability to communicate within AOR or outside AOR (for reachback).

Next Generation Comm Pallet. Upgrade GRC-206(V)6 pallet to include all similar radios capable of Multiband and Multiwaveform communications.

Unfunded

Figure 4-32

Figure 4-33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1.6.10. TDC. TDC was initiated to modernize the deployable telecommunications infrastructure. Its primary goal is to transition from unique tactical to commercial standards based switching and transmission systems. The TDC system is a collection of modular communications nodes interconnected by local and/or long-haul transmission media. It will be a logical extension of the Defense Information System Network (DISN) giving deployed Air Force units an ability to exchange information with major Air Force and DoD elements throughout the world. This system will consist of a family of deployable communications nodes used to construct Base Area Networks (BANs), WANs, and theater-to-strategic inter networks. Communications nodes will consist of seven basic functions or elements including: (1) Access, (2) Switching, (3) Multiplexing, (4) Transmission, (5) Communications security (COMSEC), (6) Management, and (7) Support. It will allow the CAF to transition from heavy, airlift intensive TRI-TAC equipment to smaller, lightweight, off-the-shelf equipment. TDC will provide the Lightweight Multiband Satellite Terminal, a small, easily deployable satellite communications terminal capable of using military (DSCS) and/or commercial satellites, for reachback connectivity. The LMSTs will be fielded to Composite Wings, Objective Wings, AOCs, Air Mobility Command Air Mobility Elements(AMC AMEs), select Air National Guard and Reserve units, and other special operations users. Planned enhancements may include narrowband Integrated Services Digital Network (N-ISDN) and broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) switching elements, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switching elements, wireless personal communications systems (PCSs), improved network management and security subsystems, dynamic bandwidth management, deployable local area networks, and higher capacity transmission systems. (see Figure 4-34, 4-35)

Figure 4-34

Figure 4-35

4.1.6.11. TASDAC. Enhances efficiency of existing tactical communications equipment for data transmission. TASDAC is a data concentrating and routing system designed to accept a number of different protocols, integrate them into an X.25 protocol, and extend the DDN to the deployed environment. TASDAC is being specifically designed to interface with CTAPS, Tactical Forecast System (TFS), WCCS, CIS, and any other data system which meets the TBM unit level open system architecture standard. TASDAC will route data between these users within their own air base. For data leaving the base, TASDAC will concentrate streams of data into one larger stream for more efficient use of the available bandwidth. TASDAC will interface with AN/TSC-85B, TSC-93B, TSC-94A, and TSC-100A SHF SATCOM terminals, AN/TER-170 TROPO Satellite Support Radio (TSSR), AN/TRC-170 troposcatter radio, twisted pair, and commercial analog telephone systems. It is COTS equipment consisting of a router, server, modems, forward error correction, and COMSEC devices. (see Figure 4-36)

Figure 4-36

4.1.6.11.1. The TASDAC requirement was validated in MNS & Operational Requirements Document (ORD). GTE is the supplier and will provide the contractor logistics support and training.

4.1.6.11.2. HQ ACC and the TASDAC program office have both identified the need for TASDAC to interface with the universal data link control (UDLC) protocol in the future, as well as working at T-1 rates.

4.1.6.12. Anti-Jam Communications. Near-to-mid term modernization plans for both voice and data systems involve fielding currently developed systems and short-term enhancements of fielded systems. Far-term plans involve merging both voice and data mode capabilities into multi-mode LPI/LPD systems that provide all the required capability in a single box.

4.1.6.13. Modular Communications. Next century radio capable of multiband voice, data link, LPI/LPD, secure, and SATCOM dependent on addition of slices and airframe integration.

4.1.6.14. Voice Systems. The current UHF (HAVE QUICK) and VHF (ARC-186 and imminent ARC-222) radios will continue in operation with operational enhancements to the HAVE QUICK radios and replacement of ARC-186 VHF radios with SINCGARS-capable, jam-resistant ARC-222s for all aircraft that have Army interoperability requirements. Ground Army SINCGARS radios are being procured for Air Force ground units with Army interoperability requirements. Eventually LPI/LPD technologies will be used in development of a multi-mode

(UHF/VHF) Integrated Comm-Navigation identification friend or foe (IFF) Avionics (ICNIA) system which will replace the HAVE QUICK and anti-jam VHF systems beyond the ten-year point.

4.1.6.15. Data Systems. Current plans involve fielding both the JTIDS and IDM data systems over the near term, followed by further fielding of a Low-Cost Data Link (LCDL) with JTIDS capability in the near to mid-term, and integration of these systems into a single data link module for the long term.

Anti-Jam Communications Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

Anti Jam VHF. Install AN/ARC-222 radios, control head, and Radio Control Key Management System; provide all equipped aircraft with a secure and SINCGARS capable VHF AM/FM radio.

JTIDS - Improve theater high volume jam-resistant information exchange.

HAVE QUICK - Install GRC-171BV4, provide improvements over old GRC-171; install control head, provide capability to electronically fill the word of the day (WOD); install timing set, provide capability for HAVE QUICK radios to receive time of day (TOD).

IDM - Provide data burst capability to support air-to-surface operations coordination and execution; develop software to allow current message protocol to operate with HAVE QUICK radio.

Modular Comm - Provide multiband voice, data link, LPI/LPD, secure, and SATCOM in the next century.

Funded

 

Funded

Funded

 

 

Funded

 

Unfunded

Figure 4-37

Figure 4-38

4.1.7. Air Traffic Control and Landing Systems (ATCALS). Combined AF ground facilities and equipment (fixed, mobile, and transportable) with associated avionics, personnel, and procedures to provide safe, orderly, and expeditious aerospace vehicle movements on a worldwide basis. It includes systems common to the DoD mission but not provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for enroute and terminal navigation, including approach and landing aids. Connectivity includes narrowband communications between DoD facilities and FAA regional centers in support of National Airspace System (NAS) and wideband video feeds to various FAA facilities. For more information concerning these areas of interest, refer to Air Force Flight Service Agency documentation.

4.1.8. Tower Restoral Vehicle (TRV). A rapidly deployable air traffic control tower able to supply terminal air traffic control during a bare-base contingency. The system replaces aging DoD equipment. Having nearly all the capabilities of fixed air traffic control tower assets, it may be employed to supply emergency air traffic control services at locations where fixed tower assets are undergoing repair or refurbishment.

4.1.9. Military Airspace Management System (MAMS). A subset of the NAS program, this system will automate most of the air scheduling of DoD special use airspace (SUA) in the CONUS. A network of data processing and requesting nodes will allow near real-time requesting and scheduling of airspace. Additionally, the system will enable accurate reporting of SUA usage to the FAA.

4.1.10. NAS. Upgrades aging airport surveillance radars, data automation equipment, and voice communications switching systems in order to keep pace with interoperable systems being procured by the FAA. It will allow identical level of services by FAA and DoD facilities for all aircraft utilizing national airspace.

4.1.11. Mobile Microwave Landing System (MMLS). A transportable ground-based system consisting of self-contained, rapidly deployable equipment subsystems positioned near the runway which supply precision approach guidance signals to microwave landing system-equipped aircraft operating in a bare-base environment.

4.1.12. Weather. (see Figure 4-39, 4-40, 4-41)

4.1.12.1. HQ ACC has identified the need for over 30 real-time (observation) and forecast environmental product types needed to support the TBM process. Information on cloud heights, wind, flight hazards, visibility and many other parameters must be observed and forecast for numerous atmospheric levels, time periods, and scales (hemispheric, theater-wide, and target area). TBM environmental products will be centrally produced and relayed to Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems. Environmental products are needed in the ATO development process and throughout mission planning and execution. Additionally, other mission areas, MAJCOMs, Major Army Commands (MACOMs), and theater CINCs have identified similar requirements for environmental products. These requirements have surfaced in numerous MAPs and are being addressed by Air Force Weather (AFW).

4.1.12.2. AFW Mission. The primary mission of AFW (both centralized and unit-level) is preparation and timely delivery of weather information to the warfighter. Commanders, planners, and aircrews require timely and accurate observed and forecast environmental products to efficiently employ assigned forces. Even with smart munitions and so-called "all-weather" systems, lessons learned from recent conflicts have verified the increasing importance of quality environmental information as a force multiplier. Effective integration of timely environmental information into the combat force employment process can successfully influence decisions regarding weapon selections and target options, sortie generation, and base-level operations.

4.1.12.3. The goal of the AFW modernization effort is to integrate highly capable weather observing and forecast systems with combat planning and execution systems. This includes integration of both ground and space-based observation data with centrally produced forecast products to produce tailored, mission specific environmental products and distribute them to operational customers through common user communications to automated C4I systems. In-theater forecasters will tailor the environmental database to update and/or improve mission area and mission-specific forecasts. Environmental information will be in a standard data base format to allow customers access for mission and ATO planning, using capabilities being developed in C4I programs. This data base will include conventional weather information (observations, forecasts, warnings and advisories, etc.), locally generated mission forecast products, and flight weather briefings. Additionally, a combination of ground-based and space-based observations, and information gathered from an in-theater Tactical Weather Radar (TWR) network will be used to provide installation commanders and airborne aircraft advance notice of severe weather events (tornadoes, damaging winds, turbulence, hail, etc.).

4.1.12.4. Because weather support is a backbone objective cross-cutting all operational and supporting mission tasks, the Air Force has developed a Functional Area Plan (FAP) for AFW. The AFW FAP specifies how AFW supports the National Goals and National Security Objectives and provides a roadmap for supporting MAJCOM validated operational requirements and a strategy for correcting deficiencies. Standard systems and capabilities developed within AFW are programmed and budgeted for by Air Force and Air Weather Service.

 

 

Figure 4-39

Weather Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

41. WX data unable to be disseminated to end users & other WX systems.

Tactical Observation and Forecast System (TOFS)

DMSP Small Tactical Terminal (STT)

Meteorological Operational Capability (MOC)

Theater Deployable Communications (TDC)

Common C4I Connectivity on Fixed and Tactical Equipment

Integrated Decision Aids on Mission Planning Systems

Partially Funded

Funded

Funded

Partially Funded

Unfunded

Unfunded

26. WX systems unable to produce complete and accurate WX data.

TOFS

Tactical Weather Radar

Cloud Depiction and Forecast System (CDFS) II

MOC

Improved Satellite Sounding Capability

Improved Tactical Upper Air Sounding

Partially Funded

Funded

Funded

Funded

Unfunded

Unfunded

20. TBM users unable to utilize received WX data due to dissimilar format.

Combat Air Forces Weather Software Package (CAFWSP)

TOFS

DMSP STT

Satellite Data Handling System (SDHS) II

Advanced Operational Weather Applications

Partially Funded

Partially Funded

Funded

Funded

Unfunded

Figure 4-40

4.1.13. Theater Intelligence Systems.

4.1.13.1. CIS. The Combat Intelligence System (CIS) is the single, standard Air Force intelligence system which will be used at both component and unit-level intelligence to provide warfighters the most accurate and timely intelligence available. The CIS will support mission operations and planning functions for both wartime and peacetime applications on a daily basis. This includes support to the development and execution of the Air Tasking Order, the air campaign, and the battlefield evaluation. The CIS will be the core capability for automated receipt, correlation, and dissemination of intelligence to a variety of intelligence and operations systems supporting combat planning and execution. Capabilities required include receipt of NRT, all-source intelligence from national, theater, and tactical reconnaissance and intelligence systems. The CIS CONOPS calls for an initial theater-specific database load prior to CIS deployment. Then, once in theater, JIC/JAC updates to the CIS database will occur initially on a regular basis and eventually on a continuous basis as BDA improves to ensure the most accurate and updated information is used for mission planning and situation awareness at various echelons employing CIS. CIS will meet the combined requirements of the CAF, Air Education and Training Command, Air Mobility Command, Air Force Special Operations Command, Air National Guard, and Air Force Reserves units. In addition, CIS will be used to provide intelligence automation support to Air Force Space Command and Air Intelligence Agency units. (see Figure 4-42, 4-43)

Combat Intelligence System (CIS) Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

17. Lack of capability to access and interface with national-level databases.

Communications Interface - Ability to access collateral and SCI communications links to ensure adequate flow of intelligence information to display an accurate picture of battlefield operations. Provides deployable SCI communications capability for component level support.

Intel Database Manipulation - Ability to receive and manipulate intelligence database files and provide relational links to other intelligence files.

Partially Funded

 

 

Funded

48. AOC unable to perform nodal analysis.

Situation Awareness Threat Assessment - Ability to provide a fused, multi-source correlated intelligence product using collateral and SCI information. Provides an analysis function.

Funded

31. Lack of broad area/multi-spectral coverage.

Automated Message Handling - Ability to connect to standard, interoperable communications network (AUTODIN follow-on) and receive/generate Joint Interoperability of Tactical Command and Control Systems/U.S. Message Text Format (JINTACCS/USMTF) messages in a releasable format. Ability to parse messages to appropriate functions.

Funded

25. Warfighters unable to obtain theater specific intel products.

Imagery Manipulation and Dissemination - Ability to receive, manipulate, and send imagery at both collateral and SCI levels. Provide digitization and video capture capability.

Funded

23. Targeting process data inadequate to support ATO development.

45. AOC planners unable to store & maintain target info.

Targeting/Support Materials Handling - Ability to build/weaponeer the Target Nomination List (TNL) in support of the ATO process. Ability to receive, manipulate, and send target materials and provide weaponeering capability in support of mission planning.

Funded

30. Lack of MC&G global coverage, detail, and currency.

MCG&I - Implement approved mapping software/tool kit functionalities and provide the ability to display Graphics(CADRG) and Vector Product Format (VPF) products.

Funded

22. Current imagery comm pipes & data bases unable to move & store large volumes of data.

45. AOC planners unable to store & maintain target info.

Mass Digital Storage - Provide massive on- and off-line storage capability for data base, imagery, target materials, maps, and reference materials.

Funded

33. Lack of responsive, automated collection/requirements management capability.

Collection Mgmt and Monitoring - Provide an automated means to input requests to the national collection requirements process and allow monitoring of request status.

Funded

05. TBM systems unable to provide/handle Multi-Level Secure data.

MLS - Permits processing of different levels of classified materials on one system to include unclassified, collateral, & SCI.

Releasibility and Disclosure - Automated capability to allow system use by allied/coalition forces.

Unfunded

Partially Funded

36. CIS unable to transfer data within internal applications at the component level.

Interoperability - Ability to interface joint and other service intelligence systems by using common/standard software packages. Ability to pass data within CTAPS functions(RAAP) and to AFMSS.

Funded

35. Intel unable to provide weapon system specific target materials.

TBD

Unfunded

51. Units unable to interoperate from squadron to force level.

Software Baseline - Incorporate CONSTANT SOURCE (CS) and RAAP functionalities into the CIS baseline. Develop common software baseline for component and unit support.

Equipment Baseline - Upgrade existing hardware to client/server configuration and field additional equipment to units without systems.

Funded

 

Partially

Funded

Figure 4-42

Figure 4-43

4.1.13.1.1. Tactical Receive Equipment (TRE)/Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (TRE/MATT). The TRE/MATT provides a receiver capability for near-real-time data which will be displayed on the CIS terminal. The MATT will replace the TRE and provides tactical users the capability to receive, filter, decrypt, process, correlate, format, and distribute both national and tactical intelligence data to warfighters for threat avoidance and targeting as well as general situation awareness. Initial MATT production units will be able to process TADIX and TRAP data. Later versions will be able to process TIBS as well. (see Figure 4-44, 4-45)

4.1.13.1.2. Planned Improvements: Estimated completion date: FY95 (CTAPS integration 5.0).

TRE/MATT Modernization Roadmap

Deficiency

Solution

Status

03. TBM systems unable to pass secure/anti-jam data/voice via common means in a timely manner.

Tactical Receive Equipment (TRE) Multi-Channel Upgrade - Upgrading TRE by adding a second (and eventually a third) receiver channel to allow simultaneous, dedicated receipt of additional broadcasts (TOPS or TIBS).

Funded

32. Different message and data formats hamper info transfer.

TRE-TRAP Enhancement - Upgrade TRE to handle new/improved TRAP format; new TRAP format will provide users with additional information.

Funded

12. TBM systems unable to maintain common multi-source picture.

TRE-Protocol Processing Unit (PPU) - TIBS uses a modified TADIL format which is unrecognizable by CIS; PPU will convert TIBS broadcast data into format usable by CIS; TIBS data can then be displayed/correlated on CIS; eliminates need for separate TIBS terminal.

TRE-MATT Conversion - Procure MATTs (airborne version of TRE) vs TREs for all new buys; MATT has four receiver channels: TRAP, TOPS, TIBS, and one additional channel for the future; MATT provides enhanced mobility and eases logistics burdens as both ground and airborne CIS Receiver Suites are the same.

Receiver Upgrades - Continues as new technology/broadcast technology emerges.

Funded

 

 

 

Funded

 

 

 

Unfunded

Figure 4-44

Figure 4-45

4.1.13.2. TIBS. TIBS passes RC-135 RIVET JOINT near real-time signals intelligence (SIGINT) data to ground sites equipped with TIBS terminals.

4.1.13.3. Joint Defense Intelligence Support System (JDISS). A portable computer (PC)-based deployable intelligence support system designed to meet the requirements of a forward deployed joint intelligence and operations element (i.e., - a Joint Intelligence Center [JIC] and/or a Joint Task Force [JTF]). It is planned to interface with component- and unit-level intelligence systems of each of the Services. The JDISS program is structured to provide a family of hardware and software capabilities allowing connectivity and interoperability with the intelligence systems required to support forces in-garrison and deployed in peacetime, crisis, and war. JDISS intends to provide the JIC, JTF, and tactical commanders with on-site automation support and the connectivity necessary to execute the intelligence mission. This system is also the technical baseline for the DoD Intelligence Information system (DODIIS) client-server environment (CSE). JDISS provides the foundation for achieving strategic-tactical interoperability.

4.1.13.4. Joint Service Imagery Processing System (JSIPS). The JSIPS is a modular, worldwide deployable ground station designed for the production and dissemination of imagery intelligence derived from national platforms. The JSIPS is comprised of three twenty-foot and two twelve foot shelters, SATCOM antenna, and approximately ten environmental control/power generation equipment pallets. Capable of set-up and tear down within 12 hours, the JSIPS may be deployed using standard military airlift, road, rail, and sea. The USAF will procure two JSIPS for beddown at Ninth Air Force (9AF), Shaw AFB, SC (3QFY96) and Twelfth Air Force (12AF), Davis-Monthan AFB, AZ (2QFY97).

4.1.13.5. Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS). The CARS consists of two worldwide deployable ground stations designed for the production and dissemination of near-real-time, correlated intelligence products derived from the U-2 platform and its family of sensor technologies. These systems will provide theater C4I Nodes and warfighting units with a dynamic and responsive reconnaissance capability in peace, crisis, and war.

4.1.13.5.1. The two CARS ground stations are under the combatant command (COCOM) of the Commander-in-Chief, United States Atlantic Command (CINCUSACOM). CINCUSACOM has delegated operational control (OPCON) of the CARS to Commander, Air Combat Command (COMACC) who employs these assets through the Commander, Ninth Air Force (9AF) and Commander, Twelfth Air Force (12AF) respectively. These Numbered Air Forces will serve as the executive agents for CARS mission execution IAW Theater/JTF Commander and Component Command requirements.

4.1.13.5.2. During peacetime, the CARS will provide support to Unified & Component Command operational exercises, Sensitive Reconnaissance Objectives, and conduct operational training. During contingency and war, CARS will assist in determining the disposition of enemy forces within the first and second echelons of the battlefield and assist C4I Nodes implementation of friendly forces in response to threats directed against US and Allied interests. Specific intelligence applications will include: battlefield surveillance and warning, target and order-of-battle analysis, target and weaponeering support, and battle damage assessment. Principle products are NRT multi-source intelligence reports, secondary imagery products, and NRT correlated reports resulting from sensor cross-cueing activities and dynamic sensor retasking.

4.1.13.5.3. The Deployable Ground Station-1 (DGS-1) based at Langley AFB, VA was declared operational in 1QFY95. The Deployable Ground Station-2 (DGS-2), located at Beale AFB, CA, has been declared operational.

4.1.13.6. Future Notional Concept of Operations. Incorporating a concept of Real-Time Information in the Cockpit (RTIC) addresses those system capabilities required to provide inflight aircrews essential information to allow mission adjustments in response to rapidly changing combat conditions. The coordinated and effective integrated employment and survival of the aircraft requires timely responses to varying conditions in the operational environment. As conditions change during mission execution, aircrews require an effective capability to exploit updated and new information from offboard sources to improve situation awareness and receive targeting information. The RTIC notional extended mission CONOPS depicts a crisis situation with limited reconnaissance and surveillance support for en route CONUS air and sea forces. The notional theater mission CONOPS depicts some of the in-theater assets, and the information/command and control flow for the employment of RTIC. (see Figure 4-46, 4-47)

Figure 4-46

Figure 4-47

4.1.13.7. RTIC. RTIC can support all conventional aircraft mission roles, across the conflict spectrum. RTIC will serve as a force multiplier and enhancer by providing mission essential information in the cockpit to update pre-mission planning and to augment onboard sensors. RTIC need not be a specific system and may be a capability derived from several current and programmed C4I and aircraft systems; therefore, the derived RTIC capability will be susceptible to a wide range of electronic support (ES) and electronic protect (EP) capabilities.

4.1.13.7.1. RTIC Network. RTIC concept requires a C4I network which can provide aircrews with single source and correlated multi-source information. The network must provide information in a timely, accurate, and consistent manner plus be compatible with onboard displays. The method of transmittal should be high volume, jam-resistant, secure, and functional throughout the mission profile. RTIC will use existing, planned, and emerging technologies to better employ a reduced force structure and serve as a force multiplier and enhancer.

4.1.13.7.2. Force Multiplier. (1) Global power projection; (2) extending range and field of regard of onboard sensors to improve target identification, sorting, and weapon allocation; (3) updating target coordinates for precision guided munitions (PGM) employment and improve lethality of SEAD munitions; (4) providing missile early warning and fire control track data required to support attack operations, active defense, passive defense, and command and control; (5) providing en route target battle damage assessment (BDA) and weather updates for improved munitions employment; (6) allowing inflight retasking or retargeting; (7) providing identification and location of new threats to target or avoid; and (8) improving and increasing situation awareness and mission effectiveness by sharing sensor/targeting data among flight members.

4.1.13.7.3. Force Enhancer. (1) Increase situation awareness by expanding knowledge of air, ground, electronic, naval, and missile orders of battle beyond the capabilities of onboard sensors; (2) enable ingressing aircraft to limit activation of onboard sensors through offboard information, thus enhancing survivability and all weather capability; (3) improve strike force coordination by updating information relating to rendezvous, mission profile, alternate missions, threat, etc.; and (4) effectively and efficiently correlate information from multiple sources to provide aircrews timely, accurate, and consistent information.

4.1.13.7.4. Potential Materiel Alternatives. There are few current operational systems that enable aircrews to receive information in the cockpit via data insertion from offboard sources. The RTIC solution must integrate current and planned C4I architectures and aircraft systems relating to offboard data correlation, transmittal, receipt, and display. Some potential materiel alternatives include the following: JTIDS, IDM, Multi-functional Information Distribution System (MIDS), Multi-Source Tactical System (MSTS), Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT), Rapid Targeting System (RTS), and Situation Awareness Data Link (SADL)/Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS).

4.2. Mission Area Critical/Enabling Technologies. The C4I functions in the post-1996 time period need to support the continuation of the standard theater air operation missions. These missions are defined in Air Force Manual 1-1, Aerospace Doctrine of the United States Air Force. Based upon the continuation of existing missions, it is postulated that the 1996 command and control structure will continue to exist in the future. Within this structure, increased needs will exist for interfacing and integration. Increased needs to operate in a Joint Service arena will necessitate that the Air Force command and control structure integrate and interface with Army, Navy, and Marine structures under the direction of a JFC. U.S. National Systems established for intelligence and strategic purposes need to support the theater operations. The theaters of operation are expected to be remote from the peacetime locations. Therefore, initial deployment needs will have to be met by military airlift systems. Intra-theater airlifts will also need to be integrated with Joint Service command and control to support effective mobility aspects. Additionally, a need will exist to interface and integrate with allied operations and unique command and control structures that may be present in future theaters of operation. A number of emerging technologies should be available for inclusion in the post-1996 TBM C4I architecture: (a) direct voice interaction with the computer and handwritten inputs using an electronic notepad will augment the keyboard and track ball or mouse at the human-machine interface (HMI); (b) the wearable display will be a form of a head-mounted eye display, making it possible to augment a normal workstation display with this capability or be used by an operator without a workstation; (c) virtual displays will present high-fidelity pictures of the real world; enabling better visualization of the target scene or route to target; enable the combining of different display media (historical or real time); and these displays can be interactive with planning and execution algorithms; (d) terrain data draping on map backgrounds will allow graphic displays to be presented in perspective views; and (e) the use of pictures or three dimensional sketches to represent entities will be possible rather than the present use of abstract symbols and vectors; these sketches and information will be compressed into ICONS for communication purposes; (f) collaborative electronic mission/strike planning with live displays and dialogues on preferred tactics, prospective views; and, (g) the use of electronic mission rehearsals as precursors to mission planning. The salient aspects of the proposed TBM architecture and leveraging technologies are summarized here.

4.2.1. The 1996 and subsequent information distribution needs can best be met by the use of broadcast networks which allow all elements to receive all data and perform the required sorting and correlation to match their assigned responsibilities.

4.2.1.1. Non-conventional sensors should be used to identify targets. Primary emphasis is to positively identify the enemy before action is taken.

4.2.1.2. Improvement to existing sensors should be provided to combat the threat.

4.2.1.2.1. Even after improving existing sensors, insufficient low-observable and deep surveillance will exist. The only way to overcome these shortfalls is through new sensors. Podded Joint STARS, advanced over-the-horizon radar (AOTH), and Bistatic Space SAR are strong candidates to attain these capabilities. The cost effectiveness of new sensors needs to be examined in more detail.

4.2.1.2.2. Imagery management and dissemination via the proposed architecture and interfaces are needed to provide this valuable information to those who need it in the theater.

4.2.1.3. Multifunctional command and control centers should be implemented when the existing special purpose centers are phased out or when logistics costs call for replacement of the hardware and software.

4.2.1.4. Even with the continued drive to use standards, there will also be situations where non-standard data links will exist resulting in the need for a data link translator. The future translator must be quickly adaptable to new interface situations.

4.2.1.5. The flow of information to and among fighters should be automated via the implementation of an affordable data link. JTIDS is proposed for air-to-air operations. The IDM/HAVE QUICK radio configuration is proposed for close air support (CAS) operations. As cost of the JTIDS terminal is reduced, it should be used in all shooters requiring situation awareness and receipt of specific target data.

4.2.2. The overall goal of the TBM C4I architecture is summarized in three individual design areas; C4I, Communications, and Sensors.

4.2.2.1. The focal point of the future TBM architecture is the infrastructure provided by the communications portion. The goal of the communication architecture is a combination of SATCOM and JTIDS. All command and control centers should be interconnected using SATCOM while low cost JTIDS should be employed in all shooters where a data link capability is needed. Additionally, the JTIDS and SATCOM capability is extended by a relay aircraft or UAV, which provides a gateway between the two communications systems.

4.2.2.2. The surveillance architecture is dependent upon the threat levels. Increases in performance can be made to existing sensors to satisfy a moderate threat level increase over the 1996 threat. If this threat level (lowering of RCS, primarily) is increased, then a family of new sensors is proposed. These new sensors require extensive development and include a Joint STARS pod/UAV, bistatic space SAR, AOTH, and Advanced Air Surveillance System (AASS). The AWACS and Joint STARS should be upgraded with an IR sensor and improved radar resolution.

4.2.2.3. Identification should be performed using improved non-conventional sensors that can distinguish friend and enemy characteristics in combination with intelligence and conventional sensor data. Common information merging and correlation will use the multi-sensor data to synthesize positive identification.

4.2.2.4. The proposed Intelligence architecture provides for the receipt of national and other primary imagery data and in-theater secondary processing. The distribution of imagery is provided widely to users via the broadcast SATCOM. SIGINT information from external intelligence systems is distributed directly to major command and control elements where correlation takes place with local sensor data. The correlated information is distributed via JTIDS and/or SATCOM networks to other elements. In-theater intelligence sensors should be on UAV platforms and SATCOM communications to convey the collected information.

4.2.3. The TBM architecture proposes a conversion of the functionally unique command and control centers of 1996 to common multi-role airborne and ground centers. The same system (hardware, software, and communications) will perform offensive and defensive operations, depending upon the situation in the conflict. The centers would be modular building blocks of COTS workstations in capsules for transportation, which could be operated on the ground or in cargo aircraft. Additionally, the workstations and associated equipment would be easily relocatable to a building environment. The workstation will be powerful enough to process, display, and maintain a theater-wide data base to support all of the air operations tasks.

 

TBM Leveraging Technologies

Technology

Status

Multifunction Operator Work Station (OWS). Advanced technology OWS with common open system architecture and same MMI at all locations.

Partially Funded (Joint STARS ATWS)

Common Air/Ground Surveillance Net. Multi-source data registered and correlated on one net provides real-time air/ground picture.

Unfunded

Ops/Intel Cueing Common A/G surveillance. Net provides situational awareness; Ops/Intel interfaces added support cross-cueing.

Unfunded

Enhanced Target ID. New radar data processing technology extracts templating cues, classifies and IDs targets.

Unfunded

Universal Translator. Converts all TBM languages and protocols to a common standard; supports one common data base.

Unfunded

Infosphere. Global all-brand information network combining commercial and military media. Mix of unprotected, jam-resistant, and encrypted links.

Unfunded as an integrated program; many subsets exist or are funded

Figure 4-48

C4I Leveraging Technologies

Technology

Status

Battle Data Integration. The sum of technologies needed to enable the C4I for the Warrior concept; massively parallel processing, collaborative computing, rule-based information and interface management, open systems and multi-sensory MMI; supports Push-Pull data exchange, dynamic filtering. A theater-wide common real-time understanding of current battlespace, with the ability to zoom and scan in time and space, exercise apriori trial force employments.

Unfunded

FLEX. A collection of emerging technology tools to support rapid dynamic replanning. Some near real-time planning/execution.

Funded

Dynamic Data Fusion and Display. FLEX plus dynamic, rule-based data correlation to reduce planning cycle time; planning surrogate support, advanced visualization media such as interactive virtual environment. Real-time decision/execution loops within ATO structure.

Unfunded

Gbit Interactive Operator Work Station. Emerging COTS open system computing parameters: processing power > 500MIP, local storage > 100GByte, WAN/LAN transfer rates > 2 Gbps; MMI options include keyboard, trackball, sensitive panel, voice, interactive eye. Common, modular multifunction OWS at all command levels, accessing same meganet. Identical MMI = common training, deployability, flexibility.

Unfunded

Terabaud data correlation & sharing. Dynamic rule based network data management algorithms, based on standard criteria for precision, validity, quality, and timeliness. Provides the mechanism which will enable the Global Grid and the Infosphere concept.

Unfunded

Data Integration. Proceeds from terabaud network technology, adds software to correlate and register data in time and space. The vehicle which carries and supports C4I for the Warrior.

Unfunded

Universal Translator. A repository of message catalogs, control structures, protocols and waveforms to support two way translation and mapping among both bit-oriented and character-oriented data systems; support software to quickly integrate other languages. The key to communications interoperability among stovepipe systems; vital in joint and coalition warfare.

Unfunded

Wearable Displays. Most technical features of Gbit OWS in man-portable use on the move computing engine; ergonomically designed query/response mechanisms. Supports individual warfighter in Global Grid.

Unfunded

Dynamic Push-Pull Data Link. Preset and dynamic filtering techniques, Push-Pull data exchange, dynamic filtering. Provides interface for airborne, vehicular, and maritime shooters with the Battlespace Net.

Unfunded

Global Exercise Network. Central exercise management and analysis facility with transportable interface units to integrate remote players. Supports "Train as you Fight" simulation and exercises.

Unfunded

War Mobilization Planning. Calculate attrition of combat resources and assets. Supports assuring resources are available to execute wartime operations.

Unfunded

Figure 4-49

Figure 4-50

 

Communications Leveraging Technologies

Technology

Status

Upgraded UHF. Addition of ANDVT-compatible & DAMA capabilities to existing & planned UHF systems. Increases voice interoperability & improves satellite resource usage efficiency.

Unfunded

MILSTAR. The introduction of higher data rate communications (up to T1) for the MILSTAR system. Increases traffic rates, satellite capacity, & jamming protection.

Unfunded

DSCS. The addition of improved LNAs and TDMA capabilities to the existing ground terminals, also the launching of the DSCS III satellites. Increases efficiency for satellite usage and increased satellite capacity.

Unfunded

Improved Anti Jam for SATCOM. Increasing the available data rates and protection for anti-jam communications. Cuts current MILSATCOM jamming vulnerability.

Unfunded

Redundant SATCOM Reach Back. Automated management algorithms to select & set up global connections among several SATCOM systems. Improves reliability of high priority communications.

Unfunded

Multi-band Modular Radios. Construction of multifunction programmable radio interoperable with existing tactical radios; 75% reduction in size, weight, & power vs today’s systems. Improves deployability and supportability for tactical line-of-sight communications.

Unfunded

Multi-band RF Equipment. Creation of tri-band antenna feed used with the commercial multi-band terminals being purchased. Decreases set-up & reconfigure times & added system flexibility.

Unfunded

Multi-band Multi-unit SATCOM Connectivity. Construction of multiple SATCOM band networks to communicate between different OPFACs while assuring a common battle picture to all users. Allows traffic to be sent to multiple users without all having the same equipment installed.

Unfunded

Phased Array Antennas. The design and construction of conformal phased array antennas for installation on aircraft and other mobile platforms. Use with Comm On-the-Move & allow more flexibility for platform integration.

Unfunded

Communications On-the-Move. Technologies, including phased array antennas, needed for situational awareness data & other C4I for the Warrior traffic to users while in motion. Provides users common battle picture regardless of activity (i.e. - move CRC forward in theater).

Unfunded

Nets Supporting Terabaud Correlation and Sharing. Dynamic rule based network data mgt. algorithms, based on standard criteria for precision, validity, quality, and timeliness. Mechanism to enable the Global Grid & the Infosphere concept.

Unfunded

Manpack Sys Connectivity. Advanced self-routing, multi-path personal comm. Wearable Systems Connectivity.

Unfunded

MLS, MSI. Slowly emerging combination of technique and technology to add successive layers of automation to the data security process; complementary technology to correlate, integrate, & fuse Intel & Ops data. Supports the integration of all-source data in the Global Grid.

Unfunded

Dynamic Autohealing Multi-band Net Management. Theater wide comms mgt. using automated status polling, embedded rerouting, service maintenance algorithms & knowledge-based prediction. Provides the most utility and reliability from the total of available theater comm.

Unfunded

Enhanced Satellites. Technologies to increase satellite capabilities -high-powered downlinks, agile beam antennas, unfurlable antennas, & increased throughput. Use to increase the capacity and usage efficiency of limited SATCOM resources.

Unfunded

Multi-media Networks (Navy). Construction & implementation of a multi-media network controller to increase flexibility for comm. Send traffic to multiple users without same equipment.

Unfunded

Intersystem Interfacing (Army). Provide automated interfacing to connect vertical systems; in Enterprise improvement plans. Reduces stovepiping, enhances joint connectivity.

Unfunded

Data Structure Focused on Warfighter's Needs (Navy, Copernicus). Tactical data base rapid tailoring for the warfighting commander & dynamic query/response. Refocuses global data systems on the needs of the warfighter.

Unfunded

Figure 4-51

Figure 4-52

 

Sensors Leveraging Technologies

Technology

Status

Massive parallel processing to spatially set up arrays, adaptively form, steer & focus beams, & do spectral & temporal shifts to reduce clutter & interference. Another way for wide area detection & tracking of a/c, ships, vehicles, missiles.

Unfunded

Automatic Radar Processing/Data Extraction/ Downlinking. Apply massive parallel processing; perform signal & radar data processing, clutter suppression, processed radar data compression to accommodate downlink. Alternate means to achieve theater wide battlespace coverage.

Unfunded

Collaborative Planning Communications & data systems for joint allocation & mission planning by collaborative, remote users. Add distributed decision making to Battle Data Integrating.

Unfunded

Multi Stage Improvement Program (MSIP). Planned approach toward system improvement through the injection of emerging technology. Ongoing program in AWACS; new initiative for Joint STARS.

Unfunded

30/35 Planned block changes which include the next set of technology improvements for AWACS. Broaden system capability, modernize system elements.

Unfunded

Conformal Antenna. Massive processing techniques to produce large conformal phased arrays for current technology antennas power aperture, beam focus, & steering capabilities duplication. Support development of common airborne C3 platform.

Unfunded

Programmable Sensors. Intelligent sensor packages with built-in capability to assimilate & maintain a programmed search routine, collect & store assigned data components. Provide battlespace utility to UAV platforms.

Unfunded

GBR/Low Frequency Adjust Radar (Army). New technology netted radar systems planned for use with THAAD - follow-on to Patriot. Surveillance & tracking data for Battlespace Surveillance Net.

Unfunded

System Integration (Follow-On C2 Platform). Combine & apply technologies to achieve follow-on C2 platform; specifics include OWS, processing, & data management advances. Single platforms could perform the tasks performed by several individual systems today.

Unfunded

Figure 4-53

Figure 4-54

 

 

4.3 MAP Science and Technology Products. TBM deficiencies point to the creation of new technologies. The ability to have a seamless voice and data transmission capability, both in the AOR and outside the AOR for reachback, is vital to achieve effective battle management. The sensors that create the battlespace picture are going to need to have increased sensitivity to detect and track low RCS targets and they are going to have to be stealthy or have the capability to protect themselves against increasingly sophisticated and easily acquired weapons systems. Data automation will be important, as commanders continue to attempt to shorten their decision cycle time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Mission Area Post Investment Assessment. TBM tasks can be accomplished after the modifications/acquisitions in chapter four are completed, assuming recommended modifications/acquisitions are funded and completed approximately within the time frame needed, and the threat stays as predicted. However, if the threat becomes more formidable, then emerging technologies will have to be quickly matured and fielded. Rapid prototyping of these emerging technologies will be necessary and can be achieved through implementation vehicles such as Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs). Additionally, stealthy non-emitting sensors will become necessary. A move away from the mind-set of upgrading current systems (evolutionary) to a mind-set of creating entirely new systems (revolutionary) will be required to counter the ever-increasing technological capabilities of potential adversaries. The rate of change in technology and computers is increasing at such a tremendous rate that it is imperative to perform periodic assessments of technology. The purpose of the assessments will be to highlight new technologies and insure that the necessary new capabilities are reflected in the resources provided to the warfighter.

5.1. The following chart lists TBM’s tasks, the capability of accomplishing that task after the investment, and the single most important deficient characteristic that prevents flawless accomplishment of that task. This chart is subjective and will change any time the threat changes.

Figure 5-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Summation. As stated earlier, the TBM MAP in no way replaces the TBM Architecture. The TBM Architecture working group is currently collecting information on existing systems. The long range TBM "objective" Architecture working group is just getting started and their work will significantly impact the out years (10-25 years) and will take one or two years to mature enough to influence this MAP. Therefore, the reader can expect substantive evolvement in this document over the next several years.

6.1 Continued emphasis and support of joint battle management/C4I systems are required for TBM to evolve into the more capable systems our integrated forces of the future will require. Current acquisition, coupled with P3I initiatives, should be continued to meet our requirements. Near-term modifications add capability to meet immediate system requirements. Mid-term modifications will focus on the new mission of theater missile detection and sustainability requirements. In the far-term, new systems will be required to meet voice and data communications needs for extensive capability, flexibility, and small size with LPI/LPD.

6.2 Communications modifications to comply with evolving joint standards, migration to modular open systems, and radar sensitivity upgrades will be required. Interoperability/ connectivity, both intra- & inter-theater, must be ensured. Finally, theater forces require small, lightweight, modular systems which provide high capacity, anti-jam, and secure communications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Acronyms

AACC Airborne Air Command Center

AASS Advanced Air Surveillance Radar

AATO Automated Air Tasking Order

ABCCC Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center

ACC Air Combat Command

ACCS Air Command and Control System (NATO)

ACO Airspace Control Order

ACPT Air Campaign Planning Tool

ADA Air Defense Artillery

ADP Automated Data Processing

ADRG Arc Digital Raster Graphics

ADRI Arc Digital Raster Imagery

ADS Airspace Deconfliction System

AETACS Airborne Elements of the Theater Air Control System

AETC Air Education and Training Command

AFCC Air Force Component Commander

AFFOR Air Force Forces

AFINTNET Air Force Intelligence Network

AFMC Air Force Material Command

AFMSS Air Force Mission Support System

AFNET Air Force Net

AFRCC Air Force Rescue Coordination Center

AFSOC Air Force Special Operations Command

AFSOF Air Force Special Operations Forces

AFW Air Force Weather

AFWSS Air Force Weather Support System

AI Air Interdiction

AIG Air Intelligence Group

AIS Air Intelligence Squadron

AJ Anti Jam

AJCOM Anti Jam Communications

ALE Automatic Link Establishment

AMC Air Mobility Command

AME Air Mobility Elements

AMHS Automated Message Handling System

AN/TPS-75 Army-Navy/Tactical Radar Search Radar

ANDVT Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal

AOC Air Operations Center

AOR Area of Responsibility

AOTH Advanced Over-the-Horizon (radar)

 

API Application Program Interfaces

APS Advanced Planning System

ARFOR Army Forces

ARG Amphibious Readiness Groups

ARM Anti-Radiation Missile

ASAR Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar

ASIT Adaptable Surface Interface Terminal

ASOC Air Support Operations Center

ATCALS Air Traffic Control And Landing Systems

ATM Asynchronous Transfer Terminal

ATO Air Tasking Order

AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System

AWDS Automated Weather Distribution System

BAN Base Area Networks

BAR Broad Area Review

BCT Battlefield Communications Terminal

BDA Battle Damage Assessment

B-ISDN Broadband-Integrated Services Digital Network

BLOS Beyond Line of Sight

BM Battle Management

BPI Boost Phase Intercept

BPSK Bipolar Phase Shift Keying

BSD Battlefield Situation Display

BTH Beyond the Horizon

C2 Command and Control

C2IPS Command Control Information Processing System

C3 Command, Control, and Communications

C3I C3 and Intelligence

C4I Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence

CADS Combat Airspace Deconfliction System

CAF Combat Air Forces

CAMS Core Automated Maintenance System

CAFWSP CAF Weather Support Package

CARS Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System

CAS Close Air Support

CAS-B Combat Ammunition System Base

CATIS Computer Aided Tactical Information System

CCT Combat Control Team

CDFS Cloud Depiction and Forecast System

CDL Common Data Link

CIC Combat Integration Capability

CID Combat Identification

CINC Commander-in-Chief

 

CIS Combat Intelligence System

CIS-CL Combat Intelligence System - Component Level

CIS-UL Combat Intelligence System-Unit Level

CJCS Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

CMF Combat Mission Folder

CMP Computational Map Processor/Configuration Management Plan

CMOS Cargo Movement Operations System

CMS Common Mapping System

CMTK Common Mapping Tool Kit

COA Courses of Action

COE Common Operating Environment

COEA Cost and Operations Effectiveness Analysis

COMACC Commander, Air Combat Command

COMSEC Communications Security

CONOPS Concept of Operations

CONUS Continental United States

COTS Commercial-off-the-Shelf

CRAF Civil Reserve Air Fleet

CRC Control and Reporting Center

CRE Control and Reporting Element

CRT Cathode Ray Tubes

CS CONSTANT SOURCE

CSAF Chief of Staff of the Air Force

CSE Client-Server Environment

CTAPS Contingency Theater Automated Planning System

CTIS 3DS Command Tactical Information System Digital Decision Display System

CVBG Carrier Battle Group

CW Composite Wing

CWOC Composite Wing Operations Center

DACT Data Automated Control Terminal

DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access

DCAPES Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution System

DCT Digital Communications Terminal

DDN Defense Data Network

DGS Deployable Ground Station

DIRCM Directed Infrared Countermeasures

DISN Defense Information System Network

DISNET DDN Integrated Secure Network

DMA Defense Mapping Agency

DMS Defense Message System

DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DoD Department of Defense

DODIIS DoD Intelligence Information System

DPG Defense Planning Guidance

DSCS Defense Satellite Communications System

DTD Data Transfer Device

EAC Echelon Above Corps

EAGLE Extended Airborne Global Launch Evaluator

E-BTH Enhanced Beyond the Horizon

ECCM Electronic Counter Countermeasure

ECM Electronic Countermeasure

ELINT Electronic Intelligence

EMD Engineering and Manufacturing Design

EO Electro Optical

EP Electronic Protect

ERPS External RFI Protection System

ES Electronic Support

ESM Electronic Support Measure

FAA Federal Aviation Administration

FAMS Fuels Automated Management System

FAP Functional Area Plan

FAR Frequency Adjunct Radar

FDDI Fiber Distribution Data Interface

FDMA Frequency Division Multi-Access Antenna

FEBA Forward Edge of the Battle Area

FLEX Force Level Execution Module

FOA Field Operating Agency

FOL Forward Operating Locations

GBR Ground Based Radar

GCCS Global Command and Control System

GEP Ground Entry Point

GFE Government Furnished Equipment

GINS Government Information Network System

GMF Ground Mobile Force

GOTS Government-off-the-shelf

GPS Global Positioning System

GSM Ground Station Module

GTACS Ground Theater Air Control System

GTN Global Transportation Network

HDS Hard Disk Subsystem

HF High Frequency

H-HMMWV Heavy High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle

HIDAR High Data Rate

HQ Headquarters

 

HQAN HAVE QUICK A-Net

HVAA High Value Airborne Asset

IAW In Accordance With

ICM Intelligence Correlation Module

ICNIS Integrated CNI Subsystem

ICNIA Integrated Communications-Navigation IFF Avionics

ICON Integration Contract

I-DGS Interim-Deployable Ground Station

IDHS Intelligence Data Handling System

IDM Improved Data Modem

IFF Identification Friend or Foe

IG Intelligence Group

IITS Intra-Theater Imagery Transmission System

IJMS Interim JTIDS Message Specification

IMINT Imagery Intelligence

INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite

INS Inertial Navigation System

IOC Initial Operational Capability

IPIX Interface Processor for Imagery Exchange

IR Infrared

IR&D Independent Research and Development

IRSS Infrared Surveillance System

ISO International Standards Organization

ITO Integrated Tasking Order

ITV Interactive Television

IW Information Warfare

JAC Joint Analysis Center

JCMT Joint Collection Management Tool

JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff

JDAM Joint Direct Attack Munition

JDISS Joint Deployable Intelligence Support System

JDSS JFACC Decision Support System

JFC Joint Force Commander

JFACC Joint Force Air Component Commander

JIC Joint Intelligence Center

JINTACCS Joint Interoperability of Tactical Command and Control Systems

JM JTIDS Module

JMAPS Joint Message Analysis and Processing System

JMEM Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual

JMI JTIDS MAOC Integration

JPT JFACC Planning Tool

Joint STARS Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System; also, JSTARS

JOPES Joint Operations Planning and Execution System

JOTS Joint Operational Tactical System (Navy)

J-SEAD Joint Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses

JSIPS Joint Service Imagery Processing System

JSTE Joint Systems Training Exercises

JTF Joint Task Force

JTFC JTF Commander

JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System

LAN Local Area Network

LCDL Low-Cost Data Link

LMST Lightweight Multi-band Satellite Terminals

LNA Low Noise Amplifier

LOS Line of Sight

LPD Low Probability of Detection

LPI Low Probability of Intercept

MAA Mission Area Assessment

MACOM Major Army Command

MAJCOM Major Command

MAMS Military Airspace Management System

MAOC Modular Air Operations Center

MAP Mission Area Plan

MARFOR Marine Forces

MAT Mission Area Team

MATT Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal

MAXI Modular Architecture for the Exchange of Information

MC&G Mapping, Charting, & Geodesy

MCG&I Mapping, Charting, Geodesy, & Imagery

MCE Modular Control Equipment

MEB Marine Expenditionarl Brigades

MEDS Meteorological Environment Data Systems

MIDB Modernized Intelligence Data Base

MIIDS Military Integrated Intelligence Data Base System

MILSATCOM Military Satellite Communications

MIL-STD Military Standard

MLS Multi-Level Security

MMI Man-Machine Interface (being replaced by Human Machine Interface)

MMIDS Multi-Media Information Distribution System

MMLS Mobile Microwave Landing System

MMRT Modified Minature Receiver Terminal

MNA Mission Needs Analysis

MNS Mission Needs Statement

MOC Meteorological Operational Capability

MRC Major Regional Conflict

M&S Modeling and Simulation

MSIP Multi-Stage Improvement Program

MSTS Multi-Source Tactical System

MTBF Mean Time Between Failure

MTI Moving Target Indicator

MTO Mission Type Orders

NAF Numbered Air Force

NAOC National Airborne Operations Center

NAS National Airspace System

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NAVFOR Naval Forces

NCA National Command Authority

N-ISDN Narrow Band-Integrated Services Digital Network

NMCS National Military Comand System

NORAD North American Defense

NPES Nuclear Planning and Execution System

NRT Near-Real-Time

NTM National Technical Means

NVG Night Vision Goggles

OB Order of Battle

OBEWS On-Board Electronic Warfare System

OJT On the Job Training

OPCON Operational Control

OPFAC Operational Facility

OPR Office of Primary Responsibility

ORD Operational Requirements Document

OTH Over The Horizon

OWS Operator Work Station

P3I Pre-Planned Product Improvement

PACAF Pacific Air Force

PC Personal Computer

PCS Personal Communications System

PDM Phase Depot Management

PGM Precision Guided Munition

PINES PACAF Interim National Exploitation System

PMD Program Management Directive

POL Petroleum, Oil, & Lubricants

PPU Protocol Processing Unit

PTS Portable SHF (SATCOM) Terminal System

RAAP Rapid Application of Air Power

RCS Radar Cross Section

REC/TAR Reconnaissance/Tactical Air Reconnaissance

RECCE Reconnaissance

REM Route Evaluation Module

RFI Radio Frequency Interference

RIDEX Reconnaissance/Intelligence Data Exchange

RM&A Reliability, Maintainability and Availability

RM&S Reliability, Maintainability and Survivability

RMS Requirements Management System

RSIP Radar System Improvement Program

RTARN Reliable Tactical Air Request Net

RTIC Real Time Information to the Cockpit

SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar

SATCOM Satellite Communication

SB Sentinel Byte

SCSI2 Small Computer Systems Interface

SCDL Surveillance and Control Data Link

SCI Sensitive Compartmented Information

SDHS Satellite Data Handling System

SEAD Suppression of Enemy Air Defense

SECDEF Secretary of Defense

SHF Super High Frequency

SIGINT Signal Intelligence

SINCGARS Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System

SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan

SMDPS Strategic Mission Data Preparation System

SMO Special Mission Office

SOCFOR Special Operations Command Forces

SOF Special Operations Forces

SORTS Status of Resources and Training Systems

SPO System Program Office

SQ Squadron

STT Small Tactical Terinal

S-T-T Strategy-To-Task

SUA Special Use Airspace

SUCPCC Standard Unit Command Post Communications Capability

TACP Tactical Air Control Party

TACS Theater Air Control System

TACSI TACS Improvements

TADIL Tactical Digital Information Link

TALCE Tactical Airlift Control Element

TAMPS Tactical Air Mission Planning System

TARS Teathered Aerostatic Radars

TASDAC Tactical Secure Data Communications

TBM Theater Battle Management

TCTA Time Critical Target Aid

TDC Theater Deployable Communications

TDDS Tactical Data Dissemenation System

TDMA Time Division Multiple Access

TED Threat Environment Descriptions

TEL Transportable Erector Launcher

TFS Tactical Forecast System

THAAD Theater High Altitude Air Defense

TIBS Tactical Information Broadcast Service

TISD Tactical Integrated Situational Display

TMD Theater Missile Defense

TNL Target Nomination List

TOD Time of Day

TOFS Tactical Observing and Forecasting System

TOPS Tactical Onboard Processor System

TPIPT Technical Planning Integrated Product Team

TRAP Tactical Receive Equipment and Related Applications Program

TRE Tactical Receive Equipment

TRI-TAC Tri-Service Tactical Communications

TROPO Troposphere

TRUMPS Transportable Reconnaissance U-2 Mission Planning System

TRV Tower Restoral Vehicle

TSSR TROPO Satellite Support Radio

TWR Tactical Weather Radar

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

UDLC Universal Data Link Control

UHF Ultra High Frequency

ULSA Ultra Low Sidelobe Antenna

U.S. United States

USACOM United States Atlantic Command

USAF United States Air Force

USMTF United States Message Text Format

USSOCOM US Special Operations Command

VHF Very High Frequency

VMAP Vector Smart Map Upgrade

VPF Vector Product Format

WAN Wide Area Network

WBKPA Wide Band Klystron Power Amplifier

WCCS Wing Command and Control System

WICP Wing Initial Communications Package

WIN WWMCCS Intercomputer Network

WOC Wing Operations Center

WOD Word of the Day

WW Worldwide

WWMCCS World Wide Military Command and Control System

WX Weather

XIDB Extended Integrated Data Base