[Mission Area Plans]

Air Force Modernization Planning (U)

Combat Rescue

Mission Area Plan (U)

FY1996

 

 

 

General, USAF

Commander

 

15 November 1995

 

OPR: HQ ACC/DRS Classified By: Multiple Sources

Phone: DSN 574-4018 Declassify On: OADR

Comm: (804) 764-4018

This Document is UNCLASSIFIED When Annexes B, C, and D are Removed.

FOR GENERAL PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION, CLASSIFIED ANNEXES B, C, AND D ARE REMOVED. ALL ARE AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST FROM

DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

FY96 RESCUE MISSION AREA PAN

 

(U) This Mission Area Plan pertains to weapon systems specifically designated for the preservation of life and well-being of our service members, placed in harm’s way while performing duties in support of our nation’s defense. The USAF has been designated by DoD as the lead service for Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR). To meet the requirements of a lead service, the Air Force has equipped and trained specialized rescue forces to conduct CSAR

(U) The mission of the HH-60G Pave Hawk is to provide the capability of independent rescue operations in combat areas up to and including medium-threat environments. Low-level tactical flight profiles are used to avoid threats. Night Vision Goggle (NVG) and Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) assisted low-level night operations and night water operation missions are performed by specially trained crews. A radar warning receiver, infrared jammer, Hover Infrared Suppression System (HIRSS), chaff dispenser, and precision navigation equipment (GPS, Inertial Navigation System (INS), Doppler) afford additional threat avoidance and protection. The helicopter has limited self-protection provided by side window mounted machine gun. The helicopter hoist can recover survivors from a hover height of 200 feet above the ground or vertical landings can be accomplished into unprepared areas. The maximum speed is 193 knots with a cruise speed of 120 to 140 knots. Unrefueled range is 480 nautical miles (NM), with a combat load and aircraft at maximum gross weight of 22,000 lbs; the combat radius is approximately 200NM. Inflight refueling greatly extends this range.

(U) The HC-130 is an extended-range, combat rescue version of the C-130 transport aircraft. Capable of independent employment in the no-to-low threat environment. Its primary mission is to provide air refueling for rescue helicopters. The HC-130 can perform extended searches in a permissive environment and has the capability to airdrop pararescuemen and survival equipment to isolated survivors when a delay in the arrival of a recovery vehicle is anticipated. Flights to air refueling areas or drop zones are accomplished at tactical low altitude to avoid threats. NVG-assisted, low-altitude air refueling and other operations in a low-threat environment are performed by specially trained crews. The crew can perform airborne mission commander (AMC) duties in a no-to-low threat environment when threat conditions permit. The maximum speed is 290 knots (at high altitude), with a low-altitude cruise speed of 210 to 250 knots. Range, depending upon internal fuel tank configuration, is 3,000 to 4,500NM (no wind).

(U) Mission Area Assumptions

- (U) Maintain current operations tempo, frequency of missions other than war, and Rescue forces sufficient to cover two major regional conflicts (MRCs) simultaneously

- (U) Execute tasking during both peace and war, hostile or non-hostile environments, day or night and in adverse weather conditions

(U) Operational Objectives

- (U) To provide mission ready personnel who are equipped and prepared to recover aircrews downed or injured due to mishaps

- (U) Sustain aerospace forces and operating tempos during and between conflicts by returning valuable aircrews to the cockpit

- (U) Provide an additional benefit to airpower by improving the will-to-fight of combat aircrews through the knowledge that specialized forces are dedicated to their recovery in the event they are downed during the course of a mission

- (U) Disrupt the enemy’s political base by denying a source of valuable information and propaganda

(U) Operational Tasks

- (U) The primary operational task

- (U) Locating the aircrew or isolated personnel (survivor) by visual or electronic search methods pinpointing the survivor’s location to permit rapid recovery

- (U) Communicating with the survivor by radio or visual signal

- (U) Recover the survivor to friendly control and render necessary medical assistance.

- (U) Additional, non-rescue specific, operational tasks

- (U) Provide personnel and equipment to train rescue mission ready personnel

- (U) Operate efficiently during peacetime

- (U) Airdrop rescue personnel and equipment

- (U) Configure rescue equipment for deployment

- (U) Provide self-protection for rescue assets

- (U) Conduct medical evacuation operations

- (U) Provide intelligence support directly to the rescue aircrew

- (U) Prepare and respond to rescue mission execution

- Control alert and airborne rescue missions

- Support rescue sortie production.

U) Top Ten Key Deficiencies and Solution Sets

- (U) Aging Aircraft and Skin Cracks. The service-life of the HC-130N/P is based upon the aircraft’s wing box and operations tempo. Based on the current operations tempo, the fleet will begin to lose airworthiness in 2013. The service-life of the HH-60G is rated at 10,000 flight hours. Given the current utilization, the fleet will begin to lose airworthiness in 2009. Additionally, expanded gross weight, altered weight distribution, and increased flight parameters of the HH-60G over the UH-60 design have caused exterior skin cracks and the aircraft structure requires an upgrade to maintain airworthiness.

- (U) Near Term

- (U) Conduct a structural upgrade of the HH-60 to account for the altered weights and loads of the HH-60 over the UH-60 design

- (U) Re-wire all pre-1990 HH-60s to the 1990 standard

- (U) SLEP the HH-60 fleet to permit a 30-year service life

- (U) Mid Term

- (U) Acquire 35 HC-130J (C-200) aircraft to replace the HC-130N/P.

- (U) Far Term

- (U) Acquire HH-X aircraft to replace HH-60G

- (U) Adverse Weather/Night Capability: Aircrews depending solely on Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) are required to fly at higher altitudes to avoid terrain and obstacles, exposing them to increased threat acquisition and engagement, and possible loss of Visual Meteorological Conditions

- (U) Near Term:

- (U) Install Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) on HH-60

- (U) Install Integrated Cockpit on HH-60

- (U) Install night vision goggle (NVG) Compatible Cockpit lighting

- (U) Install Dual Motor/Washer on HH-60 to improve over water operations.

- (U) Mid Term:

- (U) Install Obstacle Avoidance System on HH-60

- (U) Acquire the HC-130J with Forward Looking Infrared

- (U) Acquire Panoramic NVGs to improve night peripheral vision.

- (U) Far Term:

- (U) Acquire HH-X to replace HH-60G

- (U) Threat Warning/Countermeasures. Rescue assets have a limited threat penetration capability. Crews must rely on visual acquisition of surface-to-air missiles in-flight in order to launch countermeasures.

- (U) Near Term:

- (U) Install Defensive Systems on the HH-60G and HC-130N/P

- (U) Acquire AFMSS to enhance mission planning and threat avoidance

- (U) Mid Term

- (U) Acquire HC-130J equipped with warning and CM systems

- (U) Acquire Real-Time Intelligence Information in Cockpit

- (U) Install Advanced Tactical IR Counter Measure (ATIRCM) on HH-60G

- (U) Far Term

- (U) Acquire HH-X with defensive system installed

- (U) Rescue assets do not have Low Probability of Interception/Detection (LPI/D) or secure beyond LOS communication capability

- (U) Near Term:

- (U) Install SATCOM on all rescue aircraft

- (U) Acquire CSEL for survivor to C2 BLOS communications

- (U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J with a production SATCOM capability.

- (U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300) with its production SATCOM capability.

- (U) HH-60Gs equipped with the T700-700 engine have insufficient performance at high altitudes and temperatures

- (U) Near Term:

- (U) Retrofit all T700-700 engined HH-60s with the T700-701

- (U) Install Wide Chord Blade to improve aircraft performance at high altitude

- (U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X

- (U) HH-60G has a limited capability to conduct night water hoist recoveries during low illumination.

- (U) Near Term:

- (U) Install Altitude Hover Hold System on HH-60

- (U) Install Forward Looking Infrared FLIR on HH-60

- (U) Mid Term: Acquire Panoramic NVGs

- (U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X

- (U) Rescue forces have limited capability of locating the survivor.

- (U) Near Term:

- (U) Install the AN/ARS-6, Personal Locator System, on the HC-130 to provide a PRC-112, survival radio, compatibility

- (U) Acquire CSEL to provide beyond line of sight survivor geo-positioning

- (U) Mid Term

- (U) Acquire Panoramic NVGs

- (U) Acquire the HC-130J produced with Forward Looking Infrared

- (U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X with a multi-function and Forward Looking Infrared

- (U) Task Saturation

- (U) Near Term

- (U) Install an Integrated Cockpit on HH-60

- (U) Install altitude hover hold system on HH-60

- (U) Acquire AFMSS to reduce pre-mission planning.

- (U) Mid Term:

- (U) Acquire HC-130J with consolidated cockpit displays

- (U) Install real time information in cockpit

- (U) Acquire Panoramic NVGs

- (U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X

- (U) Aircrew Survivability During Crash Landing/Ditching.

- (U) Mid Term: Install Cockpit Air Bag System (CABS) on HH-60

- (U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X manufactured with aircraft floatation and CABS capability.

(U) Bottom Line Impact: The proposed investment strategy for rescue emphasizes mission accomplishment, reliability and maintainability improvements in current operational systems. Modifications of those systems with current technology and off-the-shelf equipment, future technology with multi-aircraft adaptable equipment are proposed. Improved technology developments in materials, design, and avionics will be pursed. These technology developments will be incorporated into the next generation of combat rescue assets. As the rescue fleet begins to reach the end of its service life, an acquisition program for replacement aircraft is critical.

 

Table of Contents

Section Page

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Mission Description 1

1.2 Process Overview 1

2 Mission Area Assessment 3

2.1 Strategy-to-Task 3

2.2 The Threat 5

2.3 Concept of Operations 6

2.4 Operational Concept 11

2.5 Operational Task 13

3 Mission Needs Analysis 13

3.1 Current Assessment 13

3.2 Missions 13

3.3 Mission-to-Task 14

3.4 Deficiencies 14

3.5 Deficiencies-to-Needs 15

3.6 Linkage of Tasks 15

3.7 Prioritized Deficiencies 16

4 Mission Area Plan 21

4.1 Solution Concepts 21

4.2 Selected Near Term Solutions 23

4.3 Selected Mid Term Solutions 26

4.4 Selected Far Term Solutions 28

4.5 Solution Sets 30

4.6 Modernization Roadmaps 40

4.7 Mission Area Critical/Enabling Technologies 46

5 Post Investment Assessment 49

6 Summary 49

ANNEX A GLOSSARY

ANNEX B Rescue Threat Assessment (SECRET/NOFORN)

ANNEX C OPCON Assumptions and Sustainment (SECRET)

ANNEX D Capability Assessments (SECRET)

ANNEX E Solution-to-Deficiency Matrix

 

Mission Area Plan

for

Rescue

1. (U) Introduction.

1.1(U) Rescue. The USAF has been designated by DOD as the lead service for Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR). To meet the requirements of a lead service, the Air Force has equipped and trained specialized rescue forces to conduct CSAR. The 25-year modernization plan of these CSAR specific Air Force assets is described within this document, the Rescue Mission Area Plan (MAP). It provides a strategy for the programming, requirements, laboratory, and independent research and development (IR&D) processes that support the acquisition/modification of weapons and weapon systems used primarily to conduct rescue. Other mission areas which directly affect the rescue mission area are discussed in separate MAPs and Functional Area Plans (FAPs). These areas include Combat Delivery MAP, Electronic Combat MAP, Theater Battle Management MAP, Close Air Support/Interdiction MAP, Logistics FAP and the Weather FAP. Intelligence FAP does not address Rescue directly, however, it is an area of interest for Rescue assets.

1.2(U) Process Overview. The Operational Requirements Planning Process is described in AFI 10-1401, Modernization Planning Documentation, and AFI 10-601, Air Force Mission Needs and Operational Requirements. Long-range plans for force modernization and strategy are derived from national and Joint Staff strategy guidance. Joint Publication 3-50.2, Doctrine for Joint Combat Search and Rescue, and Air Force Doctrine Document 34, Air Force Operational Doctrine for Combat Search and Rescue, provide guidance for this document on the national and theater level. HQ ACC is designated as the Air Force proponent Major Command (MAJCOM) for rescue. The HQ ACC Directorate for Plans and Programs develops the Rescue Concept of Operations (CONOPS) and Rescue Roadmap to provide guidance for rescue operations and force structure respectively. HQ ACC Directorate of Requirements develops this document to provide guidance on the modernization of the force structure and to ensure the capabilities required in the CONOPS are fielded today and in the future.

1.2.1(U) Strategy-to-Task/Task-to-Need. The Strategy-to-Task (STT) and Task-to-Need (TTN) processes are used to conduct Mission Area Assessment (MAA) and Mission Needs Analysis (MNA). A Rescue Mission Area Team (MAT) comparison of mission needs with current doctrine and tactics, coupled with weapon system performance against the current and future threats determines non-material and material deficiencies. Comparisons are made using time phasing to allow for a near, mid, and far-term assessment of capabilities to assist long-term planners to match investments to documented needs. After deficiencies are identified, the Rescue Technical Planning Integrated Product Team (TPIPT) and the MAT gather solution concepts, and analyze, select, and prioritizes the solutions based upon urgency, technology risk, cost, and the effect a solution has on multiple deficiencies. Selected solutions are integrated into the rescue modernization roadmaps.

Mission Area Plan Process

Figure 1.1(U)

1.2.2(U) Mission Area Assessment. The Air Staff and MAJCOMs identify mission tasks through the MAA process. This process is a strategy-to-task evaluation linking mission tasks requiring certain capabilities (current and programmed) to the military strategy provided by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

1.2.3(U) Mission Needs Analysis. Once a task is identified, the MAT conducts an MNA by analyzing the factors which impact current and programmed capability to accomplish the task. The task-to-need process evaluates the environment, threat, and force structure. Once deficiencies are identified, doctrine, training, and tactics (non-material solutions) are examined to determine if changes in these areas can solve the deficiency.

1.2.4(U) Mission Area Plan. The MAP summarizes and uses the products of the MAA and MNA processes to identify key technologies and weapon system modernization efforts required to correct the deficiencies. The MAP products are modernization roadmaps and leveraging technology summaries to guide current and future acquisition and modification. Details of the selected solutions and required technologies are found in the corresponding Rescue MAP Development Plan and Technology Investment Recommendation Report produced by HQ ASC/XRS, Rescue-Technical Planning Integrated Product Team.

2. (U) Rescue Mission Area Assessment.

2.1(U) Strategy-to-Task. The Rescue MAA provides the linkage between our National Military Strategy and the rescue mission area tasks. An overview of this linkage is depicted in figure 2.1.

Rescue Strategy-to-Task

Figure 2.1(U)

2.1.1(U) The national military strategy dictates projection and sustainment of US power to credibly deter and, if required, decisively defeat aggression. Some US forces must be forward-deployed or stationed in key overseas regions in peacetime to deter aggression, demonstrate US commitment to allies and friends, underwrite regional stability, gain familiarity with overseas operating environments, promote joint and combined training among friendly forces, and provide initial capabilities for timely response to crisis. Basic military strategy for a campaign to stop aggression includes (1) Halt the invasion by neutralizing the enemy’s offensive capabilities, (2) Build-up US and allied combat power in the theater while reducing the enemy’s, (3) Decisively defeat the enemy, and (4) Provide for post-war stability. Inherent to the national military strategy is the need to minimize friendly casualties and obtain/maintain political support of the US and allied effort.

2.1.2(U) Theater Campaign Objectives. To support the national strategy, the theater Joint Forces Air Component Commander (JFACC) must be provided with mission ready personnel capable of rapid deployment to, and employment within, the desired area of operations. Furthermore, these forces must be supported and sustained throughout the campaign.

2.1.3(U) Operational Objectives.

2.1.3.1(U) To provide mission ready personnel, the CAF must train during peacetime. Training is supported by rescue alert forces who are equipped and prepared to recover aircrews downed or injured during the course of training due to mishaps. During high risk training, these peacetime alert forces are required to reduce the risk and allow the training event to occur.

2.1.3.2(U) Rescue forces help sustain aerospace forces and operating tempos during and between conflicts by returning valuable aircrews to the cockpit. Rescue also provides an additional benefit to airpower by improving the will-to-fight of combat aircrews through the knowledge that specialized forces are dedicated to their recovery in the event they are downed during the course of a mission.

2.1.3.3(U) Rescue forces disrupt the enemy’s political base by denying a source of valuable information and propaganda. By preventing the enemy this propaganda, rescue protects the US political support required to conduct a campaign.

2.1.4(U) Operational Tasks.

2.1.4.1(U) The primary operational task of rescue is to locate, communicate with, and recover downed aircrews and isolated personnel. This primary task can be broken into three sub-tasks. Locating the aircrew or isolated personnel (survivor) by visual or electronic search methods to pinpoint the survivor’s location and permit recovery. Communicating with the survivor by radio or visual signaling to conduct authentication. Recover the survivor to return the survivor to friendly control and provide the survivor necessary medical assistance.

2.1.4.2(U) Additional, non-rescue specific, operational tasks that must be completed to accomplish the primary rescue task include: (1) provide personnel and equipment to train rescue mission ready personnel, (2) operate efficiently during peacetime, (3) airdrop rescue personnel and equipment, (4) configure rescue equipment for deployment, (5) provide self-protection for rescue assets, (6) conduct medical evacuation operations, (7) provide intelligence support directly to the rescue aircrew, (8) respond to and prepare for rescue mission execution, (9) control alert and airborne rescue missions, and (10) support rescue sortie production.

2.1.4.3(U) To accomplish the primary task, the US Air Force currently maintains two operational systems, the HC-130N/P and the HH-60G. The HC-130 provides long-range search capability in a no-to-low threat environment, day or night. The HC-130 also provides a limited command and control link for all rescue assets during a rescue mission, and extends the range of the rescue helicopter by providing in-flight air refueling. The HH-60 provides limited search and recovery of the survivor in up to a medium threat environment, day or night. If a survivor requires immediate medical attention and cannot wait for the arrival of the recovery helicopter, threat environment permitting, specially trained Pararescuemen (PJ) can be airdropped to the survivor using parachute deployments. Once on scene, the PJ will stabilize the survivors and prepare them for recovery.

2.1.4.4(U) The threat environments that rescue assets operate within can be adjusted by the use of supporting aircraft. Supporting aircraft providing air-to-air, air-to-ground, and Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) coverage can degrade the threat, either temporarily or permanently, permitting rescue assets to enter the area and execute the recovery. Rescue forces may be augmented by these supporting systems depending on the threat environment, distance to the survivor, and availability of assets. A-10, F-15E, F-16, or other capable CAF assets can provide suppression of the ground threat. F-16, F-15, F-14 and F-18 aircraft can prevent interception of rescue assets by hostile aircraft. F-16 BLK 50(HTS), EA-6B, EF-111, and EC-130 can provide lethal or non-lethal SEAD. E-3, E-8, and Airborne Command, Control, and Communication (ABCCC) can provide command, control, and communication support for the rescue effort. KC-10 and KC-135 aircraft would indirectly support the rescue effort by providing in-flight refueling of supporting aircraft. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and Defense Satellite Communication System can be used to provide navigation and communication support to all or part of the package.

2.1.4.5(U) In the event a rescue sortie must operate within a high-threat environment without CAF supporting assets, or if the survivor is beyond the range of the HH-60 due to threat penetration limitations of the supporting HC-130, a US Army or US Navy special operations ground team may be inserted via airland or airdrop methods. This team would infiltrate the high-threat environment using ground movement. The team would link-up with the survivor and exfiltration to a location where air extraction by special operations or rescue assets could be accomplished.

2.2(U) The Threat. Rescue assets operate in the low level environment and at a relatively slow airspeed. They are susceptible to the full range of ground-based enemy air defense weapons and enemy aircraft. This susceptibility is most evident during aerial refueling operations. Reference classified Annex B, Rescue Threat Assessment (U), for the specific 25-year rescue threat MAA.

2.2.1(U) Threat Environment Classifications. The threat environment relates primarily to the enemy's ability to detect and lethally engage rescue aircraft.

2.2.1.1(U) No Threat/Permissive: Environment permits operations with virtually no probability of combat or enemy detection leading to engagement.

2.2.1.2(U) Low: Environment contains threats; however, dispersal, concentration, and warfare capabilities of the enemy permit operations to proceed with passive measures taken to avoid detection. Detection of rescue forces by the enemy is likely to be without consequence; if the enemy engages, weapons encountered will typically be small arms, man portable (MANPAD) surface-to-air missiles (SAM), rocket-propelled grenades, and light optically aimed anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) up to .50 caliber/14.5mm.

2.2.1.3(U) Medium: Environment contains significant threats. Dispersal, concentration, mobility, and warfare capabilities of the enemy permit operations to proceed with active measures taken to avoid detection and threats. Detection of rescue forces by the enemy is likely to result in engagement. Weapon systems typically include low-threat systems plus early generation SAM, radar-controlled AAA, and aircraft lacking effective look-down/shoot-down and/or all-weather capability. Aircrews can expect to employ extensive mission planning, threat evasive maneuvers, avoidance tactics, onboard electronic countermeasures systems, and/or defensive threat suppression measures to accomplish the mission. The medium-threat environment may require attack deliveries from force protection packages such as Rescue Escort (RESCORT)/ Force Protection or other Close Air Support aircraft. The environment may restrict the flexibility of attack tactics in the objective area.

2.2.1.4(U) High: A high-threat environment is created by a hostile force which includes widely dispersed, densely concentrated, integrated air defense systems; advanced or late generation SAMs; aircraft with all-aspect and look-down/shoot-down capabilities; modern ground-based radars or passive detection systems; significant quantities of highly trained and mobile ground forces; and electronic warfare capabilities which would seriously diminish the ability of rescue operations to proceed without large-scale combat protection packages. Some of the ground-based systems may be hardened or be unusually difficult to destroy/render inoperable. Rescue- specific assets should be employed in environments with integrated defense systems only when those systems can be adequately suppressed by other CAF assets. CSAR forces are not currently capable of prosecuting rescue missions in a high-threat environment without significant threat degradation and force protection from enemy air- and ground-based weapons.

2.3(U) Rescue Concept of Operations (CONOPS). Rescue forces will deploy and perform rescue with organic rotary-wing, fixed-wing, and assigned forces in response to theater commander-in-chief taskings. Additionally, rescue forces will deploy and perform non-combat operations unique to their capabilities.

Figure 2.3.1(U)

2.3.1(U) Force Structure. Primary USAF rescue forces are the HH-60G helicopters and the HC-130 tanker. An integral element of the combat rescue mission is A-10 Sandy support. Information concerning the A-10 can be found in the Close Air Support/Air Interdiction MAP. Other USAF aircraft and ground agencies can support rescue missions when tasked by higher authority.

2.3.1.1(U) HH-60G Pave Hawk. The aircraft is capable of independent operations in combat areas up to and including medium-threat environments. Recoveries are made by landing or by alternate means, such as rope ladder or hoist. Low-level tactical flight profiles are used to avoid threats. Night Vision Goggle (NVG) assisted low-level operations and night water hoist missions are performed by specially trained crews. An APR-39A(V)1 radar warning receiver, ALQ-144A infrared jammer, Hover Infrared Suppression System (HIRSS), M-130 chaff dispenser, and precision navigation equipment (GPS, Inertial Navigation System (INS), Doppler) afford additional threat avoidance and protection. The helicopter has limited self-protection provided by M-60, M-240, or GAU-2B machine guns. The helicopter hoist can recover a Stokes litter patient or three people simultaneously on a forest penetrator from a height of 200 feet above the ground. The basic crew normally consists of five: pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer, and two PJs. The maximum speed is 193 knots with a cruise speed of 120 to 140 knots. Unrefueled range is 480 nautical miles (NM), with a combat load and aircraft at maximum gross weight of 22,000 lbs; the combat radius is approximately 200NM.

2.3.1.2(U) HC-130P/N. The HC-130 is an extended-range, combat rescue version of the C-130 transport aircraft. Capable of independent employment in the no-to-low threat environment, its primary mission is to provide air refueling for rescue helicopters. The HC-130 also has the capability to deploy personnel and/or equipment using single pass Computed Air Release Point procedures. Ingress/egress to air refueling areas or drop zones can be accomplished at low altitudes using tactical flights to avoid threats. NVG-assisted, low-altitude air refueling and other operations in a low-threat environment are performed by specially trained crews. The HC-130 can perform extended searches in a permissive environment and has the capability to airdrop pararescuemen and survival equipment to isolated survivors when a delay in the arrival of a recovery vehicle is anticipated. The crew can perform airborne mission commander (AMC) duties in a no-to-low threat environment when tactical conditions permit. The normal crew consists of nine: pilot, co-pilot, navigator, flight engineer, radio operator, loadmaster, and three PJs. The maximum speed is 290 knots (at high altitude), with a low-altitude cruise speed of 210 to 250 knots. Range, depending upon internal fuel tank configuration, is 3,000 to 4,500NM (no wind).

2.3.1.3(U) A-10 Sandy Support. Deployed A/OA-10 squadrons, when tasked, provide A-10 Sandy support, an essential element in the Search and Rescue Task Force (SARTF). A Sandy is a qualified and dedicated A-10 pilot trained in search procedures, authentication techniques, and helicopter support tactics. The lead Sandy is normally the on-scene commander (OSC) for rescue missions. The mission of Sandy pilots is to protect helicopters from ground threats, assist helicopters in locating and authenticating the survivor, determine the threat level in the survivor's area, and locate lower threat areas where the helicopter can hold and ingress. A-10s designated as Sandys may be equipped with the PRC-112 compatible AN/ARS-6 electronic search radio. Further information concerning the A-10 can be obtained from the Close Air Support/Interdiction MAP.

2.3.2(U) Military Operations Other than War. Rescue performs operations in non-combat environments. These operations are in support of the National Search and Rescue Plan (NSARP) or other US non-DOD departments.

Military Operations Other Then War

Figure 2.3.2(U)

2.3.2.1(U) Civil SAR. Primary USAF rescue forces possess unique capabilities which make them ideally suited to perform rescue missions within the civilian community. Rescue missions often involve commitment based upon calculated risks and require maximum consideration of all safety factors. Although timely reaction is critical, tasked units will not jeopardize safety. Refer to Multi-Command Regulation (MCR) 55-41, MCR 55-46, MCR 55-130, and Joint Publication 3-50 for detailed information and rescue procedures.

2.3.2.2(U) Disaster Relief/International Aid. Disaster relief support of actual or threatened major disasters or emergencies is provided through the Department of the Army as the DOD executive agent. International aid is provided by DOD at the request of the State Department. Disaster relief/international aid efforts by rescue forces include but are not limited to medical evacuation, SAR, casualty assistance, on-scene rescue coordination, and PJ medical assistance.

2.3.2.3(U) Counter-Drug Participation. Counter-drug participation may entail operational and non-operational support to civilian drug law enforcement agencies.

2.3.2.4(U) Space Shuttle Support. Initial rescue operations for Space Shuttle crew members within the launch contingency bailout area are supported by rescue units pre-positioned at the launch site and by pararescue technicians pre-positioned at the Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) sites. Within 50NM of the launch site, and up to 200NM downrange, air refuelable helicopters and HC-130 aircraft are used for SAR and medical evacuation operations. Beyond 200NM and at the TAL sites, HC-130s from the CONUS and deployed C-130s from the TAL sites respond. Extended rescue operations are generally conducted by the appropriate regional SAR coordinator.

2.3.3(U) Combat Operations. The primary mission of USAF rescue is to recover downed crew members. Rescue forces are notified of the mission through the Joint Rescue Coordination Center (JRCC) or Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) and normal command channels. Aircraft are launched towards the survivor's area and a search for the survivor is conducted by rescue and supporting assets through either visual or electronic means. During the notification or search phases of the mission, communications are established with the survivor to gather intelligence on the situation and to authenticate the survivor. If the survivor's location is beyond the range of the recovery helicopter, the HC-130 will provide in-flight refueling of the helicopter. Threat penetration is accomplished through tactics, countermeasures, and supporting A-10 Sandy aircraft. Once on scene, the helicopter will recover the survivor and egress towards friendly lines.

CSAR CONOPS

Figure 2.3.3(U)

2.3.3.1(U) Loss Notification and Mission Validation. Initial notification may be received through numerous means. This may include, but is not limited to, a MAYDAY, airborne report by a flight lead or wingman, failure to return from a mission, overdue contact, emergency beacon transmission, sighting of aircraft wreckage, or voice report by the isolated person. The notification report typically flows through normal reporting channels to designated operational command and control agencies or to the JRCC.

2.3.3.2(U) Locating the Survivor. Determining the location and condition of the survivor is an essential prerequisite to mission planning and execution. Determining the location of the survivor can be accomplished through either visual or electronic means. A visual search for the survivor can be done by any asset directly or indirectly participating in the SAR effort. An electronic search can be accomplished by aircraft equipped with DF equipment. Rescue assets have a limited search capability in a threat environment and must have sufficient defensive systems to ensure aircraft survivability. Furthermore, if a visual search is conducted in night adverse weather, assets conducting the search must be capable of maintaining visual meteorological conditions (VMC).

2.3.3.3(U) Authentication of Survivors. After locating the survivors in a threat environment, friendly forces must communicate with the survivor and perform authentication procedures prior to initiating recovery operations at the survivor's location. Friendly forces will normally validate the survivor's authenticity using information from the Isolated Personnel Report. An exception may be when the survivor is to be picked up in a known friendly area or has been in constant contact with friendly forces while on the ground (wingman, forward air controller, etc.).

2.3.3.4(U) Recovering the Survivor. After assessing all available information, if mission execution appears feasible, units will be tasked to preplan or launch from alert with supporting forces to execute the recovery operation.

2.3.3.4.1(U) Recovery of the survivor requires the recovery helicopter to ingress the area, surviving or avoiding all enemy threat systems. The recovery helicopter will either land near the survivor for on load or hover near the survivor for hoist extraction.

2.3.3.4.2(U) Pararescue personnel may be deployed from the helicopter to assist in the recovery of injured personnel. Once stabilized, the survivor can receive further medical treatment on-board the recovery helicopter and during the egress portion of the mission.

2.3.3.5(U) Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I). Communication between C3I and rescue assets is accomplished using VHF or UHF radios. These radios may or may not be securable and are limited to line of sight (LOS). Due to the low-altitude envelope that rescue assets operate in, any communications between rescue and the JRCC must be relayed through supporting aircraft.

2.3.3.6(U) Search and Rescue Task Force (SARTF). SARTF operations are characterized by tailoring support packages to meet specific CSAR mission requirements based on the threat and other factors unique to the area of operations. CAF fighter and electronic attack assets can significantly enhance mission success by protecting rescue helicopters and suppressing enemy air defense systems. SARTFs may employ but are not limited to the following: Rescue Combat Air Patrol to counter airborne threats enroute and at the area of operations; armed Rescue Escort (RESCORT), such as A-10 Sandy, to protect the helicopter from ground threats, locate and authenticate isolated personnel, and determine the threat level in the downed aircrew member's location prior to directing the helicopter in; and suppress threats during recovery operations; AMC to coordinate and control the flow of aircraft in and out of the objective area; and tankers to provide refueling support. An OSC, generally the lead RESCORT, a Sandy pilot, or Airborne Forward Air Controller is designated to direct actions in the immediate objective area. Successful SARTF operations require thorough mission planning, clearly defined command and control arrangements, and precise coordination between participating elements.

2.3.3.7(U) In the event assets are not available for a SARTF or if the location is beyond the range of the HH-60G, due to threat limitations of the HC-130, the survivor may still be extracted by US Army Special Forces or US Navy SEAL ground teams. These teams are inserted via

HH-60G, MH-53J, MH-60G, or MC-130 to a location outside of the high-threat environment. The team infiltrates the area and links up with the survivor. The survivor is then moved to a location that will permit air extraction.

2.3.3.8(U) Assets from other services can also be tasked by the JRCC to conduct or support a SAR effort. Though the modernization of these assets lies beyond the scope of this MAP, it is important to realize that SAR is not an AF unique mission.

2.4(U) Operational Concept (OPCON).

Operational Concept

 

Figure 2.4(U)

2.4.1(U) During peacetime operations, rescue forces are assigned to either HQ ACC,

HQ PACAF, HQ AFRES, or the National Guard Bureau (NGB). HQ ACC is designated the proponent command for all areas affecting rescue. Tasking for rescue missions comes from one of six permanent RCCs located at: Langley AFB VA (RCC), Hickam AFB HI (JRCC), Osan AB KO (Combined Rescue Coordination Center, CRCC), Howard AB PN (RCC), Elmendorf AFB AK (RCC), or Ramstein AB GE (RCC).

2.4.2(U) Temporary RCCs or JRCCs may be established, as needed, to provide coordination of rescue missions during peacetime contingency operations.

2.4.3(U) If a conflict occurs in a theater that does not have an RCC or JRCC, the theater commander-in-chief will establish an RCC, JRCC, or CRCC, as appropriate, to provide a central point for managing rescue missions.

2.4.4(U) Assumptions: Rescue must provide sufficient forces to cover two major regional conflicts (MRCs) simultaneously. Each MRC will consist of 10 fighter wing equivalents. Reference classified Annex C, Operational Concept Assumptions and Sustainment (U), for the combat-coded (CA) primary assigned aircraft (PAA) required for each MRC.

2.4.5(U) Readiness: Rescue forces maintain a high state of readiness through realistic training sorties and exercise participation. Training and exercises are conducted day and night and in all environmental conditions, to include water, desert, and mountain operations. CAF rescue assets participate in three Red Flag, one Green Flag, and five JCS exercises per year. CAF rescue assets also participate in an annual rescue-unique exercise, Desert Rescue, with US Navy and US Army forces. Rescue units also participate in MAJCOM specific exercises such as ACC's Air Warrior and the Air Reserve Component's Deployment for Training exercises. These exercises emphasize CSAR, mobility, C3I, and SARTF employment, with a goal of total integration of rescue into CAF exercises.

2.4.5.1(U) Minimum qualification in the HH-60G includes: day tactical, NVG tactical, day water hoist extraction, and air refueling. In addition to the above requirements, a minimum of one HH-60G crew per CA PAA must be NVG water hoist extraction qualified.

2.4.5.2(U) Minimum qualification in the HC-130 includes: day tactical, NVG tactical, airdrop (day/night/NVG), and air refueling (day/NVG).

2.4.6(U) Deployment: Using HC-130 tanker support, rescue helicopters can self-deploy to operational areas within 1200 nautical miles. For deployments beyond 1200 nautical miles, helicopters are normally deployed via C-5. HC-130 tankers conduct self-deployment for all operations. Rescue support equipment must be deployable on C-130 aircraft in the event a self-deployment is required. A single C-5 and three to four C-141 loads are required to deploy all four HH-60Gs and all required Mobility Readiness Spares Package (MRSP), support equipment, aircrews, and support personnel.

2.4.7(U) Employment: Combat SAR forces are prepared, either on strip or airborne alert, to proceed to and recover downed aircrew members. The RCC/JRCC/CRCC is notified of the rescue requirement and tasks forces, through the Air Operations Center, to effect and support the recovery. The magnitude of forces required to accomplish a recovery can range from a single unescorted helicopter to a full SARTF consisting of all forces required to defeat the threat. Coordination and tracking of the assets is through the Search Mission Commander (SMC). The SMC is usually the senior CSAR mission controller in the RCC. Once launched, the assets are under the control of the AMC. The AMC is usually an AWACS or ABCCC, but in the event those assets are not available, the HC-130 can assume limited AMC duties. Once on scene, assets are controlled by the OSC. OSC duties usually are with a fixed-wing asset, such as the A-10 Sandy, but if those assets are unavailable, OSC duties can be assumed by the recovery helicopter. In the event of PJ deployment from an HC-130 to the survivor, the PJ team leader can assume OSC duties until arrival of the recovery helicopter.

2.4.8(U) Sustainment: Rescue forces deploy with sufficient MRSP to operate independently for a limited period without resupply. Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant requirements must be available at the operating location. Rescue assets are capable of operating from bare-base facilities. Furthermore, rescue helicopters are capable of operating from forward operating locations under field conditions without access to an airfield. If resupply is not accomplished within the required time period, the sortie generation rate established in WMP-5 may not be maintained. Reference classified Annex C, Operational Assumptions and Sustainment (U), for the rescue supply sustainment period.

2.4.9(U) Reconstitution: After decisive victory is obtained, rescue forces redeploy using the same procedures as deployment. Upon return to peacetime basing, MRSP is replenished and deferred maintenance is accomplished. "Lessons learned" and tactics developed during the deployment are incorporated into rescue procedures.

2.5(U) Operational Task. Rescue's operational task is broken into three sub-tasks (Locate, Communicate, Recover) and accomplished primarily by the two operational systems.

2.5.1(U) Locate: Location of a survivor can be accomplished via visual or electronic searches. Visual search patterns are resource intensive and increase exposure time in the threat environment. When conducting electronic searches (direction finding equipment homing on an active transponder) rescue aircraft must maintain LOS to the survivor, requiring a higher altitude and increased threat exposure. In either case, the ability to search is limited by weather conditions, illumination, and types of electronic search equipment installed.

2.5.2(U) Communicate: Communication with the survivor is by survivor PRC-90 or PRC-112 UHF LOS radio. Communication with command and control facilities is by VHF-FM, VHF-AM, UHF, or HF. The HH-60G is capable of secure UHF and VHF-FM. The HC-130 is capable of secure UHF, VHF-AM, and HF. LOS is limited by distance and the low-level altitudes flown by rescue assets.

2.5.3(U) Recover: Recovery of the survivor requires rescue assets to avoid or defeat the threat and reach the survivor location while maintaining VMC. Once on scene, the recovery aircraft will land near and on-load the survivor. In the event terrain does not permit a landing, the helicopter will maintain a hover and extract the survivor via hoist. Ability to recover the survivor by hoist is limited by the ability to maintain a hover attitude and power available.

3.(U) Mission Needs Analysis.

3.1(U) Current Assessment. A current assessment of rescue to conduct the three operational sub-tasks in threat (Combat) and non-threat (Military Operations Other Than War, MOOTW) environments was accomplished. The assessment was coordinated by HQ ACC/DRS with inputs from the Rescue Mission Area Team (MAT), the USAF Rescue Center of Excellence, and the Rescue Technical Planning Integrated Product Team (TPIPT). A graphical depiction of the current assessment is located in classified Annex D, Current and Post-Investment Assessments. The lack of modeling and simulation of rescue, mandated this subjective assessment of rescue capabilities.

3.2(U) Missions. A survey of all CAF rescue units and user commands was conducted by the TPIPT between October 1994 and January 1995 on the relative importance of the five CONOPS missions assigned to rescue: Combat Search and Rescue, Peacetime Search and Rescue, Humanitarian Aid/Disaster Relief, Counter-drug Operations, and NASA Support. Survey responses were used in an analytical hierarchy process analysis which resulted in a "relative importance" rating of each mission.

Rescue CONOPS Missions

Figure 3.2(U)

3.3(U) Mission-to-Task. In February 1995, the MAT and TPIPT conducted a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the five missions against the OPCON areas of deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment. The analysis was further defined by separating the employment phase into the three sub-tasks of rescue (locate, communicate, recover). The analysis resulted in a "relative importance" rating of each sub-task and OPCON area.

Rescue Mission-to-Task

Figure 3.3(U)

3.4(U) Deficiencies. A MAT consolidated list of proposed current needs was developed through a review of Modification Proposals, Mission Needs Statements, Operational Requirement Documents, and formal correspondence submitted by user commands to the MAT OPR. This list of proposed needs was augmented by a TPIPT/MAT review of projected threat capabilities, current aircraft life-cycles, test plan final reports, defense planning guidance, and engineering studies of current aircraft. The lack of formal studies and analysis on the rescue mission current capabilities mandated the subjective validation of these needs by the MAT. Needs validated by the MAT were defined and incorporated into the proposed deficiency list.

3.5(U) Task-to-Deficiency. In February 1995, the MAT/TPIPT conducted a QFD analysis comparing each proposed deficiency against the weighted OPCON areas. Each deficiency was scored based upon its effect on rescue to accomplish the assigned task or concept. The result was a weighted and prioritized list of deficiencies which were reviewed and approved by HQ ACC/DR on 7 Mar 95.

3.6(U) Links. Linkages between deficiencies and tasks/OPCON areas is depicted below. Full explanation of links and the degree of effect can be found in the TPIPT Development Plan.

Rescue Task-to-Deficiencies

Figure 3.6.1(U)

 

 

Rescue Task-to-Deficiencies (Cont)

Figure 3.6.2(U)

3.7(U) Prioritized Deficiencies.

3.7.1(U) RESCUE-1, Aging Aircraft.

3.7.1.1(U) The service-life of the HH-60G is rated at 8,000 flight hours. Given the current utilization, the HH-60G should provide a 30-year service life. The first aircraft will lose airworthiness in 2005.

3.7.1.2(U) The service-life of the HC-130N/P is based upon the aircraft’s wing box and operations tempo. Based on the current operations tempo, the fleet will begin to lose airworthiness in 2005.

3.7.2(U) RESCUE-2, HH-60G Airframe and Skin. Due to the expanded gross weight, altered weight distribution, and increased flight parameters of the HH-60G over the UH-60 design. The HH-60G exterior skin has developed cracks and the aircraft structure requires an upgrade to maintain airworthiness.

3.7.3(U) RESCUE-3, Adverse Weather/Night Capability. When operating in limited illumination or adverse weather conditions, aircrews depending solely on Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) are required to fly at higher altitudes to avoid terrain and obstacles, exposing them to increased threat acquisition and engagement, and possible loss of Visual Meteorological Conditions during the recovery phase of a mission.

3.7.4(U) RESCUE-4, Threat Warning/Countermeasures. Rescue assets have a limited threat penetration capability

3.7.4.1(U) Crews must rely on visual acquisition of surface-to-air missiles in-flight in order to launch countermeasures.

3.7.4.2(U) The HC-130 does not have threat Radio Frequency (RF) warning or RF countermeasures.

3.7.4.3(U) The HH-60G is limited to a manual 30-shot chaff dispenser.

3.7.4.4(U) Rescue Assets do not have sufficient Infrared Countermeasures (IRCM). Eleven of thirty HC-130s do not have any IRCM. HH-60Gs are limited to a single ALQ-144 for IRCM.

3.7.5(U) RESCUE-5, Beyond Line-of-Sight (LOS) Communications.

3.7.5.1(U) Rescue assets do not have Low Probability of Interception/Detection (LPI/D) or beyond LOS communication capability with survivors.

3.7.5.2(U) Rescue assets do not have reliable secure beyond LOS communications with controlling agencies.

3.7.6(U) RESCUE-6, High Density Altitude Operations. HH-60Gs equipped with the T700-700 engine have insufficient performance at high altitudes and temperatures due to the increased gross weight of the HH-60G over the UH-60A.

3.7.7(U) RESCUE-7, Night Water Hoist Operations. Due to limited visual references, loss of depth perception, and reduced visual acuity, the HH-60G has a limited capability to conduct night water hoist recoveries during low illumination.

3.7.8(U) RESCUE-8, Locating the Survivor.

3.7.8.1(U) Rescue does not have a beyond LOS electronic search capability.

3.7.8.2(U) HC-130s and A/OA-10 aircraft (SANDYs) do not have PRC-112 compatible search radios.

3.7.8.3(U) HC-130 scanners have insufficient field of view for visual searches.

3.7.9(U) RESCUE-9, Task Saturation. Rescue aircrews suffer from information overload. Aircrews have a wide variety of information-providing systems with insufficient commonality in display format.

3.7.10(U) RESCUE-10, Aircrew Survivability During Crash Landing and Ditching.

3.7.10.1(U) HH-60G aircrews are not being properly restrained during crashes, resulting in unnecessary injuries and an increased chance of fatalities during survivable mishaps.

3.7.10.2(U) The HH-60G does not float, hindering aircrew egress and survival during ditching.

3.7.10.3(U) The HH-60G are not equipped with automatic emergency locators.

3.7.11(U) RESCUE-11A, Commonality of Navigation Equipment. The HC-130 does not have a navigation system compatible with the HH-60. Differences can result in gaps in search coverage, delays in air refueling, or inaccurate Pararescue (PJ) deployment.

3.7.12(U) RESCUE-11B, High Signatures. Rescue aircraft have high acoustic, visual, infrared (IR), and RF signatures making them susceptible to threat detection and engagement.

3.7.13(U) RESCUE-13, APX-65. The HC-130’s APX-65 Transponder Interrogator is unsupportable. Rescue HC-130s maintain the last 28 APX-65s in the USAF inventory.

3.7.14(U) RESCUE-14, Ballistic Protection. Except for the pilot positions, rescue aircraft do not provide ballistic protection for aircrews.

3.7.15(U) RESCUE-15, Mission Planning. Rescue units do not have a mission planning system compatible with the CAF. Results in delays and errors in coordinating search efforts and SARTF operations.

3.7.16(U) RESCUE-16, HC-130 Air Refueling (AR) Pod. The HC-130 hydraulic powered refueling pod suffers from a low Mean Time Between Failure rate of 49 hours resulting in a non-mission capable rate of 25%. Approximately 71% of all CSAR missions require AR. Deficiency can result in mission aborts due to missed AR.

3.7.17(U) RESCUE-17, Cargo Compartment Space for PJ Duties and Mission Equipment.

3.7.17.1(U) The HH-60G is not provisioned for installing litters.

3.7.17.2(U) The HH-60G cargo compartment does not provide sufficient room to treat injured survivors with the PJ combat load on-board.

3.7.17.3(U) The GAU-2B’s size and weight restricts the room and payload available in the cargo area.

3.7.17.4(U) The limited space available in the HH-60G cargo compartment restricts the amount of medical reference materials that can be deployed with the PJ.

3.7.18(U) RESCUE-18, HH-60G Wiring.

3.7.18.1(U) Aircraft wiring in 1981 and 1982 model HH-60Gs is corroded and must be replaced to ensure airworthiness.

3.7.18.2(U) Aircraft wiring in all 1981 through 1989 model HH-60Gs is non-standard. Non-standard wiring results in additional engineering costs for follow-on modifications.

3.7.19(U) RESCUE-19, HH-60G Engine Commonality. Rescue maintenance and logistics must maintain two models of engines for the HH-60G. Deficiency requires additional funding of separate mobility spares readiness equipment and additional training of aircrews and aircraft specialists to maintain and operate the different systems.

3.7.20(U) RESCUE-20, Situational Awareness During SARTF Operations. Adverse weather or low illumination limits coordinated employment of CAF assets performing rescue missions. Resulting in gaps in search coverage and degraded RESCORT capabilities.

3.7.21(U) RESCUE-21A, Laser Eye Protection. Rescue crews have no eye protection against laser systems.

3.7.22(U) RESCUE-21B, Anti-Helicopter Mines. The HH-60G has no sensors or countermeasures against anti-helicopter mines.

3.7.23(U) RESCUE-23, Computer Resources to Support Aircraft Systems. Rescue aircraft have inadequate test and fault isolation capabilities, causing excessive component removal and increased maintenance time.

3.7.24(U) RESCUE-24, Rigging Alternate Method-Zodiac (RAMZ) Delivery. The HC-130 is required to make multiple passes when delivering the RAMZ kit and the accompanying PJ team, increasing the likelihood of the team becoming separated from the zodiac and increasing the exposure time of the HC-130 to the threat.

3.7.25(U) RESCUE-25, Secure LPI/LPD Communications. Rescue assets do not have LPI/D communication radios, increasing the chance of mission detection, survivor exposure, rescue force engagement, and mission abort.

3.7.26(U) RESCUE-26, Interoperability of Communication Equipment.

3.7.26.1(U) HC-130s do not have a secure VHF-FM radio, limiting interformation communication options.

3.7.26.2(U) Rescue assets do not have maritime communication radios.

3.7.26.3(U) Rescue assets do not have US Army interoperable anti-jam radios.

3.7.27(U) RESCUE-27, Dynamic Component Life Cycles. The increased weight and flight envelope of the HH-60G has created a significant degradation in the life-cycle of dynamic flight control components, gearboxes, and rotor blades.

3.7.28(U) RESCUE-28, HH-60G Windshield Wiper. The HH-60G windshield wiper is ineffective in clearing the transparency. Critical vision problems occur when overwater and overland terminal operations are conducted during the same sortie due to build-up of dirt, mud, and salt spray on the windshield.

3.7.29(U) RESCUE-29A, PJ Medical and Aircrew Duties. To perform some medical procedures, PJs must remove their aircrew helmets, losing the use of their NVGs and disconnecting them from the aircraft intercom systems.

3.7.30(U) RESCUE-29B, Ability to Land on Snow. The HH-60G can not land on deep snow.

3.7.31(U) RESCUE-31, Antenna Breakage. Underbelly blade antennas suffer from a high breakage rate during landings on unimproved fields.

3.7.32(U) RESCUE-32A, Climate Control in the HH-60G Cargo Compartment. The current environmental system does not provide sufficient heating to help in the treatment of shock in injured survivors during cold weather recoveries.

3.7.33(U) RESCUE-32B, Real-Time Communications Between PJs and Doctors. PJs do not have dedicated, real-time, communications with doctors during the on-board treatment of injured survivors.

3.7.34(U) RESCUE-34A, DC Component Failure Rate. The HH-60G suffers from transient power fluctuations during power transfer, shortening the life of all DC powered components.

3.7.35(U) RESCUE-34B, Flight Data Recorders. The HH-60G does not have flight data/cockpit voice recorders, hindering mishap investigation and prevention.

3.7.36(U) RESCUE-34C, Aircrew Self-Defense. The current GAU-5 does not have sufficient range to provide self-defense of downed aircrews or deployed PJs.

4. (U) Mission Area Plan

4.1(U) Solution Concepts. In January 1995, a call for concepts was submitted by HQ ASC/XR through the Commerce Business Daily for solutions to all CAF MAP deficiencies. Over 800 concepts were submitted by industry, military laboratories, and other federal agencies. No non-material solutions were submitted to correct the deficiencies identified.

4.1.1(U) The Rescue TPIPT reviewed each concept for applicability to the FY96 rescue deficiencies. A total of 86 solution concepts were selected and presented to the MAT in March 1995. The review resulted in the consolidation of duplicate solutions and the removal of other solutions determined not to be applicable. The final concept list of 79 solutions was provided to each user MAJCOM for review and comment. Reference the Rescue TPIPT Development Plan for solution specifics.

4.1.2(U) In April 1995, the MAT conducted a QFD of all proposed solutions. Reference Annex E, Solution to Deficiency Linkages, or the TPIPT FY96 Development Plan for the complete solution-to-deficiency linkages established, and analysis methodology used by the MAT. Solutions were grouped into near (1996-2002), mid (2002-2012), and far (2012-2021) term categories.

 

Rescue Deficiency-to-Solution Availability

Figure 4.1.2.1(U)

 

Rescue Deficiency-to-Solution Availability (Cont)

Figure 4.1.2.2(U)

4.1.3(U) From April 1995 to May 1995, the MAP OPR (HQ ACC/DRS) in conjunction with the TPIPT and Air Force labs, selected solutions for incorporation into the FY96 Rescue MAP.

4.1.3.1(U) Proposed solutions were categorized by deficiency with which they were linked.

4.1.3.2(U) Solutions were then selected based upon QFD determined relative importance rating, cost estimates, technological risk, training requirements, and logistic supportability.

4.1.3.3(U) Selected solutions, categorized by their availability, are found in sections 4.2 through 4.4. Solutions are coded by the time frame that they will be available (C-1xx, near term; C-2xx, mid term; C-3xx, far term). Reference the modernization roadmaps for the specific time period solutions will be implemented.

4.2(U) Selected Near Term Solution Summaries.

4.2.1(U) RESCUE-C-104 Night Vision Imaging System (NVIS). Installation of NVG compatible internal and external lighting on the HC-130N/P.

4.2.2(U) RESCUE-C-105 Integrated Communication/Navigation Controls. Integrate all HH-60G comm/nav radio control heads onto the current aircraft control display unit (CDU) through the aircraft’s 1553 data bus.

4.2.3(U) RESCUE-C-107 Defensive Systems for HH-60G. Installation of off-the-shelf chaff/flare dispensers and a missile warning system. Integrate the systems with the current APR-39A(V)1 radar warning receiver.

4.2.4(U) RESCUE-C-108. Wide Chord Blade. Replace the current HH-60G main rotor blades and spindles with an improved aerodynamic blade currently in development by Sikorsky Aircraft Corp.

4.2.5(U) RESCUE-C-109 Avionics Bus Upgrade. Connect all HH-60 DC powered components to a single bus. Upgrade that bus with a relay that will provide continuous DC power (from the battery) to prevent surges and spikes during power transfer.

4.2.6(U) RESCUE-C-213 Combat Survivor Evader Locator (CSEL). Acquire next generation survival radio. Radio will provide LPI/LPD characteristics and beyond LOS data communication and positioning information to C2 elements.

4.2.7(U) RESCUE-C-110 AN/ARS-6. Install off-the-shelf, PRC-112 compatible, AN/ARS-6 radio on all CAF HC-130s.

4.2.8(U) RESCUE-C-111 Parasitic Armor. Install parasitic ballistic armor (up to 7.62mm protection) at all crew stations in the HH-60 and HC-130.

4.2.9(U) RESCUE-C-112 AN/ARC-513. Install ARC-513 maritime capable radios on the HH-60G.

4.2.10(U) RESCUE-C-113 AN/ARC-222. Install ARC-222 Single Channel Air to Ground (SINCGARS) capable radios on the HH-60 and HC-130.

4.2.11(U) RESCUE-C-115 Defensive Systems for the HC-130. Install Airlift Defensive System (ALE-47 chaff/flare dispensers, AAR-47 missile warning system) and ALR-69 radar warning receiver.

4.2.12(U) RESCUE-C-116 NVG Compatible Cockpit for HH-60. Replace the right overhead cockpit panel on HH-60G aircraft (panel’s NVG lighting circuit was damaged during -132 modification). Redistribute lights on existing cockpit transformers. Install new transformers. Install new NVG compatible radio control heads. Install a dim master warning panel.

4.2.13(U) RESCUE-C-117 Night Vision System. Acquire next generation NVGs for rescue.

4.2.14(U) RESCUE-C-118 Dual Windshield Wiper Motor/Windshield Washer. Upgrade the HH-60’s current windshield wipers with a second motor. Replace current wipers with one incorporating a washer.

4.2.15(U) RESCUE-C-119 Tri-Band Antenna. Remove the current under-belly VHF-AM antenna. Install a tri-band (VHF-AM/FM, UHF) antenna on tail of the HH-60G.

4.2.16(U) RESCUE-C-120 Static Line Retriever. Install static line retrievers (SLR) along the port side of the HC-130 cargo compartment.

4.2.17(U) RESCUE-C-121 SATCOM. Install UHF voice SATCOM radios on the HH-60 and HC-130. Integrate the HH-60 SATCOM through the CDU. Integrate the HC-130 SATCOM through the self-contained navigation system (SCNS) display.

4.2.18(U) RESCUE-C-122 HH-60 Structural Upgrade, Re-Wiring, and Service Life Extension. Upgrade the structural support of all HH-60G aircraft to account for altered weight distribution of HH-60 over UH-60 design and maximum gross weight increase from 20,250 lbs to 22,000 lbs. Replace wiring of all 1981/2 aircraft. Rewire all pre-1990 aircraft to standard wiring scheme. SLEP all HH-60 to extend service-life to 30 years, increasing fleet life to 2011 - 2027.

4.2.19(U) RESCUE-C-124 AN/AAQ-16. Install AAQ-16 forward looking infrared sensor on HH-60.

4.2.20(U) RESCUE-C-125 Flight Data Recorder (FDR). Install a voice/data recorder on HH-60.

4.2.21(U) RESCUE-C-126 Tactical Litter. Provision HH-60 to carry two removable litters. Litters will be stacked against the aft wall/fuel tank.

4.2.22(U) RESCUE-C-127 T700-701C Engine Retrofit. Retrofit all HH-60s (41 of 86) still equipped with the T700-700 with the T700-701C.

4.2.23(U) RESCUE-C-128 Altitude Hold/Hover Stabilization (AHHS). Install a collective-to-altimeter (radar and barometric) interface to provide altitude hold and an automated hover stabilization system on the HH-60.

4.2.24(U) RESCUE-C-129 GPS. Install a SCNS integrated GPS on the HC-130.

4.2.25(U) RESCUE-C-130 Snow Skis. Acquire 16 sets of removable landing gear skis for the HH-60.

4.2.26(U) RESCUE-C-132 Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS). Acquire AFMSS computers for all rescue units.

4.2.27(U) RESCUE-C-133 200 Gallon Aux Fuel Tank. Replace the current dual 185 gallon aux fuel tanks with a 200 gallon system. Design system to permit the current dual 185 gallon tanks to be re-installed forward of the 200 gallon system to provide an extended ferry range capability.

4.2.28(U) RESCUE-C-134 Electric Powered Air Refueling (AR) Pod. Replace the current HC-130 hydraulic powered pod with a more reliable electric powered system.

4.2.29(U) RESCUE-C-135 Telemedicine. Acquire telemedicine terminals capable of voice/data/video communications across secure radio channels.

4.2.30(U) RESCUE-C-136 Improved Heater. Install a heater in the cabin compartment of the HH-60.

4.2.31(U) RESCUE-C-137 APX-76. Replace the current HC-130 interrogator with an APX-76.

4.3(U) Selected Mid Term Solution Summaries.

4.3.1(U) RESCUE-C-200 HC-130J. The MAT proposed replacement for the HC-130N/P is a modified C-130J. The HC-130J will include the following concepts in its design.

4.3.1.1(U) The HC-130J will be a 35-year service life aircraft providing the same, or better, capability as the FY95 HC-130H3. Specific requirements of the HC-130J will be developed through the Operational Requirements Document process.

4.3.1.2(U) The HC-130J will include the following concepts:

4.3.1.2.1(U) RESCUE-C-104 NVIS.

4.3.1.2.2(U) RESCUE-C-111 Parasitic Armor.

4.3.1.2.3(U) RESCUE-C-113 SINCGARS Compatible Radio.

4.3.1.2.4(U) RESCUE-C-114 Transparent Troop Door. Replace the current aft troop door with a fully transparent Plexiglas door capable of opening and closing in-flight. Door will permit pressurization and will be form/fit replacement by the current aft troop door. A removable scanner’s seat will be installed at each aft door.

4.3.1.2.5(U) RESCUE-C-115 ALE-47, AAR-47, and ALR-69 (or follow-on systems).

4.3.1.2.6(U) RESCUE-C-120 Static Line Retrievers.

4.3.1.2.7(U) RESCUE-C-121 SATCOM.

4.3.1.2.8(U) RESCUE-C-123 AN/AAQ-17 FLIR. Installation of a SCNS integrated/controlled FLIR system.

4.3.1.2.9(U) RESCUE-C-134 Electric AR Pod.

4.3.1.2.10(U) RESCUE-C-203 Intraformation Positioning System (IFPS).

4.3.1.2.11(U) RESCUE-C-205 Secure LPI/LPD Communications.

4.3.1.2.12(U) RESCUE-C-214 Real-Time Information in Cockpit.

4.3.1.2.13(U) RESCUE-C-223 2nd Generation IRCM for Mobility Aircraft. Directional IRCM for large IR signature aircraft.

4.3.2(U) RESCUE-C-203 Intraformation Positioning System (IFPS). Installation of an LPD, UHF band, positioning system on the HH-60 providing a situational awareness display of other aircraft similarly equipped and on the same net.

4.3.3(U) RESCUE-C-204 Cockpit Airbag System (CABS). Installation of airbags in the HH-60 cockpit to reduce injuries during crash.

4.3.4(U) RESCUE-C-205 Secure LPI/LPD Communications. Install secure LPI/D comm radios on the HH-60 and HC-130.

4.3.5(U) RESCUE-C-207 Helicopter Engine IR/RF Suppression. Application of coke barrier coatings on HH-60 engine inlet and exhaust to reduce IR signature.

4.3.6(U) RESCUE-C-209 Aircraft Maintenance and Test System (AMATS). Acquisition of multipurpose computers and software to permit interface with aircraft 1553 data bus to determine fault indications and isolation.

4.3.7(U) RESCUE-C-212 Obstacle Avoidance System (OAS). Installation of a low power millimeter wavelength sensor to detect obstacles in from of the HH-60 flight path.

4.3.8(U) RESCUE-C-214 Real Time Information in Cockpit (RTIC). Install data displays in aircraft cockpits which provides intelligence, mission, and imagery.

4.3.9(U) RESCUE-C-218 Laser/Missile Warning and Countermeasures. Install laser and missile sensors against next generation IR, RF, and laser guided threat systems.

4.3.10(U) RESCUE-C-228 Aircrew Protection Against Lasers. Acquire protective visors/NVG filters against all designation and dazzling lasers.

4.3.11(U) RESCUE-C-231 Advanced Tactical IRCM (ATIRCM). Install directional IRCM on HH-60.

4.3.12(U) RESCUE-C-232 Panoramic NVG. Acquire wide field-of-view (110 degree) NVGs.

4.4(U) Selected Far Term Solution Summaries.

4.4.1(U) RESCUE-C-300 HH-X. Acquire next generation recovery vehicle to replace the HH-60G. Design of aircraft has not been established. Concepts forwarded included the Canard Rotor Wing, current and follow-on Tilt-Rotor, and a future helicopter. The HH-X requirements may be incorporated into the US Army led Joint Multi-mission Transport Replacement program.

4.4.1.1(U) The HH-X will provide capabilities equal to or greater than the FY95 HH-60G. In addition, the HH-X will provide; a service-life of 35-years, sea state 5 floatation capability during ditching, and an emergency locator transmitter. The aircraft will provide sufficient room for 2 pilots, 4 crewmembers, 2 litter patients, and full mission equipment. Hover performance will permit a 30 minute HOGE at 4,000’ PA, 95 degrees F, with a full combat load while containing fuel on-board for a 250 NM combat radius. Specific requirements for the HH-X will be developed through the Operational Requirements Document process.

4.4.1.2(U) The HH-X will include the following concepts.

4.4.1.2.1(U) RESCUE-C-105 Integrated Cockpit.

4.4.1.2.2(U) RESCUE-C-112 Maritime Radio Capable.

4.4.1.2.3(U) RESCUE-C-113 SINCGARS Capable.

4.4.1.2.4(U) RESCUE-C-116 NVG Compatible Interior and Exterior Lighting.

4.4.1.2.5(U) RESCUE-C-121 SATCOM.

4.4.1.2.6(U) RESCUE-C-125 FDR.

4.4.1.2.7(U) RESCUE-C-128 AHHS.

4.4.1.2.8(U) RESCUE-C-130 Snow Ski compatible.

4.4.1.2.9(U) RESCUE-C-135 Integrated Telemedicine Terminals.

4.4.1.2.10(U) RESCUE-C-136 Cabin Heating.

4.4.1.2.11(U) RESCUE-C-203 IFPS.

4.4.1.2.12(U) RESCUE-C-204 CABS.

4.4.1.2.13(U) RESCUE-C-205 Secure LPI/LPD Communications.

4.4.1.2.14(U) RESCUE-C-206 Anti-Helicopter Mine Countermeasures. HH-X will have the capability to adjust main rotor frequency to spoof anti-helicopter mine detention sensors.

4.4.1.2.15(U) RESCUE-C-207 Engine IR/RF Suppression.

4.4.1.2.16(U) RESCUE-C-210 Automated Aircraft Portable Maintenance Aid. The HH-X will have fully integrated fault isolation and detection systems. Fault test support equipment will be integrated into the airframe to reduce SE requirements.

4.4.1.2.17(U) RESCUE-C-211 Conformal Antennas. The HH-X will use conformal antennas to reduce signature and prevent breakage of blade/whip antennas during remote site operations.

4.4.1.2.18(U) RESCUE-C-212 OAS capability.

4.4.1.2.19(U) RESCUE-C-214 RTIC.

4.4.1.2.20(U) RESCUE-C-215 Reduced IR/RF Signatures Through Engine Robustness Technology.

4.4.1.2.21(U) RESCUE-C-216 Passive Millimeter Wavelength Sensor System.

4.4.1.2.22(U) RESCUE-C-221 Ballistic Materials. HH-X critical components will be covered by 7.62mm ballistic tolerant aircraft skin and structure.

4.4.1.2.23(U) RESCUE-C-224 LPI/LPD Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance system. The HH-X will use an LPI/LPD sensor (laser, millimeter wavelength, QUIET KNIGHT) for TF/TA capability.

4.4.1.2.24(U) RESCUE-C-225 Reliable Lightweight Helicopter Transmission. The HH-X will exploit mechanical engineering advances such as a split gear design to minimize transmission weight.

4.4.1.2.25(U) RESCUE-C-228 Aircrew Protection Against Lasers.

4.4.1.2.26(U) RESCUE-C-230 Gearbox and Mechanical Life. The HH-X will use advanced lubricants to extend the service-life of gearboxes.

4.4.1.2.27(U) RESCUE-C-231 ATIRCM.

4.4.1.2.28(U) RESCUE-C-305 Improved Multi-Function FLIR. The HH-X will be equipped with a multi-function FLIR combining IR and EO sensors.

4.5(U) Solution Sets. Solution(s) for each deficiency are linked and grouped into solution sets. Individual solutions are broken into near, mid, and far terms. Solutions that are available in one time frame may not be fielded until a later time frame.

4.5.1(U) RESCUE-1 Aging Aircraft / RESCUE-2 HH-60 Airframe & Skin.

4.5.1.1(U) Near Term: Conduct a structural upgrade of the HH-60 to account for the altered weights and loads of the HH-60 over the UH-60 design. Re-wire all pre-1990 HH-60s to the 1990 standard. SLEP the HH-60 fleet to permit a 30-year service life (C-122)

4.5.1.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire 35 HC-130J (C-200) aircraft to replace the HC-130N/P.

HC-130J Fielding Schedule

Figure 4.5.1.2(U)

4.5.1.3(U) Far Term: Acquire 95 HH-X (C-330) aircraft to replace the HH-60G.

HH-X Fielding Plan

Figure 4.5.1.2(U)

4.5.3(U) RESCUE-3 Adverse Weather/Night Capability.

4.5.3.1(U) Near Term: Install AAQ-16 FLIR (C-124) on HH-60 to permit low-illumination night operations. Install Integrated Cockpit (C-105) on HH-60 to provide NVG compatible comm/nav radio controls. Install NVG Compatible Cockpit (C-116) lighting on HH-60. Install NVIS (C-104) on HC-130 to provide NVG compatible lighting. Acquire the NVS (C-117) to improve night capability. Install Dual Motor/Washer (C-118) on HH-60 to improve vision to ensure clear transparency during over water operations.

4.5.3.2(U) Mid Term: Install OAS (C-212) on HH-60 to provide for obstacle avoidance during night and adverse weather operations. Acquire the HC-130J (C-200). Acquire Panoramic NVGs (C-232) to improve night peripheral vision.

4.5.3.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300).

4.5.4(U) RESCUE-4 Threat Warning/Countermeasures.

4.5.4.1(U) Near Term: Install Defensive Systems (C-107/C-115) on the HH-60G and HC-130N/P to provide sufficient warning/CM to operate into the medium threat environment. Acquire AFMSS (C-132) to enhance mission planning and threat avoidance.

4.5.4.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J (C-200) equipped with warning and CM systems to operate into the medium threat environment. Install RTIC (C-214) on HH-60 to provide real-time intelligence information for threat avoidance. RTIC will be production equipment on the HC-130J. Install ATIRCM (C-231) on HH-60G to counter next generation IR guided threat systems.

4.5.4.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300) with its production RTIC/RTIC II, ATIRCM, anti-helicopter mine CM, laser warning/CM, and reduced IR/RF signature. Install Laser & Missile Warning/CM (C-218) on the HC-130J to counter next generation RF and laser guided threat systems. Install follow-on RTIC (C-220) on HC-130J.

4.5.5(U) RESCUE-5 Beyond Line-Of-Sight Communication.

4.5.5.1(U) Near Term: Install SATCOM (C-121) on all rescue aircraft. Acquire CSEL (C-213) for survivor to C2 BLOS communications

4.5.5.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J with a production SATCOM capability.

4.5.5.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300) with its production SATCOM capability.

4.5.6(U) RESCUE-6 High Density Altitude Operations.

4.5.6.1(U) Near Term: Retrofit all T700-700 engined HH-60s with the T700-701C (C-127) to provide high altitude operations capability (30 minute OGE hover at 4,000’ PA, 95 degrees F, and 20,000#). Install Wide Chord Blade (C-108) to improve aircraft performance at high altitude and to reduce power requirements.

4.5.6.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.6.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). HH-X will provide 30 minute OGE hover at 4,000’ PA, 95 degree F, with a full combat load and sufficient fuel for a 250NM combat radius.

4.5.7(U) RESCUE-7 Night Water Hoist (NWH) Operations.

4.5.7.1(U) Near Term: Install AHHS (C-128) on HH-60 to provide overwater altitude hold capability. Install AAQ-16 FLIR (C-124) on HH-60 to enable aircrews maintain a visual horizon during NWH operations.

4.5.7.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire Panoramic NVGs (C-232) to improve peripheral vision during NWH operations.

4.5.7.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be produced with altitude hold/hover stabilization systems interfaced with the flight controls, and a multi-function FLIR.

4.5.8(U) RESCUE-8 Locating the Survivor.

4.5.8.1(U) Near Term: Install the AN/ARS-6 (C-110) on the HC-130 to provide a PRC-112 compatible search radio for the rescue tanker fleet. Acquire CSEL (C-213) to provide BLOS survivor geopositioning information to C2 elements.

4.5.8.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire Panoramic NVGs to improve night visual search capability of rescue forces. Acquire the HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will be produced with a FLIR to slightly improve night visual search capabilities.

4.5.8.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be produced with a multi-function FLIR to improve IR and EO visual searches.

4.5.9(U) RESCUE-9 Task Saturation.

4.5.9.1(U) Near Term: Install an Integrated Cockpit (C-105) on HH-60 to centralize comm/nav radio control. Install AHHS (C-128) to reduce pilot workload during enroute and hover operations. Acquire AFMSS (C-132) to reduce pre-mission planning.

4.5.9.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J’s consolidated cockpit displays will reduce task saturation. Install RTIC (C-214) to provide immediate updating of mission and reduce communication tasks/enroute planning. Acquire Panoramic NVGs (C-232) to improve out-of-cockpit view.

4.5.9.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be produced with centralized visual displays.

4.5.10(U) RESCUE-10 Aircrew Survivability During Crash Landing/Ditching.

4.5.10.1(U) Near Term: None.

4.5.10.2(U) Mid Term: Install CABS (C-204) to provide HH-60 crews with crash restraints.

4.5.10.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be manufactured with aircraft floatation capability (sealed compartments/tailboom), an emergency locator transmitter, and CABS capability.

4.5.11(U) RESCUE-11A Commonality of Navigation Equipment.

4.5.11.1(U) Near Term: Install GPS (C-129) in the HC-130.

4.5.11.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will be produced with an integrated GPS/INS/Doppler for navigation commonality with the HH-60/HH-X.

4.5.11.3(U) Far Term: None.

4.5.12(U) RESCUE-11B High Signatures.

4.5.12.1(U) Near Term: Install NVIS (C-104) to reduce the visual signature of the HC-130. Install Wide Chord Blades (C-108) to reduce the acoustic signature of the HH-60.

4.5.12.2(U) Mid Term: Install Helicopter Engine IR/RF Reduction (C-207) on HH-60. Acquire HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will be produced with NVG compatible interior and exterior lighting.

4.5.12.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate reduced IR/RF engine signature through robustness and active cooling technology and coke barrier coatings, reduced RF/IR signature through the use of advanced ceramic and refractory materials on the structure/skin, and reduced acoustic signatures through advanced rotor technology and harmonic control of rotor blades.

4.5.13(U) RESCUE-13 APX-65.

4.5.13.1(U) Near Term: Install APX-76 (C-137) on HC-130 as function replacement for APX-65.

4.5.13.2(U) Mid Term: Install IFPS (C-203) on HH-60/HC-130 to provide LPI/LPD receiver/tanker identification. Acquire the HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will incorporate IFPS and advanced radar to improve receiver identification capability.

4.5.13.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate IFPS.

4.5.14(U) RESCUE-14 Ballistic Protection.

4.5.14.1(U) Near Term: Install parasitic armor (C-111) on the HH-60 and HC-130 to provide aircrew ballistic protection up to 7.62mm.

4.5.14.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will be produced with provisions for aircrew armor.

4.5.14.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be manufactured using ballistic tolerant materials (C-221) for skin covering of critical components and aircrew compartments.

4.5.15(U) RESCUE-15 Mission Planning.

4.5.15.1(U) Near Term: Acquire AFMSS (C-132) to provide rescue with a CAF standard mission planning system.

4.5.15.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.15.3(U) Far Term: None.

4.5.16(U) RESCUE-16 HC-130 Air Refueling (AR) Pod.

4.5.16.1(U) Near Term: Acquire an Electric Powered AR Pod (C-134) with improved RM&S over the current hydraulic system.

4.5.16.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire the HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will be provisioned to accept the electric pod.

4.5.16.3(U) Far Term: None.

4.5.17(U) RESCUE-17 Cargo Compartment Space.

4.5.17.1(U) Near Term: Install Tactical Litters (C-126) to provision HH-60 to carry two litter patients. Replace current dual 185 gal fuel tanks with a single 200 gallon tank (C-133). 200 gallon tank will recover approximately 9 square feet of floor space.

4.5.17.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.17.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will provide sufficient room for a crew of 6, two litter patients, and all mission equipment.

4.5.18(U) RESCUE-18 HH-60 Wiring.

4.5.18.1(U) Near Term: Re-Wire all pre-1990 aircraft to 1990 standard wiring (C-122).

4.5.18.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.18.3(U) Far Term: None.

4.5.19(U) RESCUE-19 HH-60 Engine Commonality.

4.5.19.1(U) Near Term: Install T700-701C Engines (C-127).

4.5.19.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.19.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300).

4.5.20(U) RESCUE-20 Situational Awareness During SARTF Operations.

4.5.20.1(U) Near Term: None.

4.5.20.2(U) Mid Term: Install RTIC (C-214) on HH-60. Install IFPS (C-203) on HH-60. Acquire HC-130J (C-300). RTIC and IFPS will be production equipment on HC-130J. Acquire Panoramic NVG (C-232) to improve visual scan during night SARTF operations.

4.5.20.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). RTIC and IFPS will be production equipment on HH-X.

4.5.21(U) RESCUE-21A Laser Eye Protection.

4.5.21.1(U) Near Term: None.

4.5.21.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire NVS Goggles (C-117) and Panoramic NVGs (C-232). New NVGs will provide filters to ensure partial laser protection during night operations.

4.5.21.3(U) Far Term: Acquire Aircrew Protection Against Lasers (C-228) to provide full spectrum day/night laser protection.

4.5.22(U) RESCUE-21B Anti-Helicopter Mines.

4.5.22.1(U) Near Term: N/A

4.5.22.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.22.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). HH-X will incorporate harmonic control of rotor blades to spoof anti-helicopter mine sensors.

4.5.23(U) RESCUE-23 Computer Resources to Support Aircraft Systems.

4.5.23.1(U) Near Term: None.

4.5.23.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire AMATS (C-209) to provide portable off-board fault detection/isolation to rescue aircraft.

4.5.23.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate built-in maintenance fault detection/isolation (C-210).

4.5.24(U) RESCUE-24 Rigging Alternate Method Zodiac (RAMZ) Delivery.

4.5.24.1(U) Near Term: Install Static Line Retriever (C-120) on HC-130N/P to permit simultaneous deployment from aircraft ramp and port aft troop door.

4.5.24.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire HC-130J (C-300). The HC-130J will be provisioned with the static line retriever.

4.5.24.3(U) Far Term: None.

4.5.25(U) RESCUE-25 Secure LPI/LPD Communications.

4.5.25.1(U) Near Term: None.

4.5.25.2(U) Mid Term: Install secure LPI/LPD (C-205) in the HH-60 to provide capability for secure LPI/D on the UHF band. Acquire the HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will incorporate C-205 capabilities.

4.5.25.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate a C-205 capability.

4.5.26(U) RESCUE-26 Interoperability of Communication Equipment.

4.5.26.1(U) Near Term: Install ARC-222 (C-113) SINCGARS capable radios on the HH-60/HC-130 to permit anti-jam communications with US Army units and USAF TACP. Install ARC-513 (C-112) maritime capable radios on the HH-60.

4.5.26.2(U) Mid Term: Acquire the HC-130J (C-200). The HC-130J will provide secure UHF, VHF-AM/FM (to include maritime), HF, and SATCOM radios. The HC-130J will also provide UHF and VHF-FM anti-jam capability.

4.5.26.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will provide secure UHF, VHF-AM/FM (to include maritime), HF, and SATCOM radios. The HH-X will also provide UHF and VHF-FM anti-jam capability.

4.5.27(U) RESCUE-27 Dynamic Component Life Cycles.

4.5.27.1(U) Near Term: Install Wide Chord Blades (C-108) to increase Mean Time Between Replacement hours of main rotor blades and associated components.

4.5.27.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.27.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). HH-X will incorporate improved load carrying lubricants, advanced aircraft design, and improved engine service life.

4.5.28(U) RESCUE-28 HH-60 Windshield.

4.5.28.1(U) Near Term: Install dual motor wipers and a windshield washer (C-118) on the HH-60.

4.5.28.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.28.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be provisioned with a sufficient system to maintain transparency clarity in adverse weather.

4.5.29(U) RESCUE-29A Pararescue Medical and Aircrew Duties.

4.5.29.1(U) Near Term: Acquire Telemedicine (C-135) terminals to provide data/voice/video link between medical centers and recovery aircraft. System will permit off-board monitoring of patients to reduce PJ workload.

4.5.29.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.29.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate integrated telemedicine terminals into the aircraft.

4.5.30(U) RESCUE-29B Ability to Land in Snow.

4.5.30.1(U) Near Term: Acquire 16 sets of removable (C-130) snow skis for the HH-60.

4.5.30.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.30.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). HH-X will provide provisions to accept snow skis.

4.5.31(U) RESCUE-31 Antenna Breakage.

4.5.31.1(U) Near Term: Install Tri-Band Antenna (C-119) on HH-60 to replace the underbelly VHF-AM antenna.

4.5.31.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.31.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate conformal antennas to reduce breakage due to landing in unimproved remote sites.

4.5.32(U) RESCUE-32A Climate Control in HH-60 Crew Compartment.

4.5.32.1(U) Near Term: Install an electric heater (C-136) dedicated to the cargo compartment in the HH-60 to provide sufficient heating for the treatment of shock/hypothermia. Redirect current heating system into the forward cockpit to reduce crew fatigue.

4.5.32.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.32.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will be provisioned with sufficient heating designed to support treatment of patients.

4.5.33(U) RESCUE-32B Real-Time Communications Between PJs and Doctors.

4.5.33.1(U) Near Term: Acquire Telemedicine Terminals (C-135) to provide direct voice/data/video communications. Install SATCOM to provide BLOS work-around to pass/receive medical information.

4.5.33.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.33.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). HH-X will be provisioned for an integrated Telemedicine terminal.

4.5.34(U) RESCUE-34A DC Component Failure Rate.

4.5.34.1(U) Near Term: Install Avionics Bus Upgrade (C-109) on HH-60 to provide a dedicated, continuously powered, DC bus for HH-60 DC avionics to reduce wear-and-tear associated with power spikes during power transfer.

4.5.34.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.34.3(U) Far Term: Acquire the HH-X (C-300). The HH-X electrical system will be designed to meet the avionics requirements of rescue to prevent overload of bus.

4.5.35(U) RESCUE-34B Flight Data Recorder (FDR).

4.5.35.1(U) Near Term: Install an FDR (C-125) on the HH-60 to provide voice and data recording to aid in mishap investigation.

4.5.35.2(U) Mid Term: None.

4.5.35.3(U) Far Term: Acquire HH-X (C-300). The HH-X will incorporate an FDR.

4.5.36(U) RESCUE-34C Aircrew Self-Protection. No concepts were forwarded as potential solutions to this deficiency.

DEFICIENCY ASSESSMENT

Deficiency

Near Term

Mid Term

Far Term

Aging Aircraft

 

Y

G

Adverse WX/Night

Y

Y

G

Threat Warning/CM

Y

G

G

BLOS Comm

Y

G

G

High DA Operations

G

G

G

Night Water Operations

Y

Y

G

Locating Survivor

Y

G

G

Task Saturation

Y

Y

G

Aircrew Survivability

R

Y

G

Comm Nav Equipment

G

G

G

High Signatures

Y

Y

Y

APX-65

Y

G

G

Ballistic Protection

Y

Y

G

Mission Planning

G

G

G

AR Pod

G

G

G

Cargo Compartment

Y

Y

G

HH-60 Wiring

G

G

G

Engine Commonality

G

G

G

Situational Awareness

R

Y

Y

Laser Eye Proteection

R

Y

G

Anti-Helicopter Mines

 

R

Y

Computer MX support

R

Y

Y

RAMZ Rigging

G

G

G

Secure LPI/LPD Comm

R

G

G

Interoper. Comm Equip

G

G

G

Component Life-Cycle

R

R

G

Windshield washer

G

G

G

PJ Medical/Aircrew Duties

Y

Y

Y

Snow Landings

Y

Y

G

Antenna Breakage

Y

Y

G

Climate Control

Y

Y

Y

PJ Medical Comm

Y

Y

Y

DC Component MTBF

Y

Y

G

Flight Data Recorder

Y

Y

Y

       

4.6(U) Modernization Roadmaps.

4.6.1(U) The solution sets above were incorporated into aircraft and non-aircraft modernization roadmaps to guide technology development, the creation of formal Mission Needs Statements, development of Operational Requirements Documents, and the submission of funding requests.

4.6.2(U) HH-60G Modernization Roadmap.

Figure 4.6.2(U)

4.6.2.1(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: STRUCTURAL UPGRADE. Re-enforcement of HH-60G structure, airframe, and skin with 30 static strength and 20 fatigue beef-ups to correct an increased average operational gross weight to 20,000 lbs over the design gross weight of 16,825 lbs; an increase in max gross weight from 20,250 lbs to 22,000 lbs; and altered weight distribution due to modification of the UH-60A/L to an HH-60G. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk Approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.2(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: FLIR. Forward Looking Infrared aid enroute navigation, terrain/obstacle avoidance, and overwater search by providing infrared imaging on cockpit displays. This allows crews to fly lower altitudes in low illumination conditions, taking advantage of terrain masking techniques to degrade threats and avoid detection. In addition, FLIR provides a horizon which is critical for night overwater operations. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program funded for 37 Active Duty CAF aircraft.

4.6.2.3(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: ENHANCED COMMUNICATION/NAVIGATION. Provide over-the-horizon communications capability through UHF SATCOM, improves cockpit operations by integrating communications systems through aircraft cockpit control display units (CDUs), and resolves the majority of NVG compatible cockpit lighting discrepancies. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program funded for 37 Active Duty CAF aircraft.

4.6.2.4(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: DEFENSIVE SYSTEMS. Install ALE-47 flare/chaff dispensers and sequencers along with a missile warning system. Systems will be integrated with the currently installed AN/APR-39A(V)1 providing manual, semiautomatic, and automatic aircraft defensive response. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program funded for 37 Active Duty CAF aircraft.

4.6.2.5(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: T700-701C. Block changes on the H-60 production line included the upgrade of engines from the -700 engine to the improved performance -701C. This created an engine mix within the rescue fleet. Fifteen Active Duty CAF, ten ANG and seven AETC HH-60Gs are equipped with the lower performance -700 engine which is no longer in production. This program retrofits these aircraft with common/increased performance -701C engines. The -701C engine provides a 20 percent increase in power available. This increase is critical to compensate for the 19 percent increase in aircraft gross operating weight incurred with the HH-60G Pave Hawk modifications. Single engine performance/safety margins exceed those of aircraft equipped with -700 engines. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program funded for 4 AFRES CAF aircraft.

4.6.2.6(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: WIDE CHORD BLADE. Install new main rotor blades to increase lift effectiveness. These new blades have been developed jointly by the US Army, US Air Force, US Navy, and Sikorsky under the TEAM HAWK program. The new blades will decrease engine power requirements, reducing stress on power train dynamic components. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.7(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: RE-WIRING. Replace corroded wiring on 1981/82 model aircraft (10). Rewire all pre-1990 aircraft with 1990 standard wiring. Program will reduce engineering costs for modification by reducing kit proofing requirements. Program will reduce maintenance training problems with non-standard aircraft. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.8(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: ARC-513. Acquire ARC-513 suitcase radios to provide maritime communication capability. STATUS: AF Form 1067, Modification Proposal approved. Group A modification of CAF aircraft is funded, group B modification is funded by individual units.

4.6.2.9(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: TRI-ANT. Tri-Band Antenna. Install tri-band antennas on HH-60G. Antenna will replace current VHF-AM underbelly antenna and provides ARC-513 group A modification. STATUS: AF Form 1067, Modification Proposal is approved. Program is funded for all CAF aircraft.

4.6.2.10(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: AV BUS. Avionics Bus Upgrade. Connects all HH-60 DC powered components to a single bus. Upgrade that bus with a relay that will provide continuous DC power (from the battery) to prevent surges and spikes during power transfer. STATUS: AF Form 1067, Modification Proposal approved. Program is funded.

4.6.2.11(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: ARC-222. Install ARC-222 SINCGARS radios. STATUS: CAF SORD 380-80-I/II/III-A approved. Program is funded.

4.6.2.12(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: SLEP. Service Life Extension Program for all 86 HH-60G aircraft to extend service life to approximately 30-years. Timing of modification is based on structural upgrade - if upgrade is not funded under FY98-03 POM, SLEP must be accelerated 4 years to begin in FY00. STATUS: CAF SORD 4-77-I/II/III, HH-60G Pave Hawk approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.13(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: IFPS. Intraformation Positioning System Providing LPI/LPD situational displays of similarly equipped aircraft to coordinate AR rendezvous and SARTF operations. STATUS: MC MNS working AFSOC-USASOC JMS 046-91R3/JORD 046-91IA 17 Aug 95. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.14(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: RTIC. Real-Time Information in Cockpit. Provide direct information to aircraft displays and mission computer for updating to improve situational awareness and reduce tasks placed upon aircrews. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.15(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: ATIRCM. Advanced Tactical IRCM. Installation of direction IRCM system to defeat next-generation IR guided threats. Integrated through the aircraft’s mission processor for automated threat detection and CM. STATUS: ATIRCM ORD is an attachment of Multi Service Common Missile Warning System (CMS) 22 Sep 95. Program USA working Milestone II on ATIRCM only, AF Program unfunded.

4.6.2.16(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: IR/RF SUP. Engine IR/RF Suppression. Program is a treatment of engine inlets and exhaust with coke barrier linings to reduce IR/RF signature. Application techniques are still in development. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.17(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: SECURE LPI/D COMM. Secure LPI/LPD Communications. Program will augment current UHF secure voice communications with an LPI/LPD radio using directional and/or low power transmitters on the UHF or L-band frequency range. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.18(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: AMATS. Aircraft Maintenance and Test System. Acquires laptop computers, aircraft 1553 data bus interface, and applicable software to conduct on-board fault isolation of LRUs. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.2.19(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: HH-X. Acquisition of next generation recovery aircraft. The HH-X will provide long-range recovery of downed aircrews from hostile environments during day, night, or adverse weather. Acquisition timing is based upon meeting the HH-60G structural upgrade and SLEP requirements described above.

 

4.6.3(U) HC-130N/P Modernization Roadmap.

Figure 4.6.3(U)

4.6.3.1(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: GPS. Installation of a global positioning system on all HC-130N/P aircraft. System will be SCNS compatible. STATUS: AFSPACECOM (USAF 003-78) ORD I/II/III approved. All HC-130N/P aircraft are funded for modification.

4.6.3.2(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: ADS. Install the Airlift Defensive System on all HC-130N/P aircraft. The ADS consists of AN/ALE-47 chaff/flare dispensers and the AAR-47 missile warning system. System will permit automated missile warning and CM launch. STATUS: CAF (MAC) SORD 004P-89 approved. All AFRES and Active Duty CAF aircraft have the system installed. All NGB aircraft require group B modification, 8 NGB aircraft require group A modification.

4.6.3.3(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Radar Warn Rcvr. Radar Warning Receiver, installs the ALR-69(V) RWR on all aircraft. When combined with the planned ADS, this will provide the HC-130 minimum defensive equipment required to survive in the low (daytime) to medium (night only) threat environment. STATUS: CAF SORD 004P-89 approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.4(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: SATCOM. Program installs a SCNS compatible UHF SATCOM to meet HC-130N/P C2 taskings. STATUS: CAF SORD 004P-89 approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.5(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: LARS. Lightweight Airborne Recovery System, installs the AN/ARS-6, PRC-112 compatible search radio. The ARS-6 radio permits searching aircraft exploit the homing, range, and LPI characteristics of the PRC-112. STATUS: CAF SORD 004P-89 approved. ARS-6 is currently installed on 2 NGB and 2 AFRES aircraft, modification of the remaining aircraft is unfunded.

4.6.3.6(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NVIS. Night Vision Imaging System, installs NVG compatible interior and exterior lighting on all aircraft. NVG compatible lighting includes AR lighting to assist during helicopter AR operations. STATUS: CAF SORD 004P-89 approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.7(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: APX Replacement. Replace the current APX-65 with a function replacement. Integrate system into the APN-59F radar. STATUS: AF Form 1067 approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.8(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: New AR Pod. Replace the current hydraulically powered AR pod with an improved MTBF rate electrical system. STATUS: CAF SORD 004P-89 approved. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.9(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: ARC-222. Install ARC-222 SINCGARS radios. STATUS: CAF SORD 380-80-I/II/III-A approved. Program is funded.

4.6.3.10(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Armor. Install parasitic armor around navigator, radio operator, loadmaster and starboard scanner’s positions to provide ballistic protection to 7.62mm. STATUS: Program unfunded.

4.6.3.11(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: SLR. Static Line Retriever. Installs SLR cables and winches along port side of cargo compartment to permit simultaneous deployment of PJs and RAMZ kit. STATUS: AF Form 1067 approved. Program will be unit level funded.

4.6.3.12(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: HC-130J. The replacement for the HC-130N/P will be a modified C-130J. This program will maximize CAF C-130 fleet commonality to reduce logistic problems and training requirements. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.13(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: RTIC. Real-Time Information in Cockpit. Provide direct information to aircraft displays and mission computer for updating to improve situational awareness and reduce tasks placed upon aircrews. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.3.14(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Laser/Msl Warn/CM. Laser and Missile Warning and Countermeasures. Install sensors, jammers, and dispensers to counter next generation threat RF and laser guided weapon systems. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

 

4.6.4(U) Non-Aircraft Modernization Roadmap.

Figure 4.6.4(U)

4.6.4.1(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: CSEL. Acquires next-generation survival radios. CSEL will provide global geopositioning and over-the-horizon communications between survivors and C2 elements for notification, locating, and evasion information. STATUS: CAF ORD 019-92-I-A approved. Program partially funded.

4.6.4.2(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: AFMSS. Air Force Mission Support System provides a rapid, accurate, and survivable mission planning capability in support of tactical, strategic, airlift, and special operations forces. The system will interface with Theater Battle Management command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) system and achieves cost reduction through the use of common databases, software, and hardware. The AFMSS is a unit-level mission planning and data preparation system that supports missions ranging form simple day-to-day training and proficiency flying, to peacetime operational/exercise sorties, to complex operations supporting conventional or unconventional armed conflict. Mission planning activities include flight planning computation, electronic combat asset planning threat analysis, optimum route selection, combat delivery planning, combat mission folder preparation, aircraft systems avionics initialization, and down-loading of post-mission maintenance and operational data. STATUS: SORD TAF 312-87-111-B (Rev 1) 25 Jan 93 approved. Rescue A/W/E programs are funded (FPM capability, no DTD requirement as of this date for HC-130 and HH-60G).

4.6.4.3(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: NVS. Night Vision System, acquires next generation NVGs to replace current ANVIS-6 goggles. NVS will provide greater acuity under low illumination conditions and a slightly wider field-of-view (FOV). STATUS: CAF SORD 309-87-I/IIB in work. Program unfunded.

4.6.4.4(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Panoramic NVG. Acquires 110 degree FOV NVG. Panoramic goggles will augment NVS and be used by crewmembers in critical positions who can exploit the increased FOV (pilots). STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.6.4.5(U) PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: Aircrew Laser Protection. Application of filters and coatings to NVGs, spectacles, and visors to provide full-spectrum laser protection to aircrews. STATUS: MNS working. Program unfunded.

4.7(U) Mission Area Critical/Enabling Technologies.

4.7.1(U) To execute the programs described in this MAP, certain technology advances must be made. Specifics on required technology is located in the HQ ASC/XR Technical Investment Recommendation Report (TIRR). The following summarizes technology programs and the solutions with which they apply.

4.7.2(U) Critical Material Technology Advances.

Figure 4.7.2(U)

4.7.2.1(U) Low IR/RF Structural Materials. Advances in low IR/RF materials are required to minimize the signature of the HH-X. Especially challenging will be the development of materials capable of withstanding the stresses placed on main-rotor/props and, if applicable, tail rotors.

4.7.2.2(U) Advanced Ceramic Matrix Composites and Refractory Materials. Advances in ceramic matrix composites and refractory materials are needed to reduce the IR/RF signatures of non-structural components of the HH-X.

4.7.2.3(U) High Visible Transmission Dyes and Filter for Laser Protection. Advances in multi-spectrum coatings to provide full laser eye protection and application of these coating to transparencies (goggles, spectacles, windshields) in conjunction with the Aircrew Protection Against Lasers program.

4.7.2.4(U) Ballistic Materials For Aircraft Structures. Advances in lightweight ballistic tolerant composites to be used in HH-X aircraft skin to provide protection to critical components and aircrews. Technologies described in 4.7.2.2, 4.7.2.2, and 4.7.2.4 should be pursued concurrently to determine if multiple capabilities (ballistic tolerance, low IR/RF, strength) can all be developed into a single material.

4.7.2.5(U) Coke Barrier Coatings for Aircraft Engines. Advances in barrier coating techniques on high temperature surfaces to reduce IR signatures in current and next generation aircraft engines.

4.7.2.6(U) Improved Load Carrying Lubricants. Advances in lubricant protection of gearboxes to reduce wear & tear and increase Gearbox and Mechanical Life.

4.7.3(U) Design Technology Advances.

Figure 4.7.3(U)

4.7.3.1(U) Canard Rotor/Wing Technology. The CRW is a potential replacement for USAF rotor-wing rescue aircraft (HH-X).

4.7.3.2(U) Improved Harmonic Control of Rotor Blade Motion. Improvements in the ability to adjust the main rotor blade frequency to confuse anti-helicopter mine sensors or fuses.

4.7.4(U) Avionics Technology Advances.

Figure 4.7.4(U)

4.7.4.1(U) Improved Threat Missile Tracking Sensors. Advances in sensitivity of high speed missile tracking to permit directional countermeasure jamming. Technology is key to ATIRCM and Laser/Missile Warning/CM programs.

4.7.4.2(U) Affordable, Conformal UHF SATCOM Antennas. Reduced cost conformal UHF SATCOM antennas to receive RTIC information.

4.7.4.3(U) L-Band/UHF Electromagnetic Interference Reduction. Remove frequency interference in a hand-held geopositioning survival radio (CSEL).

4.7.4.4(U) Large Field-of-View Passive Millimeter Wavelength Sensors. Improve the FOV of PMMW sensors to provide adequate terrain avoidance for a low altitude helicopter.

4.7.4.5(U) Affordable LPI/LPD High Throughput Data Link. Increase the throughput of data links to permit IFPS information to be immediately passed between participants while maintaining LPI/LPD characteristics.

4.7.4.6(U) LPI/LPD Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance Systems. Advances in the Quiet Knight radar, on-board sensing of off-board RF emissions, or EO sensors to provide LPI/LPD TF/TA in the HH-X.

4.7.4.7(U) Increased Gain Conformal Antennas. Improve the gain of conformal antennas to permit full spectrum UHF to HF capability.

4.7.4.8(U) Sensor Hardening Against Lasers. Improvements in sensor hardening against all lasers (attack, dazzling, range, designation). Incorporated advances will be used in next generation multi-function FLIR.

5. (U) Post-Investment Assessment. In May 1995, the MAP OPR and TPIPT met with representatives of the USAF Combat Rescue School to conduct a post investment assessment. Reference classified Annex D, Assumptions, for the results of the assessment. The assessment is based upon full implementation of the solutions described in this document.

6. (U) Summary. The investment strategy for rescue emphasizes reliability and maintainability improvements in current operational systems and modification of those systems with capabilities required to perform the mission. Modifications will depend on current technology and off-the-shelf equipment. During these R&M and modification efforts, technology developments in materials, design, and avionics will be pursued. These technology developments will then be incorporated into the next generation of rescue operational assets.